TABLE C-1 Data Sources Used by the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
|Data Source||General Use||Characteristics||Supported by|
|National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||Allows for assessment of demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health status of Americans using physical exams (e.g., height, weight, blood pressure), laboratory data (e.g., biochemical markers of public health relevance), and questionnaires (e.g., national dietary intake data)||The survey examines a nationally representative sample of about 5,000 persons each year. These persons are located in counties across the country, with 15 visited each year.
The NHANES interview includes demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions. The examination component consists of medical, dental, and physiological measurements and laboratory tests administered by highly trained medical personnel.
|HHS, CDC, and USDA ARS|
|What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES)||Dietary intake portion of NHANES, which allows for the assessment of Americans’ food, beverage, and nutrient intakes||WWEIA is the dietary intake interview component of the NHANES. Two days of 24-hour dietary recall data are collected through an initial in-person interview, and a second interview conducted over the telephone within 3 to 10 days. Participants are given 3-D models (measuring cups and spoons, a ruler, and two household spoons) and USDA’s Food Model Booklet (containing drawings of various sizes of glasses, mugs, bowls, mounds, circles, and other measures) to estimate food amounts. WWEIA data are collected using USDA’s dietary data collection instrument, the Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM). The AMPM is a fully computerized method for collecting 24-hour dietary recalls either in person or by e-phone.||HHS, CDC, and USDA ARS|
|USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS)||FNDDS provides the nutrient and energy profiles for every food and beverage reported in WWEIA, NHANES||FNDDS converts food and beverages consumed in WWEIA, NHANES into gram amounts and determines their nutrient values, Primary descriptions for 7,083 foods/beverages (6,286 foods/797 beverages). Nutrient values for food energy and 64 nutrients/food components for each food/beverage||USDA, ARS|
|USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED)||Converts foods and beverages reported in WWEIA, NHANES to 37 USDA food patterns components, allowing for examination of food group intakes||The FPED data sets provide a unique research tool to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans. The Food Patterns (FP) components are defined as the number of cup equivalents of Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy; ounce equivalents of Grains and Protein Foods; teaspoon equivalents of Added Sugars; gram equivalents of Solid Fats and Oils; and number of Alcoholic Drinks.
The FPED release also includes a Food Patterns Equivalents Ingredients Database (FPID) that includes the 37 Food Patterns components for each unique ingredient used in FNDDS 2017–2018.
|USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (SR-28)||The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is a source of food composition data in the United States and provides the foundation for most food composition databases (e.g., FNDDS and FPED)||Release 28 (SR-28), contains data on 8,789 food items and up to 150 food components. Data have been compiled from published and unpublished sources. Published data sources include the scientific literature. Unpublished data include those obtained from the food industry, other government agencies, and research conducted under contracts initiated by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS).||USDA ARS|
|National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)||NHIS data are used widely by researchers and policy analysts to monitor trends in illness, disability, health insurance coverage, and use of medical care, as well as to track progress toward achieving national health objectives.||The NHIS is one of the major data collection programs of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and collects data on a broad range of health topics.
More than 30,000 confidential interviews are conducted throughout the year.
|Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)||The SEER program provides information on cancer statistics and is used to define rates of diet-related cancers among the U.S. population.||SEER is supported by the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) in NCI’s Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).
Data on cancer cases is collected from various locations and sources throughout the United States. Data collection began in 1973 and has continued to expand to include even more areas and demographics.
|Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)||BRFSS is used to assess health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services.
BRFSS has become a tool for health promotion activities.
|BRFSS is a system of telephone surveys that collect state data about U.S. residents regarding their health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and their use of preventive services. Each year BRFSS completes more than 400,000 adult interviews.||HHS, CDC|
|National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)||NSDUH data provide estimates of substance use along with estimates of mental health and other health-related illness at the national, state, and substate levels.
NSDUH data also help identify the extent of substance use and mental illness among different subgroups, estimate trends over time, and determine the need for treatment services.
|NSDUH interviews 70,000 people age 12 and older in the United States. The survey covers residents of households, persons in non-institutional group quarters, and civilians living on military bases. Persons excluded from the survey include people experiencing homelessness who do not use shelters, active military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters such as jails, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.||HHS, SAMHSA|
|National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)||NVSS provides data on births and deaths in the United States including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. NVSS also provides data on fetal deaths, life expectancy, and marriages and divorces.||NVSS is the oldest and most successful example of intergovernmental data sharing in public health. Data are provided through contracts between the National Center for Health Statistics and vital registration systems operated in various jurisdictions responsible for registration of vital events.||HHS, CDC|
|Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)||PRAMS data are used to investigate emerging issues in the field of reproductive health by state, territory, and local governments to plan and review programs and policies aimed at reducing health problems among mothers and infants.||PRAMS is a surveillance project, developed in 1987, that collects jurisdiction-specific, population-based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. PRAMS surveillance currently covers about 81% of all U.S. births.||HHS, CDC|
|U.S. National Immunization Surveys (NIS)||NIS provides current, population-based, state and local area estimates of vaccination coverage among children and teens.||NIS monitors vaccination coverage among children 19–35 months and teens 13–17 years, flu vaccinations for children 6 months–17 years, and COVID-19 vaccination for children and teens in eligible age groups and for adults 18 years and older through phone surveys.||HHS, CDC|
|Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)||DRIs are reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people.
They are used widely in designing and evaluating research studies and results, developing dietary guidelines, planning and tracking nutrition-related public health programs and diets for military personnel, and creating patient and consumer educational programs.
|DRIs are a set of reference values used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values vary by age and sex. The values include the Recommded Dietary Allowance, Adequate Intake, Tolerable Upper Intake Level, and Estimated Average Requirement.||NASEM|
|National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)||
NCHS compiles statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the population. These health statistics allow efforts to:
||NCHS uses a variety of approaches to efficiently obtain information from the sources most able to provide information. It collects data from birth and death records, and medical records, interview surveys and through direct physical examinations and laboratory testing. NCHS is a key element of the national public health infrastructure, providing important surveillance information that helps identify and address critical health problems.||CDC|
|PubMed/MEDLINE||PubMed is a resource supporting the search and retrieval of biomedical and life sciences literature.||The PubMed database contains more than 33 million citations and abstracts of biomedical literature. It links to the full text that are often available from other sources, such as the publisher’s website or PubMed Central (PMC).||NCBI/NLM/NIH|
|Cochrane||Cochrane Library is a collection of databases that contain evidence to inform health care decision-making, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.||Cochrane is for anyone interested in information for making health decisions. Its goals are to produce trusted evidence, advocate for evidence, and to inform health and care decisions.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews is the leading resource for systematic reviews in health care.
|Cochrane is an international network of researchers, professionals, and individuals interested in improving health.|
|Embase||Embase is a biomedical and pharmacological database focusing on drugs and pharmacology, medical devices, clinical medicine, and basic science relevant to clinical medicine.||Embase is a unique medical literature database. With Emtree indexing of full-text content and dedicated search terms, it is possible to find all relevant and current results. This includes information that may not be uncovered in other databases.||Elsevier|
|Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)||CINAHL is an index of journal articles and is of use to nurses, other medical personnel, social workers, counselors, and physical therapists.||CINAHL includes 1,315 journals with searchable cited references, including publications from several of the prominent nursing associations and from many publishers.||EBSCO|
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; ARS = Agricultural Research Service; CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CINAHL = Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; DRIs = Dietary Reference Intakes; FNDDS = U.S. Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies; HHS = U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; NASEM = National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; NCHS = National Center for Health Statistics; NCBI = National Center for Biotechnology Information; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NIH = National Institutes of Health; NIS = U.S. National Immunization Surveys; NLM = National Library of Medicine; PRAMS = Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; SAMHSA = Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; UL = Tolerable Upper Level Intake; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture; WWEIA = What We Eat In America.
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