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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26690.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity Linda Casola, Rapporteur Committee on Population Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Proceedings of a Workshop Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the National Institutes of Health (Award # HSN263201800029I-75N98021F00013). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26690 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2022). Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https:// doi.org/10.17226/26690. Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs 

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs 

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs 

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON STRUCTURAL RACISM AND RIGOROUS MODELS OF SOCIAL INEQUITY HEDWIG (HEDY) LEE (Chair), Duke University RENÉ D. FLORES, University of Chicago MARGARET T. HICKEN, University of Michigan TREVON D. LOGAN, The Ohio State University JENNIFER J. MANLY, Columbia University DAVID T. TAKEUCHI, University of Washington MALAY K. MAJMUNDAR, Study Director JOSHUA LANG, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs  v

COMMITTEE ON POPULATION ANNE R. PEBLEY (Chair), University of California, Los Angeles EMILY M. AGREE, The Johns Hopkins University DEBORAH BALK, City University of New York ANN K. BLANC, The Population Council (retired) COURTNEY C. COILE, Wellesley College SONALDE DESAI, University of Maryland DANA A. GLEI, Georgetown University ROBERT A. HUMMER, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill HEDWIG (HEDY) LEE, Duke University TREVON D. LOGAN, The Ohio State University JENNIFER J. MANLY, Columbia University JENNA NOBLES, University of Wisconsin–Madison FERNANDO RIOSMENA, University of Colorado Boulder DAVID T. TAKEUCHI, University of Washington MALAY K. MAJMUNDAR, Director Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs  vi

Acknowledgments This document summarizes the discussions and presentations at the Workshop on Structural Racism and Rigorous Models of Social Inequity. Held as a hybrid meeting in Washington, DC, on May 16–17, 2022, the workshop was convened by the Committee on Population of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and it was sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. This proceedings has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop. The views contained in the proceedings are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Hedwig Lee, Duke University. We also thank staff reader Kelly L. Robbins for reading and providing helpful comments on the proceedings manuscript. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Mark D. Hayward, University of Texas at Austin. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. Malay K. Majmundar, Director Committee on Population Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs  vii

Contents INTRODUCTION I-1 Foundation of the Workshop Organization of this Proceedings 1 SETTING THE FOUNDATION: STUDYING RACE AND STRUCTURAL RACISM RESPONSIBLY 1-1 Race, Race-Making, and the Use of Race to Control Populations - Use of Narrative and Metaphor - How Race is Made and Remade Over Time Embracing the Complexity of Structural Racism and Understanding the Interlocking Features of Cultural and Structural Racism - The Racialized Social System - Defining and Measuring Cultural and Structural Racism Reflections and Discussion 2 ASSESSING THE LANDSCAPE: THE MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF STRUCTURAL RACISM 2-1 Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Approaches Quantitative Historical Data Data for Understudied Populations Machine Learning Reflections and Discussion Mixed Methods Approaches Place-Based Approaches Novel Approaches to Survey Data Novel Approaches to Administrative and Crowd-Sourced Data Reflections and Discussion 3 MOVING FORWARD: DATA INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS IN HARNESSING DATA FOR RESEARCH IN STRUCTURAL RACISM 3-1 Harnessing Data for Research on Structural Racism A Research Opportunity: A New Cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Strengthening Infrastructure for Research on Structural Racism and Aging Insights from the Center for Antiracism Research for Health Equity Reflections and Discussion 4 KEY TAKEAWAYS 4-1 REFERENCES R-1 Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs  viii

APPENDIXES A WORKSHOP AGENDA A-1 B BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION FOR WORKSHOP PRESENTERS AND DISCUSSANTS B-1 Prepublication copy – uncorrected proofs  ix

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Structural racism refers to the public and private policies, institutional practices, norms, and cultural representations that inherently create unequal freedom, opportunity, value, resources, advantage, restrictions, constraints, or disadvantage for individuals and populations according to their race and ethnicity both across the life course and between generations. Developing a research agenda on structural racism includes consideration of the historical and contemporary policies and other structural factors that explicitly or implicitly affect the health and well-being of individuals, families, and communities, as well as strategies to measure those factors.

The Committee on Population of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a 2-day public workshop on May 16-17, 2022, to identify and discuss the mechanisms through which structural racism operates, with a particular emphasis on health and well-being; to develop an agenda for future research and data collection on structural racism; and to strengthen the evidence base for policy making. Speaker presentations and workshop discussions provided insights into known sources of structural racism and rigorous models of health inequity, revealed novel sources and approaches informed by other disciplines and related fields, and highlighted key research and data priorities for future work on structural racism and health inequity.

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