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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
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Enabling DoD’s Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century

Unclassified Summary

_____

Committee on Assessing the
Operational Suitability of the DoD
Test and Evaluation Ranges and
Infrastructure

Board on Army Research and
Development

Division on Engineering and
Physical Sciences


Consensus Study Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract W911NF-18-D-0002 with the Office of the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68988-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68988-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26607

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD’s Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26607.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY OF THE DOD TEST AND EVALUATION RANGES AND LNFRASTRUCTURE

HEIDI C. PERRY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, Chair

KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE,1 Boeing Corporation

KATHERINE J. GRAEF, U.S. Army (retired)

CONRAD J. GRANT, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

EDWARD R. GREER, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Developmental Test and Evaluation (retired)

MICHAEL A. HAMEL, U.S. Air Force (retired)

BRIAN HOLMES,2 National Intelligence Council

DANA “KEOKI” JACKSON, NAE, The MITRE Corporation

TERRY P. LEWIS, Booz Allen Hamilton

ALBERT A. SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Inc.

MITCHELL SIMMONS,3 National Intelligence University

Staff

WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Director, Scholar

STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer, Study Director

CAMERON MALCOM, Research Associate

MARGUERITE SCHNIEDER, Administrative Coordinator

CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner

LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer

NIA JOHNSON, Program Officer

Consultant

THOMAS PERISON, Workshop Rapporteur

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Committee co-chair from June 2021 to November 2021.

3 Committee member from June 2021 to January 2022.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

BOARD ON ARMY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

KATHARINA MCFARLAND, Retired Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology), Chair

MICHAEL BEAR, Booz Allen Hamilton, Vice Chair

ANDREW ALLEYNE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

DAVID AUCSMITH, University of Washington

JAMES BAGIAN, NAE,1 University of Michigan

JOAN BIENVENUE, University of Tennessee Oak Ridge Innovation Institute

LYNN DUGLE, Independent Consultant

JOHN FARR, United States Military Academy at West Point

GEORGE “RUSTV” GRAY III, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory

WILLIAM HIX, Major General U.S. Army (retired)

GREGORY JOHNSON, Lockheed Martin

DUNCAN MCGILL, Mercyhurst University

CHRISTINA MURATA, Deloitte

ADITYA P. PADHA, Deloitte

ALBERT SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Inc.

GEOFFREY THOME, SAIC

JAMES THOMSEN, Seaborne Defense, LLC

JOSEP TORRELLAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Staff

WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Director

STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer

SARAH JUCKETT, Program Officer

TINA LATIMER, Program Coordinator

CAMERON MALCOM, Research Associate

TRAVON JAMES, Senior Program Assistant

CLEMENT MULOCK, Program Assistant

CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Bill Conley, Mercury Systems,

Derrick Hinton, Scientific Research Corporation,

Gregory Johnson, Lockheed Martin Corporation,

Hans Miller, The MITRE Corporation,

Gary Polansky, Sandia National Laboratories,

Julie Ryan, Wyndrose Technical Group,

Johnny Sawyer, The Sawyer Group, LLC, and

Donald C. Winter, NAE,1 U.S. Navy (ret.).

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alton D. Romig, Jr., NAE Executive Officer and Lockheed Martin (retired). He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

Preface

Understanding the critical role of operational test and evaluation (OT&E), the Office of the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) tasked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine with conducting two studies, one unclassified (referred to as Phase 1) and one classified (referred to as Phase 2) to assess the suitability of the Department of Defense (DoD) ranges and infrastructure to accommodate OT&E in the and around 2035. The Phase 2 builds on the work of the Phase 1 study1 and additionally assesses threat replication in OT&E and emerging technologies expected to be enter OT&E in the coming decades.

The fundamental conclusion of the Phase 1 study was that the OT&E community must change its paradigm from a system-by-system approach to a system-of-systems approach if it is to test in a manner representative of how the joint force will fight in 2035. The pace of adversary technological advancement, particularly China, combined with accelerating diffusion and proliferation of dual-use technologies, has changed the risk calculus for the United States. The strategic risk of failing to invest in the capability to truly test against a realistic adversary at scale is now too high. DoD must implement a broad range of materiel and non-materiel solutions related to test range infrastructure, data management and data sharing, modeling and simulation, and human capital if it is to maintain its qualitative edge in OT&E.

This Phase 2 report of the Committee on Assessing the Operational Suitability of the DoD Test and Evaluation Ranges and Infrastructure will illustrate that, while the test and evaluation (T&E) community contains pockets of exquisite capability and has initiated many of the programs necessary to modernize the T&E community, significant shortfalls and obstacles remain. The committee was grateful for the opportunity to visit several test and evaluation facilities, both during site visits and virtually. It is clear to the committee that the T&E workforce is comprised of dedicated and extremely competent professionals from a diverse collection of disciplines, and they consistently and routinely exhibited impressive ingenuity, both individually and collectively. It is this spirit of ingenuity and innovation that has enabled the United States to maintain its competitive edge, despite its relatively low investment in T&E.

The pace of adversary advancement in military capability, reach, and ambition has clearly overcome the ability of the T&E workforce to simply do more with less. This report builds on the themes from the Phase 1 study, adding classified details where applicable, fills in missing gaps in the first report, and closely examined how scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI) informs OT&E. This report also provides an examination of how OT&E must evolve in critical technical areas if DoD is to have confidence that its people, our national treasure, will be equipped with weapons systems upon which they can rely.

Finally, the report ends with an analysis of how the Range of the Future connects to its ultimate T&E customer—the services that provide able and ready forces and the Combatant Commands that employ them, and by extension, our Allied partners. Complementing this discussion of the Range of the

__________________

1 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2021, Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, https://doi.org/10.17226/26181.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×

Future is a section on innovation, where the report will present how to build and nurture an innovation infrastructure, which must accompany the material and non-material solution space identified above. If implemented, it will allow DoD to match speed to field with current and future warfighter needs.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enabling DoD's Test Ranges and Infrastructure to Meet Threats and Operational Needs in the 21st Century: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26607.
×
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The Department of Defense operates several ranges across all service branches to test the effectiveness of military systems in the land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace domains. These ranges and infrastructure represent a critical part of the DoD acquisition and systems development process.

The DoD's Office of Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) has asked the Board on Army Research and Development to assess how effectively these ranges fulfill DOT&E's mission to determine operational effectiveness and lethality of systems currently under development. This study will specifically evaluate whether these ranges are prepared to simulate threats, countermeasures, and operations against near-peer adversaries. This publication is the unclassified version of the classified report.

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