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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways

Gilda A. Barabino,

Theodore J. Corbin, Jr., and

Paula Whitacre, Rapporteurs

Cato T. Laurencin, Editor

Roundtable on Black Men and

Black Women in Science,

Engineering, and Medicine

Policy and Global Affairs

Health and Medicine Division

Proceedings of a Workshop

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68889-5
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26576.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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REDUCING FINANCIAL BARRIERS PLANNING COMMITTEE

GILDA A. BARABINO (Co-chair) (NAE/NAM), Olin College of Engineering

THEODORE J. CORBIN, Jr. (Co-chair), Drexel University College of Medicine

GEORGE Q. DALEY (NAM), Harvard Medical School

MARC NIVET, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

LOUIS W. SULLIVAN (NAM), The Sullivan Alliance to Transform the Health Professions

Project Staff

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Senior Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

LYNNETTE LUSENAKA, Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

REGINALD HAYES, Associate Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

MARQUITA WHITING, Senior Program Assistant, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

TOM ARRISON, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs (until May 2021)

PAULA W. WHITACRE, Consultant Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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ROUNDTABLE ON BLACK MEN AND BLACK WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE

CATO T. LAURENCIN (NAS/NAE/NAM) (Chair), University of Connecticut Health

OLUJIMI AJIJOLA, UCLA Medical Center

GILDA A. BARABINO (NAE/NAM), Olin College of Engineering

CHARLES R. BRIDGES, JR., Janssen Research & Development, LLC

CEDRIC BRIGHT, East Carolina University

L. D. BRITT (NAM), Eastern Virginia Medical School

ANDRÉ L. CHURCHWELL, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

THEODORE CORBIN, Drexel University

GEORGE Q. DALEY (NAM), Harvard Medical School

WAYNE FREDERICK, Howard University

PAULA T. HAMMOND (NAS/NAE/NAM), Massachusetts Institute of Technology

EVELYNN M. HAMMONDS (NAM), Harvard University

LYNNE M. HOLDEN, Montefiore Medical Center

CAMARA P. JONES, Morehouse School of Medicine

CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, University of Wisconsin–Madison

VALERIE MONTGOMERY RICE (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

RANDALL C. MORGAN, JR., W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute

ELIZABETH O. OFILI (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

VIVIAN W. PINN (NAM), National Institutes of Health (Retired)

JOAN Y. REEDE (NAM), Harvard Medical School

LOUIS W. SULLIVAN (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

HANNAH VALANTINE (NAM), Stanford University

CLYDE W. YANCY (NAM), Northwestern University

MARK ALEXANDER (Ex Officio Member), 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

MARIE BERNARD (Ex Officio Member), National Institutes of Health

KIMBERLY BRYANT (Ex Officio Member), Black Girls CODE

IVORY DEAN (Ex Officio Member), Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

GARTH N. GRAHAM (NAM) (Ex Officio Member), Google, Inc.

IAN HENRY (Ex Officio Member), Procter & Gamble Company

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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ORLANDO KIRTON (Ex Officio Member), Society of Black Academic Surgeons

JOHN R. LUMPKIN (NAM) (Ex Officio Member), Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina Foundation

SHIRLEY MALCOM (NAS) (Ex Officio Member), American Association for the Advancement of Science

ALFRED MAYS (Ex Officio Member), Burroughs Wellcome Fund

LAMONT R. TERRELL (Ex Officio Member), GlaxoSmithKline

Project Staff

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Senior Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

LYNNETTE LUSENAKA, Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

REGINALD HAYES, Associate Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

MARQUITA WHITING, Senior Program Assistant, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

TOM ARRISON, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs (until May 2021)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×

Preface

It is an honor for me to serve as chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, and serve as the editor of this first series of proceedings publications from the Roundtable. Our work originated in 2015 when I and leaders of the W. Montague Cobb/National Medical Association Health Institute recognized the growing absence of Black men in medical schools. In fact, levels of Black men entering medical school reached a historic low in 2015 and 2016. Starting in 2016, and with financial support from important partners such as the Aetna Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Connecticut Legislative Black and Puerto Rican Caucus, we planned a National Academies workshop on issues surrounding the absence of Black men in medicine. The joint workshop entitled “The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science” took place in 2017. It was historic, in that to my knowledge it was the first National Academies activity specifically focused on issues involving Black people. The proceedings is entitled An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science. It was released in May 2018, and corresponded to a briefing on the subject of Black men and medicine with the Congressional Black Caucus in Washington, D.C. Many of the ideas that emerged from the workshop have been embraced by academia, industry, and philanthropy. But those conversations also highlighted that more needs to be done.

Our next steps have involved the development of a more permanent presence in the National Academies to discuss issues surrounding Black men and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Black women in science, engineering, and medicine. With support from our anchor partners named above, along with the Johnson & Johnson Company, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and the University of Pittsburg, and with the continued leadership and commitment from Dr. Victor Dzau, the president of the National Academy of Medicine, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine was launched late in 2018. I am grateful to the steering committee members for the Roundtable: Drs. L. D. Britt, Cedric M. Bright, George Q. Daley, Randall C. Morgan Jr., Elizabeth O. Ofili, Vivian W. Pinn, and Louis W. Sullivan.

In April 2021, the Roundtable organized a workshop aimed at addressing financial barriers for Black students in science, engineering, and medicine. Financial pressures can create incredible barriers for successfully pursuing scientific careers, and often result in make-or-break decisions regarding students’ futures. The overall goal of the workshop was to explore innovative ideas that could ultimately become policies to help ensure the success and vitality of Black students pursuing careers in science, engineering, and medicine.

I am grateful to the co-chairs of the workshop, Dr. Gilda Barabino and Dr. Theodore Corbin Jr. They worked hard to put in place successfully an innovative workshop and create new ideas and new information on the issue of Black students and financing. Reducing financial barriers could appear to be a daunting challenge. As discussed in the proceedings, Black people have historically been placed at a lower point on the economic scale, but current generations have experienced a disturbing downward trend in economic mobility. This, coupled with the rising costs of education, creates an environment that places high financial pressures on Black students interested in science. Participants discussed current strategies ranging from ensconcing students at an early age in science programs, building resilience, and disarming opposition. Some of the most interesting discussions centered on creating systemic changes that would bring about lasting solutions to issues regarding financing. The thoughts and ideas presented in this proceedings are robust, and I believe they provide a blueprint for further action. As with the Roundtable’s previous proceedings, they are meant to move us to action. I look forward to viewing the important follow-on work of this action group of the Roundtable.

Cato T. Laurencin, M.D., Ph.D. (NAS/NAE/NAM) Chair, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine University Professor, University of Connecticut

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×

Acknowledgments

This Proceedings of a Workshop was prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a factual summary of what was presented and discussed at the workshop. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop. The statements made are those of the rapporteurs and do not necessarily represent positions of the workshop participants as a whole, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. We wish to extend sincere thanks to all the members of the planning committee for their contributions in scoping, developing, and carrying out this project.

This proceedings has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the institution in making its published proceedings as sound as possible and ensure the document meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Portia Flowers, National Science Foundation; Misty Heggeness, U.S. Census Bureau; John Rich, Drexel University; Darla Thompson, American Association for the Advancement of Science; and Rochelle Williams, National Society of Black Engineers. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Cora Marrett, University of Wisconsin-Madison (retired). Appointed by the National Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Understanding and Offsetting Financial Barriers for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Programs, Partnerships, and Pathways: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26576.
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The number of Black students in science, engineering, and medicine in the United States has remained disproportionately low over the past several decades. A number of reasons have been identified as contributing to these low numbers, including those related to finances. Financial considerations range from the most immediate - the ability of students to pay for their education and associated costs - to more structural concerns, such as inequities that created and have perpetuated a wealth gap between races and ethnic groups.

On April 19-20, 2021, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a virtual public workshop to examine financial barriers for Black students in science, engineering, and medicine, explore existing educational programs to them, and engage stakeholders in conversations about partnerships and policies that span academia, industry, and philanthropy. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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