National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26621.
×
PageR10

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop Report Series — Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine National Academies Press Washington, DC Consensus Study Report PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH17CB02B/ NNH17CB01T with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26621 Copies of this publication are available free of charge from Space Studies Board National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26621. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCES MARTHA S. GILMORE, Wesleyan University, Co-Chair CHRISTOPHER H. HOUSE, The Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair ERIK ASPHAUG, University of Arizona BETHANY L. EHLMANN, California Institute of Technology KATHERINE FREEMAN, NAS,1 The Pennsylvania State University ALEXANDER HAYES, Cornell University SARAH M. HÖRST, Johns Hopkins University EDWIN KITE, The University of Chicago RAMANARAYANAN KRISHNAMURTHY, The Scripps Research Institute MELISSA A. MCGRATH, SETI Institute ALISON E. MURRAY, Desert Research Institute CLIVE R. NEAL, University of Notre Dame BETH N. ORCUTT, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences MATTHEW PASEK, University of South Florida KARYN L. ROGERS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute NITA SAHAI, The University of Akron DAVID J. STEVENSON, NAS, California Institute of Technology Staff DANIEL NAGASAWA, Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Interim Study Director MEGAN CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

SPACE STUDIES BOARD MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (Retired), Vice Chair GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University DANIELA CALZETTI, NAS, University of Massachusetts Amherst JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara MELINDA D. DYAR, Mount Holyoke College ANTONIO ELIAS, Orbital ATK, Inc. (ret.) VICTORIA HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, American Institute of Physics DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY J. PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley MARK SAUNDERS, Independent Consultant J. MARSHALL SHEPARD, NAS/NAE, University of Georgia BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HOWARD SINGER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire ERIKA B WAGNER, Blue Origin, LLC PAUL D. WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles ENDAWOKE YIZENGAW, The Aerospace Corporation Staff COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface The Space Studies Board (SSB; and its predecessor, the Space Science Board) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has been involved in shaping the United States’ space science policy for 60 years. Through those years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sponsored studies through the SSB, seeking independent, scientific advice on how to craft its planetary science program through both the planetary science decadal surveys and individual reports by ad hoc committees. In 2012, NASA asked the SSB to appoint and operate an ad-hoc committee with the purpose of serving as an independent forum for identifying and discussing issues in astrobiology and planetary science between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. As a result of this charge, the Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences (CAPS) was organized. In July 2021, NASA Science Mission Directorate Planetary Science Division leadership requested that CAPS draft a report serving as an independent review of a white paper produced by the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop. The workshop was convened by two of NASA’s Research and Coordination Networks to identify and address issues in the evaluation and communication of biosignature detection claims. To gather information and discuss the issues, CAPS met four times in 2021 and 2022, virtually during the COVID-19 pandemic, on the following dates: November 10-12, 2021, January 26, 2022, February 3-4, 2022, and March 23, 2022. A call for public input was also made by CAPS to gather information from as many stakeholders as possible. The call was announced to the public on February 1, 2022, and closed on February 18, 2022. A completed draft of this report was assembled on March 16, 2022. The committee would like to thank Vikki Meadows (University of Washington), Heather Graham (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center [GSFC]), Sarah Walker (Arizona State University), Andrew Steele (Carnegie Institute of Washington), Linda Jahnke (NASA Ames Research Center), Jennifer Eigenbrode (NASA GSFC), Yuichiro Ueno (Tokyo Tech), Shawn Domagal-Goldman (NASA GSFC), Jill Tarter (SETI Institute), Mary Voytek (NASA), Giada Arney (NASA GSFC), Sara Seager (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Joel Achenbach (The Washington Post), Marina Koren (The Atlantic), and Ethan Vishniac (AAS Journals) for their presentations to CAPS. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: B. Scott Gaudi, The Ohio State University, Christopher R. Glein, Southwest Research Institute, Paul Mahaffy, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (ret.), Jay Nadeau, Portland State University, Magdalena Rose Osburn, Northwestern University, Sally Potter-McIntyre, Southern Illinois University, Sara Seager, NAS,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Andrew P.V. Siemion, SETI Institute, and Amy Williams, University for Florida. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael Manga, NAS, University of California, Berkeley, and Brian Hynek, University of Colorado Boulder. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 THE BIOSIGNATURE STANDARDS OF EVIDENCE WORKSHOP 6 3 COMMUNICATION OF A LIFE DETECTION RESULT 12 4 RELATIONSHIP TO THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS 17 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 27 B Acronyms and Abbreviations 29 C Committee and Staff Biographical Information 30 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Next: Executive Summary »
Independent Review of the Community Report from the Biosignature Standards of Evidence Workshop: Report Series—Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

At the request of NASA, the Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences of the National Academies of Sciences Engineering, and Medicine, in its role as an independent forum, conducted a review of the NASA report “Community Report from the Biosignatures Standards of Evidence Workshop”. The review addresses the accuracy, assumptions, and conclusions of the NASA report. This publication details the findings of the committee.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!