National Academies Press: OpenBook

Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign (2022)

Chapter:Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26642.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 240 2022 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Administration and Management Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign Candace Blair Cronin Rachel Smart Jay Souder Amy Bisker Juan Carlos Batarse ICF Fairfax, VA Kate Lattimore Norris Linda Pavlik Pavlik and Associates Fort Worth, TX

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 240 Project 11-02/Task 40 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-68709-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2022939241 © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Shutterstock.com NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or speci- fications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 240 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-02/TASK 40 PANEL Field of Special Projects Angelique Bartholomew, Airport Minority Advisory Council, Houston, TX Ryan Dittoe, Mead & Hunt, Inc., Chicago, IL Eliyahu Lotzar, Reframed Reality, Herndon, VA Edward K. McDonald III, J. T. SALEM & Associates LLC, Murfreesboro, TN Sharon M. Stone, St. Louis Lambert International Airport, St. Louis, MO Chris Young, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX Thomas Vick, FAA Liaison Qinya Pang, Airports Council International–North America Liaison

Periodically, airports want to redesign their workforce and organizational structure. They are seeking to be responsive to their current and emerging business needs, which can change over time. Factors that influence the structure include the type and size of the airport, the governance structure, and the presence of or lack of a union. ACRP Research Report 240: Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign provides guidance to airport leaders on strategies and steps as they navigate the process of reorganizing their structure. The airport industry reacted nimbly in response to COVID-19 and made organizational decisions and changes without the benefit of having organizational design best practices within easy reach. But even without responding to a pandemic or a worldwide black swan event, airports from time to time will want to make organizational design changes. Those reasons are varied, and each reason may result in a different approach or strategy. ICF—working with Pavlik and Associates—led the development of this primer to identify the process and considerations to be used when working through an organizational redesign. The research ICF conducted included a literature review, looked at other industries from which airports can learn, and spoke to airports as part of the research. This primer will be useful to airports of all sizes considering or about to engage in an organizational redesign. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.nap.edu) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Summary of the Problem: The Need for Organizational Redesign 1 Purpose of the Primer 2 Content 2 Intended Audience and Benefits of the Primer 2 Data Input for Developing the Primer 2 Navigation 4 Chapter 2 Understanding Organizational Redesign 6 Best Practices to Achieve Maximum Benefits During Organizational Redesign 7 Chapter 2 References 8 Chapter 3 Airport Redesign Recommendations 9 Recommendation 1: Ensure Strategy Drives Structure 13 Recommendation 2: Process Mapping for Organizational Restructuring 17 Recommendation 3: Create Metrics or Key Performance Indicators to Measure Success at Each Phase of Redesign 21 Recommendation 4: Align Performance Management to Organizational Redesign Objectives 26 Recommendation 5: Engage Employees in the Redesign Process 31 Recommendation 6: Prioritize Defining Core Functions Before Determining Staffing Strategy 34 Recommendation 7: Identify Risks in Advance of Airport Redesign 41 Recommendation 8: Align Organizational Redesign Process with Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Initiatives 46 Chapter 4 How to Navigate Organizational Redesign and Apply Recommendations C O N T E N T S

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Periodically, airports want to redesign their workforce and organizational structure. They are seeking to be responsive to their current and emerging business needs, which can change over time.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 240: Primer for Airport Organizational Redesign provides guidelines for airport leaders on strategies and steps as they navigate the process of reorganizing their structure.

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