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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
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Appendix B

Workshop Agenda

Discussing and Understanding Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Species and Biodiversity—A Workshop

February 9–10, 2022
Virtual-Only, Global-Webcast

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will appoint a planning committee to organize and convene a workshop to discuss the current understanding of animal welfare challenges in research and education on wildlife and biologically diverse animal species. The workshop will focus on issues associated with the unique welfare considerations of research with species having diverse physiologies and behaviors and living in diverse habitats, for which the recommendations outlined in the current version of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th edition) present challenges. By heightening awareness, increasing sensitivity, and promoting discussions on animal research and education for these non-traditional research animal species, the workshop will help inform the planning process for tailoring guidance for humane care and use of a wide diversity of animals both in traditional “brick-and-mortar” laboratory animal facilities and beyond (e.g., field laboratories and field stations, and terrestrial and aquatic settings under both captive and natural conditions) while maintaining the integrity of research. The workshop will include presentations and panel discussions to explore various related topics and questions.

DAY ONE
10:00–10:10 AM EST Welcome and Brief Introductions

Corrine Lutz and Workshop Planning Committee Co-Chair Anne Maglia

10:10–11:55 AM

Session 1: Perspectives on Animal Welfare Considerations Between Laboratory Animal and Free-Ranging Fish and Wildlife Field Research

Operative terms, including the regulatory use of “field study”; introduce gradations between field and laboratory (enclosures with differing amounts of containment); issues that present particular challenges for field personnel and oversight bodies. Representatives from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), and AAALAC International (AAALAC) will offer perspectives on the challenges associated with their respective roles with regard to wildlife and steps to address them.

Moderator: Anne Maglia, Ph.D.

Introduction to Challenges Involving Wildlife

Robert S. Sikes, Ph.D.

Professor of Biology

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Past President, American Society of Mammalogists

Animal Welfare Perspectives on Wildlife Research:

National Science Foundation

Anne Maglia, Ph.D.

Associate Vice Chancellor for Research Administration and Integrity University of Massachusetts Lowell

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×

Research Conducted on Wild Animals and the Animal Welfare Act

Carol Clarke, D.V.M., DACLAM

Senior Staff Officer (Laboratory Animals)

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service–Animal Care

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Research Involving Wild Animals from an NIH OLAW Perspective:

Challenges and Opportunities

Nicolette Petervary, V.M.D., M.S., DACAW

Animal Welfare Program Specialist

Division of Policy and Education

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

National Institutes of Health

AAALAC Perspective: Wildlife Studies:

Beyond the Three Primary Standards

Jeff Wyatt, D.V.M., M.P.H., DACLAM

Professor and Chair, Comparative Medicine

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Environmental Justice Advocate

Seneca Park Zoo

11:55 AM–12:05 PM Break
12:05–1:05 PM Session 2 (Part 1): Review Laws, Regulations, and Permits Associated with Fish and Wildlife

Regulatory requirements unique to wildlife that exist at multiple levels (international as well as from national to state and local and including Native American lands); regulatory and permit issues associated with release/reintroduction of animals held in captivity; differences between and overlap of research versus management and how these impact oversight requirements.

Moderator: Sharon Shriver, Ph.D.

Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife:

A Natural History Museum Perspective

Adam W. Ferguson, Ph.D.

Negaunee Collection Manager of Mammals

Gantz Family Collection Center

Field Museum of Natural History

Challenges from the National Park Service Perspective

Laurie A. Baeten, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Attending Veterinarian and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Chair

Biological Resources Division

National Park Service

Research on Tribal Lands: Unique Examples

Caleb R. Hickman, Ph.D.

Supervisory Fish and Wildlife Biologist

Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians

Office of Fisheries and Wildlife Management

1:05–1:15 PM Break
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
1:15–2:10 PM Session 2 (Part 2): Case Studies and Examples

Non-target species; unexpected complications with capture of some non-targets (exotics, endangered, etc.); venomous and dangerous species; concerns associated with capture; ownership of the animals and data from them (e.g., Kyoto protocol).

Moderator: Sharon Shriver, Ph.D.

Unique Challenges When Working with Free-Ranging Wildlife:

Hummingbirds as a Case Study

Lisa A. Tell, D.V.M.

Professor

University of California, Davis

Conducting Biodiversity Surveys in the New Age of Wildlife Discovery

Lawrence R. Heaney, Ph.D.

Negaunee Curator of Mammals

Field Museum of Natural History

Field Research Involving Reptiles and Amphibians, Remote Study Sites, and Undergraduate Students

Heather L. Bateman, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, College of Integrative Sciences and Arts

Senior Sustainability Scientist, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation Arizona State University

2:10–2:20 PM Break
2:20–3:50 PM Session 3: Wild Animal Population Concerns

Potential impacts on populations and communities beyond the level of the individual that can result from field activities; biosafety in both directions (animals to humans and vice versa); responsibilities and limitations of both permitting agencies and IACUCs regarding oversight of potential impacts.

Moderator: Patrice N. Klein, M.S., V.M.D., DACPV, DACVPM

Challenges of High-Risk Fieldwork and Working with Venomous and Hazardous Species for IACUCs

Christopher L. Parkinson, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Biological Sciences and

Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation

Director, Genomics and Bioinformatics Facility

Clemson University

Standards of Practice Facilitate Research and Management of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats

Jonathan Reichard, Ph.D.

Wildlife Biologist, National Assistant Coordinator for White-Nose Syndrome

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Animal Welfare Challenges in Research on Amphibian Disease Ecology: Impacts on Natural Systems, Biodiversity, and Biosafety (Part 1)

Karen Lips, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Biology

University of Maryland

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×

Animal Welfare Challenges in Research on Amphibian Disease Ecology:

Impacts on Natural Systems, Biodiversity, and Biosafety (Part 2)

Vance T. Vredenburg, Ph.D.

Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Biology

San Francisco State University

A Brief Summary of the Inherent Aspects of Risk Management in the Context of Wildlife Animal Use Activities

John A. Bryan II, D.V.M., M.S.

Zachery Consulting, LLC

3:50–4:00 PM Break
4:00–5:00 PM Moderator: William Bowerman, Ph.D., ILAR Standing Committee

1-hour summary and synthesis of the day’s key take-home points by moderators of each session. May include responses to particularly relevant questions that have been submitted via Slido.

Animal Welfare Challenges in Research on Amphibian Disease Ecology:

Impacts on Natural Systems, Biodiversity, and Biosafety (Part 2)

Vance T. Vredenburg, Ph.D.

Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Biology

San Francisco State University

A Brief Summary of the Inherent Aspects of Risk Management in the Context of Wildlife Animal Use Activities

John A. Bryan II, D.V.M., M.S.

Zachery Consulting, LLC

3:50–4:00 PM Break
4:00–5:00 PM Moderator: William Bowerman, Ph.D., ILAR Standing Committee

1-hour summary and synthesis of the day’s key take-home points by moderators of each session. May include responses to particularly relevant questions that have been submitted via Slido.

DAY TWO
10:00–10:10 AM Welcome and Brief Introductions
10:10–11:40 AM Session 4: Restraint and Handling of Animals in the Field to Include the Use of Compounds for Capture and Handling

Options for minimizing the use of chemical compounds; non-pharmaceutical grade and controlled substances and challenges with using them in the field; use of drugs to facilitate handling rather than to control pain and implications for USDA categorization of animal activities; release of animals that have been exposed to chemical compounds in the field (including potential consumption by humans or other animals); challenges and options for non-veterinarians, particularly for use of controlled substances and extra-label use.

Moderator: Bonnie Beaver, D.V.M.

Extra-Label Drug Use in Free-Ranging Wildlife:

Rules, Regulations and Reality

Lisa A. Tell, D.V.M.

Professor

University of California, Davis

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×

The Use of Pharmaceutical Agents in Carnivores, Bears, and Ungulates Within a Wildlife Management Agency (Reality and Challenges)

Mark Drew, D.V.M., M.S., DACZM

Wildlife Health Services, LLC

A Brief Introduction to the Complexities of Working with Multiple Agencies to Conduct Wildlife Animal Use Activities

John A. Bryan II, D.V.M., M.S.

Zachery Consulting, LLC

Challenges in the Capture and Handling of Wild Birds in Research

Jeanne M. Fair, Ph.D.

Biosecurity and Public Health

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Capture and Handling of Free-Living Wild Small Mammals for Research and Education

George James Kenagy, Ph.D.

Professor of Biology (Emeritus), Department of Biology

Curator of Mammals (Emeritus), Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture

University of Washington

11:40–11:50 AM Break
11:50 AM–12:45 PM Session 5: Role of Veterinary Medicine in Wildlife Research

Role of the veterinarian and oversight for use of controlled substances in the field by non-veterinarians; the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act; options for input from veterinarians and oversight bodies for ongoing work with high-profile species by field crews; availability of veterinarians with taxon-appropriate expertise.

Moderator: Gail C. Golab, Ph.D., D.V.M., MANZCVS, DACAW

The Wildlife Veterinarian’s Role in Championing Animal Welfare Programs and Policies

Margaret A. Wild, D.V.M., Ph.D., CWB®

Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine

Washington State University

Understanding, Respecting, and Enhancing the Role of Veterinary Medicine in Wildlife Research: A Wildlife Biologist’s Perspective

Kevin Monteith, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Natural Resource Science

University of Wyoming

Understanding, Accepting, and Enhancing the Role of Veterinary Medicine in Wildlife Research: A Wildlife Veterinarian’s Perspective

Michael W. Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Wildlife Veterinarian

Colorado Parks and Wildlife

Surgeries in the Field

Daniel M. Mulcahy, Ph.D., D.V.M., Dipl ACZM

Wildlife Veterinarian (Retired)

Journal Editor (Retired)

12:45–12:55 PM Break
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
12:55–1:55 PM Session 6: Pain and Distress, Euthanasia, Humane Killing, and Lethal Take

Include discussion of bioethics associated with fieldwork practices, options to minimize stress and distress, injuries caused by researcher versus occurring naturally, consider when injuries should be treated as opposed to euthanasia and humane killing, options available for euthanasia and humane killing under varying conditions.

Moderator: Robert S. Sikes, Ph.D.

AVMA Perspectives on Ending Lives of Wildlife Species

David S. Miller, D.V.M., CWB, Ph.D., DACZM, DACAW

Lead, Reptiles, Zoo, and Wildlife Working Group

American Veterinary Medical Association

Challenges in Humane Killing of Wild Birds as Museum Vouchers Supporting Biodiversity Research

Andrew Engilis, Jr., M.S.

Curator

Museum of Wildlife and Fish Biology

University of California, Davis

Context-Dependent Challenges and Decisions for Humane Killing of Wild Small Mammals

Rebecca J. Rowe, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment

University of New Hampshire

Challenges in Following Euthanasia Guidelines in Marine Fisheries Sampling

Jeffrey Buckel, Ph.D.

Professor

North Carolina State University

1:55–2:05 PM Break
2:05–2:50 PM Session 7: Transition of Wild Animals to Captive Settings and Housing Challenges

Enclosures to laboratory settings; acclimation to captivity; husbandry and captive management; differing food and water requirements, including live prey; monitoring challenges (e.g., hibernating animals); biocontainment, biosafety- multi-species rooms, cages, aquaria, predator versus prey species.

Moderator: Elaine K. Kim

Establishing Captive Populations of Wild Animals:

Communicating with Your IACUC

Eileen A. Lacey, Ph.D.

Professor, Integrative Biology

Department of Integrative Biology

Curator of Mammals

Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

University of California, Berkeley

Challenges to Wildlife Adjusting to Captivity: Negotiating with the IACUC

L. Michael Romero, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Biology

Tufts University

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×

Compliance Challenges for Capturing, Transferring, and Keeping Wild Bats in Captivity for Research and Teaching

Michael Smotherman, Ph.D.

Professor of Biology

Texas A&M University

2:50–3:00 PM Break
3:00–4:00 PM Session 8: Take-Home Listing of Resources Presently Available for IACUCs, Regulators, and Personnel Concerned with Wildlife Research

Recap the goals of the workshop and identify broad challenges highlighted over the course of the workshop. Identify existing gaps in knowledge and structure. Identify options for eliminating challenges within the existing structure and potential strategies, synergies, and collaborations within and among the wildlife and biologically diverse animal research, and biodiversity communities that could leverage additional resources and facilitate knowledge acquisition and sharing. Solicit input from the audience regarding gaps or challenges we have not identified and solutions.

Moderator: Anne Maglia, Ph.D.

  • Michael Stoskopf, D.V.M., Ph.D., DACZM
  • Robert S. Sikes, Ph.D.
  • William Greer
4:00–4:10 PM Break
4:10–5:10 PM Moderator: Katherine Thibault, Ph.D., ILAR Standing Committee

1-hour summary and synthesis of the day’s key take-home points by moderators of each session. May include responses to particularly relevant questions that have been submitted via Slido.

5:10 PM Closing Remarks: Workshop Planning Committee Co-Chair Robert S. Sikes
5:20 PM Closing of Academies Event: Corrine Lutz Adjourn Day Two
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page102
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page103
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page104
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page105
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page106
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species and Biodiversity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26614.
×
Page108
Next: Appendix C: Workshop Speaker Biosketches »
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Research to advance understanding of the ecology and biology of wildlife species is more important than ever as the world confronts issues ranging from biodiversity loss to the emergence of zoonotic diseases. However, the current understanding of animal welfare in research and education has been based on laboratory work with specific domesticated species. Wildlife research represents a starkly different context and with different implications for animal welfare. Wild species that are the subject of research have extremely diverse physiologies and behaviors and live in diverse habitats. This makes it challenging and sometimes impossible for wildlife researchers to follow the recommendations outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 2011) and other guidelines developed for a laboratory-based, biomedically focused research context.

To explore issues associated with the unique welfare considerations of wildlife research, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (under the auspices of the Roundtable on Science and Animal Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use), hosted a workshop titled Discussing and Understanding Animal Welfare Challenges in Research and Education on Wildlife, Non-Model Animal Species, and Biodiversity on February 9-10, 2022. The event, held virtually, included pre-recorded presentations and overarching discussions to explore this topic in breadth and depth. More than 1,800 participants from academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations joined the webcast. This proceedings summarizes key topics covered in the workshop presentations and discussions based on transcripts, recordings, and slides from the event.

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