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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26610.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management Report 2 Committee on Review of Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Consensus Study Report PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EM0001172. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an y agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26610 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26610. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT KATHARINE G. FRASE, NAE, 1 International Business Machines Corporation (retired), Co-Chair JOSEPH S. HEZIR, Energy Futures Initiative, Co-Chair BURCU AKINCI, Carnegie Mellon University JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Clemson University CLIFFORD C. EBY, Independent Consultant G. EDWARD (EDD) GIBSON, JR., Arizona State University GERALDINE KNATZ, NAE. University of Southern California ROBERT PRIETO, Strategic Program Management, LLC GEOFFREY S. ROTHWELL, Longenecker & Associates KIRK SMITH, 2 NAS, 3 University of California, Berkeley HANS A. VAN WINKLE, Van Winkle Consulting Staff ALAN CRANE, Senior Scientist, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Study Director (from April 2, 2022) JENNIFER A. HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB), Study Director (from December 3, 2021, until April 1, 2022) MARTIN C. OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE), Study Director (until July 28, 2021) KATIRIA ORTIZ, Associate Program Officer, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board PEYTON GIBSON, Associate Program Officer, BICE (until July 28, 2021) RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Finance Business Partner (from January 1, 2022) HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner, Office of the Chief Financial Officer (until December 31, 2021) DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant, NRSB JOSEPH L. PALMER, Senior Project Assistant, BICE CHARLES D. FERGUSON, Director, NRSB CAMERON OSKVIG, Director, BICE, Study Director (from July 28, 2021, until December 2, 2022) 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Deceased June 15, 2020. 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT THOMAS P. BOSTICK, NAE, 1 Bostick Global Strategies, Chair STEPHEN T. AYERS, The Ayers Group, LLC DAVID GOODYEAR, NAE, Independent Consultant DAVID J. HAUN, Haun Consulting, Inc. SANJIV GOKHALE, Vanderbilt University ANDREW PERSILY, National Institute of Standards and Technology CHRIS D. POLAND, NAE, Chris D. Poland Consulting Engineer JAMES RISPOLI, North Carolina State University DOROTHY ROBYN, Boston University Institute for Sustainable Energy SHARON L. WOOD, NAE, The University of Texas at Austin Staff CAMERON OSKVIG, Director JAMES C. MYSKA, Senior Program Officer DANIEL Q. NAGASAWA, Senior Program Officer BRITTANY SEGUNDO, Program Officer JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Program Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM H. TOBEY, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, Chair JAMES A. BRINK, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Vice Chair SALLY A. AMUNDSON, Columbia University, New York, New York STEVEN M. BECKER, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZÁLEZ, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland MADELYN R. CREEDON, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia SHAHEEN A. DEWJI, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta PAUL T. DICKMAN, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia ALLISON M. MACFARLANE, The University of British Columbia, Canada ELEANOR MELAMED, National Nuclear Security Administration (retired) PER F. PETERSON, NAE, 1 University of California, Berkeley R. JULIAN PRESTON, Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina MONICA C. REGALBUTO, Idaho National Laboratory HENRY D. ROYAL, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri Staff CHARLES D. FERGUSON, Senior Board Director JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer MICHEAL T. JANICKE, Senior Program Officer OURANIA KOSTI, Senior Program Officer LAURA D. LLANOS, Finance Business Partner DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant LESLIE BEAUCHAMP, Program Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

Acknowledgments The committee would like to thank the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), the sponsor of this study, and DOE-EM staff Rodney Lehman and Catherine Bohan, who have supported this project since it began in 2018. The committee also would like to express its gratitude to Beth Moore, the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) liaison within DOE. In addition, individuals from DOE-EM performed a fact-check of portions of the report and the committee is thankful for their work to help ensure the accuracy of the content. In addition, the committee would like to thank the many individuals who supported the virtual site visits, who are acknowledged in Appendix B (those who presented information to the committee) and Appendix D (those who gathered information shared with the committee before and after the visits and who organized the agendas). The committee especially would like to acknowledge the contributions by Dae Chung (Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Corporate Services) and Ike White (Senior Advisor for Environmental Management), both of DOE-EM, through several briefings to the committee (see Appendix B). The committee and the study directors are indebted to Kevin Crowley, technical editor (and former NRSB director), whose contributions in the final editing of this manuscript cannot be overstated. He provided valuable editing and technical and policy review at a critical point in the writing process. The committee is grateful to the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies’) Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment for organizing and facilitating this study and NRSB for their collaboration with the study. Numerous study directors, Jennifer Heimberg, Alan Crane, Cameron Oskvig, and Martin Offutt, contributed to the management, review, and production of the final report. Darlene Gros and Joseph Palmer managed the logistics of the meetings, report review, and publication. Additional National Academies’ staff assisted with report review and production: Alan Crane and Katiria Ortiz. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Gena Cadieux, Harris, Wiltshire & Grannis, Sanjiv Gokahale, New York University, David Goldston, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Keith R. Molenaar, University of Colorado Boulder, Deborah J. Nightingale, NAE, 1 University of Central Florida, Charles V. Shank, NAS 2/NAE, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Cynthia Vallina, The Vallina Group LLC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lt. Gen. Henry Hatch, NAE, U.S. Army (retired) and RADM David Nash, NAE, Dave Nash & Associates International, LLC. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION x

Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ES-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 Background, 1-1 Information Gathering for Phase 2, 1-2 Format of Phase 2 Findings and Recommendations, 1-3 Report Organization, 1-4 References, 1-5 2 PHASE 1 REPORT RECOMMENDATIONS 2-1 Introduction, 2-1 Project Management Policies, Processes, and Procedures, 2-1 Project Management Metrics, 2-1 Contract Structures, 2-2 Contract Management Metrics, 2-2 Finding on Phase 1 Report, 2-2 References, 2-3 Annex 2.A: Recommendations from Phase 1 Report, 2-5 Annex 2.B: Key Terms and Concepts, 2-7 3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTING 3-1 Introduction, 3-1 End-State Contracting, 3-1 Order 413.3B, 3-9 Technology Innovation, 3-10 References, 3-12 Annex 3.A: Committee View of Outcomes-Based End-State Contracts; Definition and Examples, 3-14 Annex 3.B: Key Findings from NASEM (2019), 3-16 4 OUTCOMES AND PRIORITIZATION STRATEGIES 4-1 Introduction, 4-1 Performance Measures, 4-1 References, 4-4 5 PORTFOLIO AND CONTRACTOR OVERSIGHT 5-1 Introduction, 5-1 Portfolio Oversight, 5-1 Contractor Oversight, 5-4 References, 5-6 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

6 ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF THE CLEANUP PROGRAM 6-1 Introduction, 6-1 Finding and Recommendation on Enhancing Effectiveness and Efficiency, 6-1 References, 6-8 APPENDIXES A Committee and Staff Biographies A-1 B Committee Data-Gathering Meetings for Report 2 B-1 C Acronyms and Abbreviations C-1 D Site Visit Acknowledgments D-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

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Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management: Report 2 Get This Book
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The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) was established by Congress in 1989 to remediate waste and environmental contamination that have resulted from nuclear weapons production and related activities. It has expended almost $200 billion on cleanup and related activities since its establishment and completed cleanup at all but 15 of the more than 100 sites.

At the request of Congress, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine formed a committee to provide advice on enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of DOE-EM cleanup activities, particularly with respect to project management, contracting, and oversight practices. These recommendations were provided in two reports. The first report, Review of Effectiveness and Efficiency of Defense Environmental Cleanup Activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Management: Report 1, considered overall project management practices, project management metrics and outcomes, and contract structures and performance measures. This second report focuses on specific DOE-EM sites to assess how effective the management of the numerous projects at the sites is contributing to the wider programmatic objectives of DOE-EM.

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