National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2022. Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2022. Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2022. Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2022. Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2022. Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26572.
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BTSCRP Web-Only Document 2: Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety Loren Staplin Tia Mastromatto Kathy H. Lococo TransAnalytics, LLC Quakertown, PA Arthur Goodwin University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center Chapel Hill, NC Conduct of Research Report for BTSCRP Project BTS-08 Submitted March 2021 ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) and funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It was conducted through the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB), part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for- profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR BTSCRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 2 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer (retired) Richard Retting, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer J. Weeks, Publishing Projects Manager BTSCRP PROJECT BTS-08 PANEL James H. Hedlund, Highway Safety North, Ithaca, NY (Chair) Amy M. Boggs, West Virginia GHSP, Charleston, WV Allison E. Curry, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA Ali Ghasemzadeh, Zoox, Foster City, CA Rodrigo Mesa-Arango, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL Jessica H. Mirman, Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy, Edinburgh, UK Federico E. Vaca, Yale University, New Haven, CT Elizabeth M. Waller, Transurban,Limited, Melbourne, Australia Christine Watson, NHTSA Liaison Bernardo B. Kleiner, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under BTSCRP Project BTS-08 by TransAnalytics, LLC, with support from the Highway Safety Research Center of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Dr. Loren Staplin of TransAnalytics was the Principal Investigator. Collaborating TransAnalytics staff included Tia Mastromatto and Kathy H. Lococo. Arthur Goodwin of UNC-HSRC served as a teen driving safety subject matter expert.

iv CONTENTS SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 CHAPTER 1 Background ..................................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach ....................................................................................................... 5 Overview of NDS Data Resources, Strengths, and Limitations ................................................................................. 5 Priority Research Questions ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Inventory of NDS Data Elements .............................................................................................................................. 8 Narrowing the Recommended Research Agenda ................................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 3 Research Findings and Applications .............................................................................14 Research Needs Statement 1: Does the diversity of traffic/road environments teens are exposed to in their early driving experience predict the probability of crash/near crash involvement, on an exposure basis? ................... 15 Research Needs Statement 2: To what extent do driving risks increase (or differ) for vulnerable teen populations, specifically those with an indication of ADHD, apart from the influence of other driver factors?.... 20 Research Needs Statement 3: How and to what extent does driving distraction (internal and external) contribute to teen crashes and near crashes and does that change as teens gain driving experience?................ 24 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................27

v Figures Figure 1. Inventory associated with key measurement constructs. ............................................... 9

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Naturalistic driving data extends our understanding of risky teen driving behavior beyond what can be gleaned from crash analyses, in a number of important ways. It offers the potential to examine behavior on a continuous basis, instead of being limited to an event-based ‘snapshot’; and, critically, it provides an objective record of behavior in contrast to the subjective reports of drivers or after-the-fact inferences about risky behavior that been entered on a police report.

The TRB Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program's BTSCRP Web-Only Document 2 Development of Research Problem Statements That Utilize Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Teen Driving Safety aims to determine if and how the Strategic Highway Safety Program’s (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) can be exploited to support an agenda for teen driver countermeasure development and evaluation.

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