Consensus Study Report
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This activity was supported by Contract No. 68HERC19D0011 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68976-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68976-7
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26602
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transforming EPA Science to Meet Today’s and Tomorrow’s Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26602.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.
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COMMITTEE ON ANTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR EPA’S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISE TO INFORM FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE ROAD AHEAD
Daniel S. Greenbaum (Chair), Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA
Shahzeen Z. Attari, Indiana University, Bloomington
Thomas A. Burke, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
G. Allen Burton, Jr., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Herek L. Clack, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Otakuye Conroy-Ben, Arizona State University, Tempe
Victor G. Corces, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
George P. Daston, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH
Frank W. Davis, University of California, Santa Barbara
Edan T. Dionne, IBM, Armonk, NY
Todd Kuiken, North Carolina State University, Raleigh (until October 2021)
Rachel Morello-Frosch, University of California, Berkeley
Ana Navas-Acien, Columbia University, New York, NY
Paula J. Olsiewski, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, Baltimore, MD
ManishKumar B. Shrivastava, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
Terry F. Yosie, Sustainability Advisor, Washington, DC
Hao Zhu, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ
Raymond Wassel, Scholar and Responsible Staff Officer
Clifford S. Duke, Director, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology
David Butler, National Academy of Engineering Hollomon Scholar
Stephanie Johnson, Senior Program Officer (until February 2022)
Natalie Armstrong, Associate Program Officer (from June 2022)
Kaley Beins, Associate Program Officer (from September 2020 to July 2022)
Vanessa Constant, Associate Program Officer (from October 2021 to October 2022)
Thomasina Lyles, Senior Program Assistant (from July 2021)
Cesar Raymund Segovia, Program Assistant (from November 2020 to April 2021)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY
Frank W. Davis (Chair), University of California, Santa Barbara
Dana Boyd Barr, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
Ann M. Bartuska, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired), Washington, DC
Germaine M. Buck Louis, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA
Francesca Dominici, Harvard University, Boston, MA
R. Jeffrey Lewis, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ
Marie Lynn Miranda, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN
Reza J. Rasoulpour, Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN
Joshua Tewksbury, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panamá
Sacoby M. Wilson, University of Maryland, College Park
Tracey Jean Woodruff, University of California, San Francisco
Clifford S. Duke, Director
Raymond Wassel, Scholar
Kathryn Guyton, Senior Program Officer
Natalie Armstrong, Associate Program Officer
Anthony DePinto, Associate Program Officer
Laura Llanos, Finance Business Partner
Leslie Beauchamp, Senior Program Assistant
Thomasina Lyles, Senior Program Assistant
Katherine Kane, Program Assistant
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Charles N. Haas, Drexel University, and David C. Dorman, North Carolina State University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.
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BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES
2-2 Annual trend from 2003 to 2022 in ORD-enacted budget allocated for ORD’s Science to Achieve Results (STAR) research grants program in current-year dollars (unadjusted for inflation) and dollar values adjusted for inflation (2003 USD)
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|3D CTM||three-dimensional chemical transport model|
|AOP||adverse outcome pathway|
|ARPA-H||Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health|
|BD2K||Big Data to Knowledge|
|BOSC||EPA’s Board of Scientific Counselors|
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|CMAQ||Community Multiscale Air Quality system|
|CRS||Congressional Research Service|
|DARPA||Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency|
|ddPCR||droplet digital polymerase chain reaction|
|DoD||U.S. Department of Defense|
|DOE||U.S. Department of Energy|
|ENTACT||EPA’s Non-Targeted Analysis Collaborative Trial|
|EPA||U.S. Environmental Protection Agency|
|ESA||European Space Agency|
|FDA||U.S. Food and Drug Administration|
|FFY||federal fiscal year|
|GeoCarb||Geostationary Carbon Observatory|
|GIS||geographical information system|
|GMO||genetically modified organism|
|GOES-R||Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite|
|HAB||harmful algal bloom|
|HEI||Health Effects Institute|
|IAQ||indoor air quality|
|IRL||Indian River Lagoon|
|JOGL||Just One Giant Lab|
|lidar||light detection and ranging|
|MAIA||Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols|
|MALDI||matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization|
|MIE||molecular initiating event|
|MISR||Multi-angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer|
|MIT||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|NAM||New Approach Method|
|NASA||National Aeronautics and Space Administration|
|NBCS||Navajo Birth Cohort Study|
|NCCT||National Center for Computational Toxicology|
|NIEHS||National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences|
|NIH||National Institutes of Health|
|NLCD||National Land Cover Database|
|NOAA||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
|NRC||National Research Council|
|NSF||National Science Foundation|
|OECD||Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|
|OMI||Ozone Monitoring Instrument|
|ORD||EPA’s Office of Research and Development|
|PAH||polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon|
|PCR||polymerase chain reaction|
|PFAS||per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances|
|PM2.5||particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5-µm and smaller|
|PNNL||Pacific Northwest National Laboratory|
|QSAR||quantitative structure–activity relationship|
|rRNA||ribosomal ribonucleic acid|
|SAB||Science Advisory Board|
|SBG||Surface Biology and Geology|
|SDWA||Safe Drinking Water Act|
|SDWIS||Safe Drinking Water Information System|
|SOA||secondary organic aerosol|
|STAR||Science to Achieve Results program|
|STEM||science, technology, engineering, and mathematics|
|StRAP||Strategic Research Action Plan|
|SYR3||Third Six-Year Review|
|TEMPO||Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution|
|USDA||U.S. Department of Agriculture|
|USGS||U.S. Geological Survey|
|VIIRS||Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite|
|VOC||volatile organic compound|
|VSWIR||visible and shortwave infrared|