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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Considering the Unbanked in Cashless Fare Payment at Point of Service for Bus/Demand-Response Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26589.
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Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Considering the Unbanked in Cashless Fare Payment at Point of Service for Bus/Demand-Response Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26589.
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Page 78

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77   Apaam, G., S. Burhouse, K. Chu, K. Ernst, K. Fritzdixon, R. Goodstein, A. Lloro, C. Opoku, Y. Osaki, D. Sharma, and J. Weinstein. 2018. “2017 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households.” https:// www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/2017/2017report.pdf. Brakewood, C. 2010. Contactless Prepaid Cards and Bankcards in Transit Fare Collection Systems. MS thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Brakewood, C. 2020. TCRP Synthesis 148: Business Models for Mobile Fare Apps. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Brakewood, C., and G. Kocur. 2013. Unbanked Transit Riders and Open Payment Fare Collection. Transporta- tion Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, no. 2351, pp. 133–141. FDIC. 2019a. Economic Inclusion Strategic Plan. Accessed October 22, 2021. https://www.fdic.gov/consumers/ community/documents/eisp.pdf. FDIC. 2019b. “Unbanked Rates By Geography – 2019.” https://household-survey.fdic.gov/survey-map?year=2019. FDIC. 2021. “What Is Economic Inclusion?” Accessed October 22, 2021. https://www.economicinclusion.gov/ whatis. FTA. 2012. FTA C 4702.1B. Title VI Requirements and Guidelines for Federal Transit Administration Recipients. US Department of Transportation. Accessed October 23, 2021. https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/ files/docs/FTA_Title_VI_FINAL.pdf. FTA. 2018. “Ensuring Equity in Service and Fare Changes.” Accessed October 23, 2021. https://www.transit.dot. gov/regulations-and-guidance/civil-rights-ada/ensuring-equity-service-and-fare-changes. FTA. 2021. “Frequently Asked Questions from FTA Grantees Regarding Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Accessed October 23, 2021. https://www.transit.dot.gov/frequently-asked-questions-fta-grantees-regarding- coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19. Fleishman, D., N. Shaw, A. Joshi, R. Freeze, and R. Oram. 1996. TCRP Report 10: Fare Policies, Structures, and Technologies. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Friedman, M. 2019. “Murphy Signs Bill Banning Most Cashless Stores in New Jersey.” Politico. Accessed October 20, 2021. https://www.politico.com/states/new-jersey/story/2019/03/18/murphy-signs-bill-banning- most-cashless-stores-in-new-jersey-919093. Golub, A., J. MacArthur, C. Brakewood, and A. Brown. 2021. Applying an Equity Lens to Automated Payment Solutions for Public Transportation. NITC-RR-1268. Transportation Research and Education Center (TREC), Portland, OR. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/trec_reports/222. Goodin-Smith, O. 2019. “Philadelphia Workers Greet New Cashless-Store Ban: ‘I Feel Like We Can Serve Every- one Now.’” Philadelphia Inquirer. Accessed October 20, 2021. https://www.inquirer.com/business/cashless- ban-philadelphia-stores-sweetgreen-bluestone-lane-20191004.html. Jacobson, Lisa. 2017. “The Results Are In: All-Door Boarding a Boost for the MBTA’s Silver Line Bus.” Barr Foun- dation, Boston, MA. https://www.barrfoundation.org/blog/all-door-boarding-boosts-mbta-silver-line-bus. Ko, L. T. 2019. An Equity Analysis for MBTA’s Automated Fare Collection (AFC) 2.0. Master’s thesis. Tufts Uni- versity, MA. Kok, J., and R. Lipták. 2020. TCRP Synthesis 144: Multimodal Fare Payment Integration. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Kutzbach, M., A. Lloro, and J. Weinstein. 2019. How America Banks: Household Use of Banking and Financial Services: 2019 FDIC Survey. Accessed May 27, 2021. https://www.economicinclusion.gov/downloads/ 2019_FDIC_Unbanked_HH_Survey_Report.pdf. Multisystems, Inc., Mundle & Associates, Inc., and Parsons Transportation Group, Inc. 2002. TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. References

78 Considering the Unbanked in Cashless Fare Payment at Point of Service for Bus/Demand-Response Services Multisystems, Inc., Mundle & Associates, Inc., and Simon & Simon Research and Associates, Inc. 2003. TCRP Report 94: Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. Munro, P. 2012. “Test of City’s Ticket to Ride Will Decide if Opal is Coalition’s Trump Card.” Sydney Morning Herald. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://www.smh.com.au/technology/test-of-citys-ticket-to-ride- will-decide-if-opal-is-coalitions-trump-card-20121125-2a1mj.html. NTD. 2019. “NTD Transit Agency Profiles.” FTA. Accessed May 27, 2021. https://www.transit.dot.gov/ntd/ transit-agency-profiles. NTI. 2021. Title VI and Public Transit. Accessed October 23, 2021. https://www.ntionline.com/title-vi-and- public-transit. Okunieff, P. 2017. TCRP Synthesis 125: Multiagency Electronic Fare Payment Systems. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Pettine, A., E. Rosenblum, and B. Manford. 2022. TCRP Synthesis 160: Fare Capping: Balancing Revenue and Equity Impacts. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Renda, M. 2019. “San Francisco Requires Businesses to Take Cash Payments.” Courthouse News Service. Accessed February 19, 2021. https://www.courthousenews.com/san-francisco-requires-businesses-to- take-cash-payments. Shanahan, E., and J. Mays. 2020. “New York City Stores Must Accept Cash, Council Says.” New York Times. Accessed October 20, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/23/nyregion/nyc-cashless-ban.html. Smart Card Alliance. 2008. Serving Unbanked Consumers in the Transit Industry with Prepaid Cards. Princeton Junction, NJ. https://www.securetechalliance.org/resources/lib/Serving_Unbanked_Transit_Riders_White_ Paper.pdf. Stern, R. 1997. TCRP Synthesis 26: Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Sydney Buses. 2005. “Save Time.” Sydney, Australia. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/ 20061108211523/http://www.sydneybuses.info/prepay/index.php. TfL. 2014. “London’s Buses Go Cash Free from This Sunday.” London, UK. Accessed October 24, 2021. https:// tfl.gov.uk/info-for/media/press-releases/2014/july/london-s-buses-go-cash-free-from-this-sunday. TfL. 2021. “Cash Free Buses.” London, UK. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://tfl.gov.uk/modes/buses/cash- free-buses. TfNSW. 2016. “The Last Paper Tickets to Be Wrapped Up on August 1.” New South Wales, Australia. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20160706072443/http://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/media- releases/last-paper-tickets-be-wrapped-august-1. TfNSW. 2021. “Opal Only Buses.” New South Wales, Australia. Accessed October 24, 2021. https://transportnsw. info/travel-info/ways-to-get-around/bus/opal-only-buses. Theen, A. 2020. “Coronavirus Caution: TriMet Says Riders Must Pay Fare, but Can’t Use Cash.” Oregonian. https://www.oregonlive.com/commuting/2020/03/coronavirus-caution-trimet-says-riders-must-pay-fare- but-cant-use-cash.html. Twaddell, H., and B. Zgoda. 2020. TCRP Research Report 214: Equity Analysis in Regional Transportation Plan- ning Processes, Volume 1: Guide. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Wallischeck, E. Y., T. Weisenberger, A. Berthaume, and M. G. Dinning. 2015. TCRP Report 177: Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC.

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 Considering the Unbanked in Cashless Fare Payment at Point of Service for Bus/Demand-Response Services
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In recent years, many transit systems have been considering the benefits and challenges of moving to completely cashless fare payments and trying to find innovative solutions to help all their customers.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Synthesis 163: Considering the Unbanked in Cashless Fare Payment at Point of Service for Bus/Demand-Response Services is designed to help inform transit systems of the impacts of going cashless. Several emerging trends are identified, including that transit agencies are seeking to understand how many riders are unbanked and how to meet their needs.

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