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Suggested Citation:"DISEASES AND CONDITIONS." National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Transforming Human Health: Celebrating 50 Years of Discovery and Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26722.
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Colored 3D computed tomography (CT) scan of a stent (green mesh tube at left) that has been implanted in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery (Science Photo Library©)
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A recipient of a COVID-19 vaccination (iStock©)

02/

DISEASES AND CONDITIONS

“Science has stepped up to provide humankind with truly hopeful gifts: COVID-19 vaccines. It’s hard to put into words just how remarkable these accomplishments are in the history of science.”

—Francis S. Collins, Former Director of the National Institutes of Health and NAM/NAS Member

Suggested Citation:"DISEASES AND CONDITIONS." National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Transforming Human Health: Celebrating 50 Years of Discovery and Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26722.
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Colored scanning electron micrograph of an activated platelet or thrombocyte (Science Photo Library©)

Cardiovascular Disease

Defining Cardiovascular Risk Factors

The Discovery of Lifesaving Drugs

Cholesterol and Heart Disease

Cardiac Imaging

Balloons to Expand Arteries

Scaffolding for Cardiac Vessels

The Discovery of PCSK9 Inhibitors

Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease

The Hereditary Risk of Stroke

Precision Medicine for Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Regeneration

HIV and AIDS

An Emergent Epidemic

Settling on a Name

Identifying the Virus

Mobilizing a Response

Expanding Access: Treatments and Regulations

Federal Support

Nearly Two Decades Later, Some Victories, and Significant Setbacks

Coordinating Efforts to Control the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

Treatments Offer Hope

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Cancers

Genetic Insights into the Mechanisms of Cancers

Support for Cancer Research

Imaging Cancerous Tumors

The First Targeted Cancer Therapy

Discovery of the HER2 Breast Cancer Gene

Genes Involved in Cancers

Increased Survival of Prostate Cancer Patients

Mounting an Immune Response to Cancer

Reducing the Toll of Cancer

Mental Health

Grassroots Support for Mental Health

Passage of the Mental Health Systems Act

Understanding Schizophrenia Through Brain Imaging

Antidepressant Drug Advances

The Benefits of Family Psychoeducation

Specialty Care for Psychosis

Cognitive Therapy for Depression and Anxiety

Accelerating Mental Health Care and Research

Mental Health in the Army

Countering Clinician Burnout

Other Non-Communicable Diseases

Improving Insulin Safety and Access

Progress in Treating Obstructive Lung Disease

Understanding the Lasting Effects of Trauma

Increasing Kidney Patients’ Opportunities to Remain Healthy

Asthma Over the Years

Preventing and Reducing Tobacco Use

Bringing the Attention of the World to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Addressing Disease Risk Around the Globe

Adjusting Modifiable Behaviors to Address Global Death Inequities

Infectious Diseases

Identification of the Ebola Virus

World Declared Free from Smallpox

Widespread Measles Vaccination

The Largest Waterborne Outbreak in American History

Progress Toward Eliminating River Blindness

Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Eliminating Rubella

A Global Push to Eradicate Tuberculosis

Whooping Cough Vaccination for Pregnant Women

Stemming a Major Ebola Outbreak

Dealing with a Modern Pandemic

Suggested Citation:"DISEASES AND CONDITIONS." National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Transforming Human Health: Celebrating 50 Years of Discovery and Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26722.
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Page 30
Suggested Citation:"DISEASES AND CONDITIONS." National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Transforming Human Health: Celebrating 50 Years of Discovery and Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26722.
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Page 31
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The past half-century has been an era of astonishing progress for biomedical science, health, and health care in the United States and worldwide. This volume, commissioned to mark the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine [IOM]), tells the story of that progress across five major fields: biomedical science and technology, diseases and conditions, public health, U.S. health care, and global health. Since the NAM was founded in 1970, the nation and the world have seen multitudes of remarkable "firsts"—including the dawn of targeted gene therapies, the near eradication of polio, revolutionary treatments for cancers and cardiovascular disease, and many more. NAM members were the architects of many of these breakthroughs, alongside countless dedicated scientists, clinicians, educators, and public health leaders worldwide. The milestones chronicled in this volume are a testament to their remarkable work, which has saved and improved innumerable lives.

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