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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26575.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science Committee on the Foundation for Assessing the Health and Vitality of the NASA Science Mission Directorate’s Research Communities Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine National Academies Press Washington, DC Consensus Study Report PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract NNH17CB02B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26575 Copies of this publication are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26575. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON THE FOUNDATION FOR ASSESSING THE HEALTH AND VITALITY OF THE NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE’S RESEARCH COMMUNITIES CHARLES F. BOLDEN, JR., NAE,1 The Charles F. Bolden Group, LLC, Co-Chair WANDA A. SIGUR, NAE, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Co-Chair GALE J. ALLEN, American Society for Gravitational and Space Research (retired) ROGER BLANDFORD, NAS,2 Stanford University ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, NAE, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CHRISTOPHER M. KEANE, American Geosciences Institute SHERI KLUG BOONSTRA, Lucy Student Pipeline and Competency Enabler (L’SPACE) Program ROSALY M.C. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, University of Wisconsin–Madison MARK B. MOLDWIN, University of Michigan KENNETH SEMBACH, Space Telescope Science Institute SUSAN WHITE, American Institute of Physics Staff DWAYNE A. DAY, Senior Program Officer, Study Director GAYBRIELLE HOLBERT, Program Assistant COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

SPACE STUDIES BOARD MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin (retired), Vice Chair GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, The George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, American Institute of Physics DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY PAXTON, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley MARK SAUNDERS, NASA (retired) BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HOWARD SINGER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego ERIKA WAGNER, Blue Origin PAUL WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles Staff COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface On September 28, 2020, the NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate asked the chair of the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, to engage the SSB in undertaking a study on the topic of Building a Foundation for Assessing the Health and Vitality of the Science Mission Directorate’s Research Communities. The Committee on the Foundation for Assessing the Health and Vitality of the NASA Science Mission Directorate’s Research Communities was established by the Academies. The committee membership includes expertise that covers all the NASA space science fields as well as industry and government. Several members had direct involvement in decadal surveys in the past, as well as knowledge of the issues facing their scientific communities. The committee began this study at a time of significant change in the nation. It held its first meeting in May 2021. This was followed by a series of open and closed-session meetings on a bi-weekly or weekly basis through December. All meetings were held virtually due to ongoing COVID protocols/restrictions at the National Academies and schedules were dynamic due to many events beyond the committee’s control. This hindered the normal deliberative process of National Academies’ panels. In addition, the subject matter under assessment was constantly in flux. For example, NASA implemented new policies and the Executive Office of the President issued executive orders that were applicable to the committee’s task. Three decadal surveys with purviews that overlapped this study’s task were also under way, as was another SSB study. All of these events highlighted that while the work of this committee represents a snapshot in time, it is a snapshot taken while many aspects of this subject are undergoing rapid change. This very change emphasizes the relevance of the subject and the opportunities to influence outcomes. By the fall of 2021 the committee had begun drafting its report which was then submitted to the National Academies’ review process. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Marc S. Allen, NASA (retired), Ana P. Barros, NAE, Duke University, Lennard A. Fisk, NAS, University of Michigan, Norman J. Fortenberry, American Society for Engineering Education, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, NAE, University of California, Irvine, Lisa Frehill, Department of Energy, Sarah T. Gille, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Ralph Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Dara J. Norman, National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory, Edgard G. Rivera-Valentín, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Janet Vertesi, Princeton University, and Erika Wagner, Blue Origin. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by coordinator Susan Helms, NAE, Orbital Visions, LLC, and monitor David Spergel, NAS, Simons Foundation. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 Definition of the Science and Research Community The Opportunity: Shaping the Future of the Science and Research Community Study Charter How to Read This Report 2 IDENTIFYING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY AND VITAL RESEARCH COMMUNITY 2-1 Characteristics of a Healthy and Vital Research Community Overview: Science and Research Priorities, People, and Programmatics 3 FOUNDATIONS FOR THE HEALTH OF NASA SMD’S RESEARCH COMMUNITY: ASSURING STRONG SCIENCE PRIORITIES 3-1 Focusing on Clear, Relevant Science Assuring Priority for Enablers of Scientific Research (Theory, Facilities, Access, Technology Development, Data Analytics, and Modeling) 4 FOUNDATIONS FOR THE HEALTH OF NASA SMD’S RESEARCH COMMUNITY: ENSURING A HEALTHY PEOPLE ENTERPRISE 4-1 Enabling a Healthy, Representative Workforce Engaging Social and Behavioral Scientists in Strategically Shaping the People Enterprise 5 FOUNDATIONS FOR THE HEALTH OF NASA SMD’S RESEARCH COMMUNITY: ADDRESSING PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES 5-1 Establishing Supportive Funding Maintaining Continued Support, Advocacy, and Focus Through Change Developing Synergies with International Agencies and Other U.S. Government and Domestic Partners Providing Administrative Oversight of a Healthy and Vital Research Community Establishing and Enforcing Community Standards of Conduct 6 IMPLEMENTABLE MEASURES FOR ASSESSING THE HEALTH AND VITALITY OF NASA SMD’S RESEARCH COMMUNITY 6-1 7 RECOMMENDING AND PRIORITIZING PROMISING PRACTICES 7-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

REFERENCES R-1 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task A-1 B Acronyms and Abbreviations B-1 C Committee and Staff Biographies C-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

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The U.S. space science community includes thousands of scientists across multiple disciplines that influence and are influenced by the many engineers, technicians, and support personnel that are part of the space research enterprise. Over one-third of NASA's budget is devoted to space science, and the agency currently operates over 50 space missions in the fields of astrophysics, Earth science, solar and space physics, planetary science, and the biological and physical sciences. The strength of NASA science lies with its people, both those who work directly for the agency and the thousands of researchers and professionals who are funded by NASA grants and contracts.

At the request of NASA, this report examines the foundation for healthy and vital research communities. Foundations of a Healthy and Vital Research Community for NASA Science identifies the characteristics of a healthy and vital research community, defines implementable measures for assessing the health and vitality of a research community, describes the types of data that NASA should be collecting to enable future assessments of the health and vitality of the scientific work force, and recommends best practices to improve the health and vitality of NASA’s research communities.

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