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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Long COVID

Examining Long-Term Health Effects of
COVID-19 and Implications for the Social
Security Administration
_____

Laura Aiuppa Denning and Erin Hammers
Forstag, Rapporteurs

Board on Health Care Services

Health and Medicine Division

Proceedings of a Workshop

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Social Security Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-69035-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-69035-8
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26619

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining long-term health effects of COVID-19 and implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26619.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS STEMMING FROM COVID-19 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

WALTER R. FRONTERA (Chair), Professor, Department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine and Department of Physiology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine

ADAORA A. ADIMORA, Sarah Graham Kenan Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

RANY CONDOS, Clinical Professor, Department of Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Director, Post-COVID Program and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Program, NYU Langone Health

STEVEN G. DEEKS, Professor of Medicine in Residence, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine

ANDREA M. LERNER, Medical Officer, Office of the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

MANSOOR A. MALIK, Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

LAURA A. MALONE, Physician Scientist, Center for Movement Studies, Kennedy Krieger Institute; Co-director, Pediatric Post–COVID-19 Rehabilitation Clinic, Kennedy Krieger Institute; Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

AVINDRA NATH, Senior Investigator and Clinical Director, Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health

MONICA VERDUZCO-GUTIERREZ, Professor and Chair, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health, San Antonio

Health and Medicine Division Staff

LAURA AIUPPA DENNING, Senior Program Officer

VICTORIA BROWN, Senior Program Assistant

SHARYL NASS, Senior Director, Board on Health Care Services

Consultant

ERIN HAMMERS FORSTAG, Consulting Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

LIDA BENINSON, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

SARAH RUIZ, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute

LAURA TABACOF, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by ALAN M. JETTE, MGH Institute of Health Professions. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. We also thank staff member Lida Beninson for reading and providing helpful comments on this manuscript.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Acknowledgments

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Board on Health Care Services wishes to express its sincere gratitude to the planning committee chair, Walter Frontera, for his valuable contributions to the development and orchestration of this workshop. The board also wishes to thank all the members of the planning committee, who collaborated to ensure a workshop replete with informative presentations and moderated rich discussions. Finally, the board wants to thank the speakers, who generously shared their expertise and their time with workshop participants. Funding from the Social Security Administration made this workshop possible.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
×

Abbreviations

AAPM&R American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDR continuing disability review
ClinFIT Clinical Functioning Information Tool
GBD Global Burden of Disease
ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
IHME Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
MCAS mast cell activation syndrome
ME/CFS myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome
MIS-C multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
NIH National Institutes of Health
PASC postacute sequelae of COVID-19
PICS postintensive care syndrome
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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PM&R physical medicine and rehabilitation
POTS postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
RECOVER Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
SSA Social Security Administration
SSDI Social Security Disability Insurance Program
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
WHO World Health Organization
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Long COVID: Examining Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19 and Implications for the Social Security Administration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26619.
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'Long COVID' refers to the wide range of long-lasting symptoms experienced by some patients after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms include fatigue, headache, brain fog, shortness of breath, hair loss, and pain. At this time, there are many knowledge gaps related to Long COVID, including the prevalence of the condition, the impact of the symptoms on survivors' ability to function, and the long-term course of the condition. While many individuals with Long COVID recover within one year, others experience little or no decrease in symptom severity over time.

Long COVID symptoms can affect a person's ability to work and otherwise function in daily life, so people with the condition may need to utilize programs such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and the Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI). The Social Security Administration (SSA), which administers both of these programs, requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine host a public workshop to discuss research into the long-term health effects of COVID-19, their impacts on individuals and populations, and how the SSDI and SSI programs can support individuals who suffer disability as a result of Long COVID. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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