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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
×
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34 Aaronson, D., J. Faber, D. Hartley, B. Mazumder, and P. Sharkey. 2021. The Long-Run Effects of the 1930s HOLC ‘Redlining’ Maps on Place-Based Measures of Economic Opportunity and Socioeconomic Success. Regional Science and Urban Economics 86 (January): 103622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2020.103622. Accuardi, Z. 2019. Derailed: How Nashville’s Ambitious Transit Plan Crashed at the Polls—And What Other Cities Can Learn from It. Transit Center. New York: Transit Center. https://transitcenter.org/wp-content/ uploads/2020/01/nashville_report_8x10_RGB_interactive.pdf. Alexander, M. 2020. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. Anthony, C. 2017. The Earth, the City, and the Hidden Narrative of Race. New York: New Village Press. Archer, D. 2020. “White Men’s Roads Through Black Men’s Homes”: Advancing Racial Equity Through Highway Reconstruction. Vanderbilt Law Review 73 (5): 1259–1330. Archer, D. 2021. Transportation Policy and the Underdevelopment of Black Communities. SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3797364. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract= 3797364. Armenta, I. 2020. Walk the Talk, Talk the Walk—Purplelining: Strategies That Heal. Vol. YouTube. Oregon Walks. Attoh, K. 2019. Rights in Transit: Public Transportation and the Right to the City in California’s East Bay. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Avila, E. 2014. The Folklore of the Freeway. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Baradaran, M. 2019. The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap, reprint ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press. Barajas, J. M. 2021. Biking Where Black: Connecting Transportation Planning and Infrastructure to Dispropor- tionate Policing. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 99 (October): 103027. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.103027. Bardaka, E., M. S. Delgado, and R. J.G.M. Florax. 2018. Causal Identification of Transit-Induced Gentrification and Spatial Spillover Effects: The Case of the Denver Light Rail. Journal of Transport Geography 71 (July): 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.06.025. Bay, M. 2021. Traveling Black: A Story of Race and Resistance. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Beck, B. 2020. Policing Gentrification: Stops and Low-Level Arrests during Demographic Change and Real Estate Reinvestment. City and Community 19 (1): 245–272. Benjamin, R. 2009. Searching for Whitopia: An Improbable Journey to the Heart of White America. New York: Hachette Books. Biles, R., R. A. Mohl, and M. H. Rose. 2014. Revisiting the Urban Interstates: Politics, Policy, and Culture since World War II. Journal of Urban History 40 (5): 827–830. https://doi.org/10.1177/0096144214533293. Bliss, L. 2020. Public Transit Faces Its Own Police Reckoning. Citylab, June 26, 2020. https://www.bloomberg. com/news/features/2020-06-26/how-public-transit-got-overpoliced-and-underfunded. Bliss, L. 2021. ‘Slow Streets’ Disrupted City Planning. What Comes Next? Citylab, January 6, 2021. https://www. bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-06/the-swift-disruptive-rise-of-slow-streets. Booker, B. 2020. California District Attorney Says Probe of Oscar Grant Killing Will Be Reopened. National Public Radio, December 6, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/live-updates-protests-for-racial-justice/2020/10/06/920895464/ california-district-attorney-says-probe-of-oscar-grant-killing-will-be-reopened. Bowen, A. 2016. Measure A Tax Increase Divides Conservatives, Liberals Alike. KPBS Public Media. October 6, 2016. https://www.kpbs.org/news/2016/oct/06/measure-tax-increase-divides-conservatives-and-lib/. Brinkman, J., and J. Lin. 2019. Freeway Revolts! Working Paper WP 19–29. Research Department. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. https://doi.org/10.21799/frbp.wp.2019.29. Brown, C. Arrested Mobility Podcast Series. https://arrestedmobility.com/. References and Bibliography

References and Bibliography 35   Brown, J. R., E. A. Morris, and B. D. Taylor. 2009. Planning for Cars in Cities: Planners, Engineers, and Free- ways in the 20th Century. Journal of the American Planning Association 75 (2): 161–77. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/01944360802640016. Bull, M., and A. Gross. 2018. Housing in America: An Introduction. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/ 10.4324/9781315309132. Bullard, R. D. 2000. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Burby, R. J. 1999. Heavy Industry, People, and Planners: New Insights on an Old Issue. Journal of Planning Educa- tion and Research 19 (1): 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X9901900102. California African American Museum. 2018. #blackhistory: On April 17, 1863, Charlotte L. 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36 Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Gilroy, P. 1993. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-Consciousness. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Glave, D. 2010. Rooted in the Earth: Reclaiming the African American Environmental Heritage. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press. Goldman, T. 2007. Transportation Tax Ballot Initiatives as Regional Planning Processes. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1997, pp. 9–16. https://doi.org/10.3141/ 1997-02. Goldman, T., and M. Wachs. 2003. A Quiet Revolution in Transportation Finance: The Rise of Local Option Transportation Taxes. Transportation Quarterly 57 (1): 19–32. Golub, A., R. A. Marcantonio, and T. W. Sanchez. 2013. Race, Space, and Struggles for Mobility: Transportation Impacts on African Americans in Oakland and the East Bay. Urban Geography 34 (5): 699–728. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/02723638.2013.778598. Gomez, A. M., F. Shafiei, and G. S. Johnson. 2011. 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References and Bibliography 37   Howell, A., K. M. Currans, S. Gehrke, G. Norton, and K. J. Clifton. 2018. Transportation Impacts of Affordable Housing. Journal of Transport and Land Use 11, No. 1: 103–118. Hswen, Y., Q. Qin, D. R. Williams, K. Viswanath, J. S. Brownstein, and S. V. Subramanian. 2020. The Relationship between Jim Crow Laws and Social Capital from 1997–2014: A 3-Level Multilevel Hierarchical Analysis across Time, County and State. Social Science and Medicine 262 (October): 113142. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.socscimed.2020.113142. Hughes, J. E., D. Kaffine, and L. Kaffine. 2022. Decline in Traffic Congestion Increased Crash Severity in the Wake of COVID-19. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/03611981221103239. Hutto, J. W., and R. D. Green. 2016. Social Movements Against Racist Police Brutality and Department of Justice Intervention in Prince George’s County, Maryland. Journal of Urban Health 93 (S1): 89–121. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11524-015-0013-x. Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and D. L. Sjoquist. 1998. The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: A Review of Recent Studies and Their Implications for Welfare Reform. Housing Policy Debate 9 (4): 849–892. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10511482.1998.9521321. Immergluck, D. 2011. Foreclosed: High-Risk Lending, Deregulation, and the Undermining of America’s Mortgage Market, ill. ed. Cornell University Press. ITS International. 2020. Destiny Thomas on Transit’s Racist Legacy. https://www.itsinternational.com/its17/feature/ destiny-thomas-transits-racist-legacy. Accessed 23 March 2022. Jackson, K. T. 1987. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Jacobs, E. 2016. Let the People Ride: Bringing Buses to Beavercreek and Revitalizing Civil Rights Enforcement. Ohio Lawyer 30 (2): 6–9. Johnson, L. T., and E. J. Patterson. 2022. 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Civil Rights Guidance and Equity Analysis Methods for Regional Transpor- tation Plans: A Critical Review of Literature and Practice. Journal of Transport Geography 33 (December): 126–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.09.017. Karner, A. 2016. Planning for Transportation Equity in Small Regions: Towards Meaningful Performance Assess- ment. Transport Policy 52: 46–54. Karner, A., A. Golub, K. Martens, and G. Robinson. 2018a. Transportation and Environmental Justice: History and Emerging Practice. In The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice, edited by R. Holifield, J. Chakraborty, and G. Walker, 400–411. New York: Routledge. Karner, A., and R. A. Marcantonio. 2018b. Achieving Transportation Equity: Meaningful Public Involvement to Meet the Needs of Underserved Communities. Public Works Management and Policy 23 (2): 105–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X17738792. Karner, A., and R. 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38 Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Kristo, J. 2010. Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. Language Arts 88, No. 2: 173. Kruse, K. M. 2007. White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism. Princeton University Press. Lang, R. E., and R. R. Sohmer. 2000. Legacy of the Housing Act of 1949: The Past, Present, and Future of Fed- eral Housing and Urban Policy. Housing Policy Debate 11 (2): 291–298. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482. 2000.9521369. Lauranzano, P. n.d. Resistance to the Segregation of Public Transportation in the Early 1840’s. https://primaryresearch. org/resistance-to-the-segregation-of-public-transportation-in-the-early-1840s/. Lewis, T. 2013. Divided Highways: Building the Interstate Highways, Transforming American Life. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Liao, Y., J. Gil, R. H. M. Pereira, S. Yeh, and V. Verendel. 2020. Disparities in Travel Times between Car and Transit: Spatiotemporal Patterns in Cities. Scientific Reports 10 (1): 4056. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61077-0. Light, A., and A. De-Shalit, eds. 2003. Moral and Political Reasoning in Environmental Practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Lindblom, M. 2020. Seattle Sales Tax to Fund Transit Wins Overwhelmingly in 2020 Election Results. Seattle Times. November 3, 2020. https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/seattle-proposition-1-transit- sales-tax-election-results/. Lipsitz, G. 2006. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Phila- delphia, Penn.: Temple University Press. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/utxa/detail.action?docID= 298893. LoBasso, R. 2020. We Are Dropping Police Enforcement from Vision Zero. Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia. https://bicyclecoalition.org/we-are-dropping-police-enforcement-from-vision-zero/. Lowe, K. 2014. Bypassing Equity? Transit Investment and Regional Transportation Planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research 34 (1): 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456x13519474. Lubitow, A., M. J. Abelson, and E. Carpenter. 2020. Transforming Mobility Justice: Gendered Harassment and Violence on Transit. Journal of Transport Geography 82 (January): 102601. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jtrangeo.2019.102601. Maantay, J. 2007. Asthma and Air Pollution in the Bronx: Methodological and Data Considerations in Using GIS for Environmental Justice and Health Research. Health and Place 13 (1): 32–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.healthplace.2005.09.009. Mack, T. 2014. The Mad and the Bad: The Lethal Use of Force against Mad People by Toronto Police. Critical Dis- ability Discourses/Discours Critiques Dans Le Champ Du Handicap, 6. https://cdd.journals.yorku.ca/index. php/cdd/article/view/39664. Marcantonio, R., and G. Mayer. 2010. Civil Rights Coalition Challenges Unfair Transit Project. Race, Poverty, and the Environment, 34–36. Martens, K., A. Golub, and G. Robinson. 2012. A Justice-Theoretic Approach to the Distribution of Trans- portation Benefits: Implications for Transportation Planning Practice in the United States. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 46 (4): 684–695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2012.01.004. Massey, D. S., G. A. Condran, and N. A. Denton. 1987. The Effect of Residential Segregation on Black Social and Economic Well-Being. Social Forces 66 (1): 29–56. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/66.1.29. Massey, D. S., and N. A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. McCargo, A., and J. H. Choi. 2020. Closing the Gaps: Building Black Wealth through Homeownership. Urban Institute. November 23, 2020. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/closing-gaps-building-black- wealth-through-homeownership. McCarty, M. 2014. Introduction to Public Housing. 7–5700. 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References and Bibliography 39   Mohl, R. A. 2004. Stop the Road: Freeway Revolts in American Cities. Journal of Urban History 30 (5): 674–706. https://doi.org/10.1177/0096144204265180. Monahan, R. 2020. After a Bitter Campaign, Metro Transportation Measure Fails. Willamette Week. November 3, 2020. https://www.wweek.com/news/state/2020/11/03/after-a-bitter-campaign-metro-transportation- measure-fails/. Moore, N. Y. 2016. The South Side: A Portrait of Chicago and American Segregation. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Morello-Frosch, R., M. Pastor, and J. Sadd. 2001. Environmental Justice and Southern California’s “Riskscape” The Distribution of Air Toxics Exposures and Health Risks among Diverse Communities. Urban Affairs Review 36 (4): 551–578. Morgan, G. A. 1923. Traffic Signal. U.S. Patent Office US1475024A, filed November 20, 1923, and issued November 20, 1923. Nall, C. 2015. The Political Consequences of Spatial Policies: How Interstate Highways Facilitated Geographic Polarization. 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40 Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Rose, M. H., and R. A. Mohl. 2012. Interstate: Highway Politics and Policy Since 1939. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Rothstein, R. 2018. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. 1st ed. New York: Liveright. Rowangould, G. M. 2013. A Census of the US Near-Roadway Population: Public Health and Environmental Justice Considerations. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 25 (December): 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2013.08.003. Rutland, T. 2018. Displacing Blackness: Planning, Power, and Race in Twentieth-Century Halifax. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press. Ryan, P. H., G. LeMasters, J. Biagini, D. Bernstein, S. A. Grinshpun, R. Shukla, K. Wilson, M. Villareal, J. Burkle, and J. Lockey. 2005. Is It Traffic Type, Volume, or Distance? Wheezing in Infants Living Near Truck and Bus Traffic. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 116 (2): 279–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jaci.2005.05.014. Sanchez, T. 2006. An Inherent Bias? Geographic and Racial-Ethnic Patterns of Metropolitan Planning Organiza- tion Boards. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. Sanchez, T. W., M. Brenman, J. S. Ma, and R. H. Stolz. 2017. The Right to Transportation: Moving to Equity. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351179607. Sanchez, T. W., S. Rich, and J. S. Ma. 2003. Moving to Equity: Addressing Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies on Minorities. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Civil Rights Project. https://civilrightsproject. ucla.edu/research/metro-and-regional-inequalities/transportation/moving-to-equity-addressing-inequitable- effects-of-transportation-policies-on-minorities/sanchez-moving-to-equity-transportation-policies.pdf. Sanchez, T. W., R. Stolz, and J. S. Ma. 2004. Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies on Minorities. Trans- portation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1885 (1): 104–110. https:// doi.org/10.3141/1885-15. Sandoval, G. F. 2018. Planning the Barrio: Ethnic Identity and Struggles over Transit-Oriented, Development- Induced Gentrification. Journal of Planning Education and Research, August, 0739456X18793714. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0739456X18793714. Sayyadi, R., and A. Awasthi. 2018. A Simulation-Based Optimisation Approach for Identifying Key Determi- nants for Sustainable Transportation Planning. International Journal of Systems Science: Operations and Logistics 5, No. 2. 2018: 161–174. Schlosberg, D. 2004. Reconceiving Environmental Justice: Global Movements and Political Theories. Environ- mental Politics 13 (3): 517–540. https://doi.org/10.1080/0964401042000229025. Schmitt, A. 2013. Raquel Nelson Finally Cleared of Homicide Charges, Pleads to Jaywalking. Streetsblog USA. June 14, 2013. https://usa.streetsblog.org/2013/06/14/raquel-nelson-finally-cleared-of-homicide-charges- pleads-to-jaywalking/. Schweitzer, L., and A. Valenzuela. 2004. Environmental Injustice and Transportation: The Claims and the Evi- dence. Journal of Planning Literature 18 (4): 383–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412204262958. Sciara, G.-C. 2017. Metropolitan Transportation Planning: Lessons from the Past, Institutions for the Future. Journal of the American Planning Association 83 (3): 262–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2017. 1322526. Seely, B. E. 1987. Building the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers. Philadelphia, Penn.: Temple University Press. Self, R. O. 2005. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton University Press. Sharpe, C. 2016. In the Wake: On Blackness and Being. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Sheller, M. 2018. Mobility Justice: The Politics of Movement in an Age of Extremes. London; Brooklyn, NY: Verso. Simplican, S. C. 2021. Politicizing Disability in Political Science, COVID-19, and Police Violence. Politics, Groups, and Identities 9 (2): 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2020.1864652. Smith, J. 2016. County Transportation Measure Fails to Gain Two-Thirds Threshold. San Diego Union-Tribune. November  9, 2016. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/elections/sd-me-election-transporta- tion-20161106-story.html. Snyder, T. 2011. The Streets and the Courts Failed Raquel Nelson. Can Advocacy Save Her? Streetsblog USA. July 22, 2011. https://usa.streetsblog.org/2011/07/22/the-streets-and-the-courts-failed-raquel-nelson-can- advocacy-save-her/. Spieler, C. 2020. Racism Has Shaped Public Transit, and It’s Riddled with Inequities. Kinder Institute for Urban Research, No. Online Discussion Forum/Blogs. https://kinder.rice.edu/urbanedge/2020/08/24/transportation- racism-has-shaped-public-transit-america-inequalities. Stanton, R. 2016. 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References and Bibliography 41   Sze, J., and J. K. London. 2008. Environmental Justice at the Crossroads. Sociology Compass 2 (4): 1331–1354. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00131.x. Taylor, B. D., and P. M. Ong. 1995. Spatial Mismatch or Automobile Mismatch? An Examination of Race, Residence and Commuting in US Metropolitan Areas. Urban Studies 32 (9): 1453–1473. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00420989550012348. Taylor, K.-Y. 2019. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeowner- ship. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/utxa/detail. action?docID=5889896. Taylor, S. R. 2018. The Body Is Not an Apology: The Power of Radical Self-Love. Oakland, Calif.: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Thomas, D. 2020. ‘Safe Streets’ Are Not Safe for Black Lives. Citylab. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/ articles/2020-06-08/-safe-streets-are-not-safe-for-black-lives. Thomas, D. 2021. Here to Stay: A Policy-Based Blueprint for Displacement Avoidance in Fresno. https://www. transformfresno.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/transform-fresno-here-to-stay-report-english.pdf. [Accessed 23 March 2022]. Thomas, J. M. 1994. Planning History and the Black Urban Experience: Linkages and Contemporary Implications. Journal of Planning Education and Research 14 (1): 1–11. Thomas, J. M. 1997. Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Timmons Roberts, J., D. Pellow, and P. Mohai. 2018. Environmental Justice. In Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges (M. Boström and D. J. Davidson, eds.), 233–255. Palgrave Studies in Environmental Sociology and Policy. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76415-3_11. Transportation for America. 2014. The Innovative MPO: Smart Planning, Strong Communities: A Guidebook for Metropolitan Transportation Planning. Washington, DC. Tuohy, J. 2016. Supporters Declare Victory for Mass Transit Tax Hike in Marion County. Indianapolis Star. November  8, 2016. https://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2016/11/08/marion-county-voters- consider-tax-hike-mass-transit/93284726/. United States Senate. n.d. The Kate Brown Story. https://www.senate.gov/about/officers-staff/committee-office- staff/kate-brown-story.htm. U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Social Explorer. 2010. https://www.socialexplorer.com/tables/C2010. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 1983. Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities. RCED-83-168. Washington, DC. https://www. gao.gov/products/rced-83-168. Van Eyken, C., S. Higashide, T. Pera, K. Singla, and N. Rivera. 2021. Safety for All. Transit Center. New York: Transit Center. https://transitcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/SafetyForAll.pdf. Verlinghieri, E. 2020. Learning from the Grassroots: A Resourcefulness-Based Worldview for Transport Planning. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. Vol. 133(C), pp. 364–377. Verma, P. 2020. ‘We’re Desperate’: Transit Cuts Felt Deepest in Low-Income Areas. New York Times (Online), August 15, 2020. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2434230412. Ward, B., ed. 2000. Proceedings of Symposium IV on African-American Mobility Issues. In Forging the Dream. Wyndham Harbour Island Hotel Tampa, Fla.: Center for Urban Transportation Research. https://www.cutr. usf.edu/oldpubs/AAMS_IV_Proceedings.PDF. Ware, L. 2021. Plessy’s Legacy: The Government’s Role in the Development and Perpetuation of Segregated Neighborhoods. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 7 (1): 92–109. https:// doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2021.7.1.06. Warren, R. P. 2014. Who Speaks for the Negro? New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Washington, B. T. 1907. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co. Waters, C. 2017. The Real Reason Streetcars Are Making a Comeback. Vox, August 9, 2017. https://www.vox.com/ videos/2017/8/9/16114432/streetcars-economic-development-bad-transit. Weiner, E. 2008. Urban Transportation Planning in the United States: History, Policy, and Practice. New York: Springer. Weingroff, R. 1996. Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956: Creating the Interstate System. Public Roads, Summer 1996. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/96summer/p96su10.cfm. Wells, M. 2017. How the ‘90s Changed the Future of Law Enforcement. Police1, September 28, 2017. https:// www.police1.com/crime-prevention/articles/how-the-90s-changed-the-future-of-law-enforcement- YR02YdrfoAipY6W2/. Whittemore, A. H. 2013. How the Federal Government Zoned America: The Federal Housing Administration and Zoning. Journal of Urban History 39 (4): 620–642. https://doi.org/10.1177/0096144212470245. Wilson, K. 2020. Portland Asks: Should Corporations Pay for Transit? Streetsblog USA (blog). October 8, 2020. https://usa.streetsblog.org/2020/10/08/portland-asks-should-corporations-pay-for-transit/.

42 Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Wilson, W. J. 1990. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. University of Chicago Press. Witsil, F., and E. D. Lawrence. 2016. RTA Millage Rejected by Metro Detroit Voters. Detroit Free Press. November 9, 2016. https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2016/11/09/rta-regional-transit-authority- millage/93535602/. Yen, H., and C. Weber. 2021. Public Transit Hopes to Win Back Riders after Crushing Year. Tampa Bay Times, May 2, 2021. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2521148005. Yinger, J. 1998. Evidence on Discrimination in Consumer Markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12 (2): 23–40. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.12.2.23. Yusoff, K. 2018. A Billion Black Anthropocenes or None. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Zuk, M., A. H. Bierbaum, K. Chapple, K. Gorska, and A. Loukaitou-Sideris. 2018. Gentrification, Displacement, and the Role of Public Investment. Journal of Planning Literature 33 (1): 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0885412217716439.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

- 44 - Spieler, Christof. 2020. “Racism Has Shaped Public Transit, and It’s Riddled with Inequities.” Kinder Institute for Urban Research, no. Online Discussion Forum/Blogs. https://kinder.rice.edu/urbanedge/2020/08/24/transportation-racism-has-shaped-public-transit- america-inequalities. Stanton, Ryan. 2016. “Regional Transit Tax Proposal Defeated in Southeast Michigan.” Mlive. November 9, 2016. https://www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/2016/11/rta_proposal_results.html. Starr, Stephen. 2021. “Over-The-Rhine: Is This a Model for Urban Renewal or a Warning Sign?” BBC, 2021. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-56048812. Sze, Julie, and Jonathan K. London. 2008. “Environmental Justice at the Crossroads.” Sociology Compass 2 (4): 1331–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00131.x. Taylor, Brian D., and Paul M. Ong. 1995. “Spatial Mismatch or Automobile Mismatch? An Examination of Race, Residence and Commuting in US Metropolitan Areas.” Urban Studies 32 (9): 1453–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420989550012348. Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. 2019. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/utxa/detail.action?docID=5889896. Thomas, Destiny. 2020. “‘Safe Streets’ Are Not Safe for Black Lives.” Citylab, 2020. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-06-08/-safe-streets-are-not-safe-for-black-lives. Thomas, Destiny. 2021. Here to Stay: A Policy-Based Blueprint for Displacement Avoidance in Fresno. [online] Fresno, CA. Available at: <https://www.transformfresno.com/wp- content/uploads/2021/06/transform-fresno-here-to-stay-report-english.pdf> [Accessed 23 March 2022]. Timmons Roberts, J., David Pellow, and Paul Mohai. 2018. “Environmental Justice.” In Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges, edited by Magnus Boström and Debra J. Davidson, 233–55. Palgrave Studies in Environmental Sociology and Policy. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76415-3_11. Transportation for America. 2014. “The Innovative MPO: Smart Planning, Strong Communities: A Guidebook for Metropolitan Transportation Planning.” Washington, DC. Tuohy, John. 2016. “Supporters Declare Victory for Mass Transit Tax Hike in Marion County.” The Indianapolis Star. November 8, 2016. https://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2016/11/08/marion-county-voters-consider-tax- hike-mass-transit/93284726/. United States Senate. n.d. “The Kate Brown Story.” n.d. https://www.senate.gov/about/officers- staff/committee-office-staff/kate-brown-story.htm. U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. “Social Explorer.” Social Explorer. 2010. https://www.socialexplorer.com/tables/C2010. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 1983. “Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities.” RCED-83-168. Washington, DC. https://www.gao.gov/products/rced-83-168. Verlinghieri, Ersilia. 2019. “Learning from the Grassroots: A Resourcefulness-Based Worldview for Transport Planning.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, August. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2019.07.001. Verma, Pranshu. 2020. “‘We’re Desperate’: Transit Cuts Felt Deepest in Low-Income Areas.” New York Times (Online), August 15, 2020. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2434230412. Ward, Beverly, ed. 2000. “Proceedings of Symposium IV on African-American Mobility Issues.” In Forging the Dream. Wyndham Harbour Island Hotel Tampa, Florida: Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)). https://www.cutr.usf.edu/oldpubs/AAMS_IV_Proceedings.PDF. Ware, Leland. 2021. “Plessy’s Legacy: The Government’s Role in the Development and Perpetuation of Segregated Neighborhoods.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 7 (1): 92–109. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2021.7.1.06.

Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts Get This Book
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An overall objective of the transit community is to help develop an enhanced and more inclusive approach to public transportation planning and decision making. Public transportation planners have a critical role in addressing and correcting many of the problems caused by a 20th- and 21st-century transportation sector that severely impacted and, in some cases, destroyed Black communities in the building of today’s transportation systems and network.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 236: Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts reviews the literature and summarizes common practices of the 20th and 21st centuries that had significant economic, health, and social impacts, and the racial gaps that emerged as a result of transportation inequities, deliberate actions, policies, and projects.

The objective of Volume 1 is to document the extent of the damage that has been done to Black communities as a result of transportation decisions and actions. Volume 2 will demonstrate a methodology to estimate how much it would cost to redress those damages. Volumes 3 and 4 will provide tools for elected and appointed officials and other stakeholder groups to engage effectively in the arena of transportation policy, planning, and funding at all levels of government.

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