Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Appendix 2A Semi-Structured Interview Guide for Federal Agencies For any of these questions, if someone else could answer better, please give us the name and contact information for that person(s). 1. Letâs begin by describing your position and responsibilities within _____insert Agency name_____. Please provide a brief description of your job and the geographic focus of your work. Interviewerâs prompts if missing from respondentâs description: ï§ Position title ï§ Location of office (city/state) ï§ Geographic focus of work/responsibility ï§ How position relates to the purchase/use of native seeds or plants for land management Now we are going to focus on native seed and/or plant material purchased and/or used in projects within your scope of responsibility. By ânativeâ we mean seed or plants indigenous to North America prior to European settlement. Plant material would include such things as plants, seedlings and vegetative material, except seed. 2. Do you use any of the following for any purpose on the projects within your scope of responsibility? a. Native seed (Y or N) b. Non-native seed (Y or N) c. Native plant materials (Y or N) d. Non-native plant materials (Y or N) [If NO to both Q2a and Q2c (no native seed or native plant materials) skip to Q26] 3. For the projects within your scope of responsibility, how often are purchases made of native seed and plant material? Are purchases made on a routine schedule or an âas neededâ basis? Interviewerâs prompt if needed -- e.g. several times a year, once a year, once every few years, rarely, etc. Interviewerâs prompt: Can you share purchase records (3 years) with us? 4. For purchases of native seed, thinking over the 3-year period, 2017-2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), for projects within your scope of responsibility, what were the most common species of native seed purchased? Interviewerâs note: Here we are only referring to seed and not other plant materials. If the agency provides purchase records, this information may be included in those records. If the respondent reports mixes of native and non-native seed, try to ascertain the most common species of native seed in those mixes. 5. During this same 3-year period, roughly what were the average yearly expenditures for native seed? Your best estimate is fine. Interviewerâs note: Here we are only referring to seed and not other plant materials. Prepublication Copy 125
An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report Interviewerâs note: If not asked in Q4, ask whether they can share purchase records (3 years). If the respondent reports mixes of native and non-native seed, try to separate the cost of the native seed. If this is not possible, record the expediture for the mix. 6. Now I am going to list a number of potential uses of native seed or plant materials. For each of the following, please indicate whether you used or did not use native seed or plant materials for each purpose during the 3-year period between 2017-2019. a. Pollinator habitat projects i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure b. Creation/restoration of wildlife habitat (other than pollinator habitat projects) i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure c. Restorative activity on land in a wilderness/natural area i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure d. Invasive species suppression i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure e. Natural disaster recovery from such events as a hurricane, flood, fire, severe drought, etc. i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure f. Roadside seeding (after construction) i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure g. Roadside maintenance i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure h. Stream erosion mitigation/restoration i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure i. Soil protection (conservation plantings) i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure j. Landscaping (around structures and in parks) i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure k. Green infrastructure (stormwater management, etc.) i. Used ii. Not Used 126 Prepublication Copy
Appendix 2A iii. Unsure l. Rangeland grazing i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure m. Energy development remediation (example coalmine, oil drilling, fracking, etc.) i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure n. Green strips or vegetative fuel breaks to mitigate wildfire spread i. Used ii. Not Used iii. Unsure o. Another purpose, please specify ____________________ Interviewer note: If the respondent thinks a particular usage fits in more than one category (for example â h) stream erosion may be part of e) natural disaster recovery â then code both uses. What would you say was the most common use? 7. During this same 3-year period, did any of the procurements specifically seek native seed appropriate for use in a specific local area, or from a specific source location or seed zone. a. Yes What is your best estimate of the percent of those seeds that were actually purchased versus substitutions that did not fully meet these locality specifications? b. No Interviewerâs note: Here we are trying to determine whether the intended location of seed usage was part of the procurement process. If so, were they actually able to purchase the seed they sought, or was a substitution made? 8. For purchases of native plant material (other than seed), thinking over the 3-year period, 2017- 2019, for projects within your scope of responsibility, what were the most common species of native plant materials purchased? Interviewerâs note: Here we are only referring to plant materials and not seed. Interviewer prompt: Can you share purchase records (3 years) with us? 9. During this same 3-year period, roughly what were the average yearly expenditures for these native plant materials? Your best estimate is fine. Interviewerâs note: Here we are only referring to plant materials and not seed. Interviewer prompt: Can you share purchase records (3 years) with us? 10. I am going to list several ways to communicate to suppliers your future needs for native seed. Please indicate which ones you use. a. Requests for proposals Use Not Use Unsure b. General publicity around projects Use Not Use Unsure Prepublication Copy 127
An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report c. Public meetings with suppliers i. Use ii. Not use iii. Unsure d. Conferences or other professional meetings Use Not Use Unsure e. Informal communication with suppliers Use Not Use Unsure f. Other, please specify _______________________ 11. In order to evaluate projects that involve native seed or plant materials within your scope of responsibility, do you check on the survival of the seed or plant materials after planting? a. Yes, for most project b. Yes, for some projects c. No ï Skip Q12 12. Generally, when is the last time you typically check on the survival of the seed or plant materials after planting? a. About 1 year or less after seeding or planting b. 1 to 3 years after seeding or planting c. More than 3 years after seeding or planting It is important for the Committee to better understand the decision-making process when [AGENCY NAME] purchases native seed. For these next questions we request details on a âtypical projectâ in which you have been involved. 13. We would like you to identify a typical project involving native seed use in which you have played a fairly major part in the decision-making about purchasing those seed -- what species to buy, when to buy, from whom to buy, etc. What is the projectâs name and can you provide a brief description? Interviewer prompt if needed about general description of project, ask more about: ï§ Purpose of project (and what makes it âtypicalâ) ï§ Approximate amount and type of native seed (species, certification, etc.) Acres covered. ï§ Geographical area of use ï§ If the project involves both native seed and plant material, include both. ï§ Regulatory framework â whether regulations or policy is required or encouraged the use native seed and/or locally sourced native seed on the project. 14. For this specific âtypicalâ project, how was it determined exactly how much and which type of seed (species, germplasm within species, geographic identity, etc.) and plant materials were needed for this project? 15. From what source(s) did you obtain information about the availability of native seed (and plant materials) needed for this project? a. In-house knowledge Use 128 Prepublication Copy
Appendix 2A Not Use Unsure b. Advertising Use Not Use Unsure c. Preapproved vendors Use Not Use Unsure d. Request for proposals Use Not Use Unsure e. Other, please specify _______________________ 16. Please describe the approval and funding process for this project. Interviewer prompt if needed â ï§ Did you determine what was needed and then ask for that funding? Did you get the funding you asked for? ï§ Was the budget for the project determined in another part of your agency, causing you to modify the project specifications to match the budget? ï§ Were you given an annual budget and had to work within it for multiple projects? ï§ Were funds leveraged through special programs or other agencies or sources of funding such as partnerships or collaborations? ï§ What was the specific source of funds for this project? ï§ Is this process typical for other projects as well? 17. To purchase the seed used in this project: a. Were your seed requirements included in a consolidated buy with other projects in your agency? b. Were seeds for this project purchased separately from those needed for other projects? c. Other, specify (Example, seed was obtained from stored seed in agency warehouse.) 18. What type of contracting method was used to purchase the seed? Common methods might include purchase directly from a spot market sale, use of a marketing contract ahead of delivery date, or use of a production contract in which there is a sharing of production costs or risks. Interviewer prompt if needed â types of contracting arrangements. ï· Spot market sale of available seed or plant materials from the supplierâs current inventory. For example, a bid on a BLM Consolidated Seed Buy. Price and quantity are unknown in advance of the production process. ï· Marketing contract that specifies seed or plant materials type, price, quantity, and delivery date. Approved in advance of the sale, this contract may or may not be signed before production decisions have been made or seed is available. ï· Production contract that specifies seed or plant materials type, desired quantity and delivery date. Contract shares some production costs and/or production risk (by providing flexibility on the quantity delivered and/or the delivery date), such as IDIQ. It may or may not specify a price. ï· Buying from agency warehouse ï· Other contracting arrangement â please describe Prepublication Copy 129
An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report 19. What input did you have in deciding which supplier was picked? Interviewer prompt if needed? ï· You made the final decision ï· You had input but not the final decision ï· Decision was made elsewhere, you had little input 20. I want to understand the timeline for this project. I am going to list six activities and ask for when they took place. Reporting month and year would be helpful. a. When did the planning for the project commence? b. When was the decision made on what seed were needed? c. When was funding authorization finalized? d. When were seeds purchased or collection/production contracts awarded? e. When were the seeds delivered? f. When were the seeds actually utilized on the land? 21. Did project developers reach out to suppliers during the planning stage for technical information and/or information on availability? 22. Did this project eventually receive the amount and type of native seed (plant material) that was in your original âneeds assessment?â a. Yes b. No. What occurred? o Was less seed purchased than requested? Why? o Was non-native seed substituted for native seed? If yes, because natives were too expensive, natives not available within project timeline, or just not available in general? o Was native seed having different characteristics substituted for preferred native seed? If yes, because preferred natives were too expensive, preferred natives not available within project timeline, or just not available in general? 23. In order to evaluate this project, did you check on the survival of the seed after seeding or planting? a. Yes i. About 1 year or less after seeding or planting ii. 1 to 3 years after seeding or planting iii. Greater than 3 years after seeding or planting b. No 24. How successful was the project in reaching its goals? Was the evaluation useful in setting parameters for similar future projects? 25. What was your overall satisfaction with the decision-making process and availability of native seed for this project? Why? 26. Do you anticipate that native seed and plant material purchase and use on projects within your scope of responsibility is likely to increase or decrease in the short term? â¦in the longer term? Explain: END. Thank you for your help! 130 Prepublication Copy