National Academies Press: OpenBook

Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science (2023)

Chapter: 4 Human Capacity

« Previous: 3 Opportunities and Grand Challenges
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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4
Human Capacity

A variety of career pathways and a broadly educated technical and scientific workforce is essential to advancing science, and its contributions to the nation and the world at large. Training, recruiting, and retaining a strong and diverse high energy density (HED) science workforce offers the key to developing the field, engaging universities and other educational institutions, national laboratories, and industry.

The objective is to sustain the discipline’s strongest asset, its people. Now is therefore a crucial time to redouble focus on building excellence through diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEIA) across the scientific research enterprise.

The committee considered the current state of the HED science workforce primarily through engagement with researchers in the field. This was accomplished through virtual town halls and facility site visits. (See sections “Site Visits of High Energy Density Science National Laboratories,” “Additional Input-Gathering Sessions,” and “Requests Sent to National Laboratories” in Appendixes E and F.) Additionally, the committee’s leading recommendation on the topic of HED science career pathways is at the core of the message developed throughout this chapter:

Leading Recommendation: To enhance career pathways for high energy density science research at NNSA facilities, the NNSA should (1) broaden its current programs for achieving excellence through diversity, equity, and inclusion while improving workplace climate and (2) develop a strategic plan for balancing security and proliferation concerns with openness and accessibility, such as for collaborators internationally, and with academia and the private sector.

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

UNIVERSITIES AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Current State of Education and Health of Workforce

Heterogeneous Education and Training

Many students who pursue research in HED science are introduced to the field through a connection with one of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories, either through a graduate or undergraduate program, or through a collaboration with their faculty advisor. In addition to direct engagement with the national laboratories and through faculty advisors, current outreach efforts could be fruitfully expanded, as HED science is an emerging field of study and offers exciting career prospects.

Students entering HED science have different backgrounds and majors—from aerospace, electrical engineering, and nuclear engineering to astrophysics, chemistry, materials science, and physics (see Box 4-1). One might even say that researchers come together from their respective fields and learn HED science on the job. While this provides an intellectually diverse workforce, the field also benefits from explicit teaching of cross-disciplinary topics in HED science. Many campuses, including those designated as minority-serving institutions (MSIs), do not have adequate resources for teaching classes relevant to HED science.

Indeed, few options often exist for HED coursework, and faculty are spread out across many departments. Students can still be educated in HED science through summer schools (e.g., those offered by the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Michigan), conferences sponsored by the American Physical Society (APS) and other professional societies, user-group meetings, and collaborations with NNSA laboratory scientists.

Focus on Programmatic Work

Once they are pursuing research in HED science, students perceive it as an exciting field with broad possibilities, due to scientific novelty, Grand Challenges, and the ability to work with teams of experimentalists, theoreticians, and computer scientists. While they are enthusiastic about pursuing a career at NNSA laboratories, students may be less attracted by programmatic work than by basic science and associated applications, such as astrophysics, materials chemistry, or fusion energy.

Job Security

Job security, especially for international students, is also a concern, as hiring into the national laboratories may be explicitly restricted. Moreover, some early

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

career researchers are concerned that working at NNSA laboratories will not provide them with sufficient time to perform and publish open research with rigorous peer review.

Other Barriers for Student and Postdoctoral Researchers

Barriers do exist to the academic development of students and postdoctoral researchers within NNSA facilities, including through external collaborations. Because of the conservative approach taken with regard to programmatic research, numerous impediments to sharing and presenting data exist even in fundamental research areas. For example, data sets can be difficult to share with university and outside collaborators. Many students report having difficulties or being unable to attend scientific conferences, due to delays and other obstacles in their presentations or publications being approved for use outside the national laboratories. Academic partnerships offer a primary recruitment mechanism for NNSA’s workforce, yet these restrictions can create impediments.

Finding: Although young scholars, from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers to early-career staff, remain interested in NNSA facilities and

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

resources and are highly motivated to pursue careers in HED science, a number of factors present barriers to recruitment or retention: cost of living; lack of transparency over job requirements and career prospects; restrictions on scientific collaborations; and increased competition from industry, compounded by alternative options for careers, among others.

Conclusion: Postdoctoral and similar early-career positions offer a critical source of HED scientists for NNSA laboratories and academia and deserve attention in order to enhance their effectiveness as a recruitment tool for top talent.

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Limitations

As in other areas of research, diversity of scientific ideas and disciplines are essential to maximizing the impact of HED science research. Like many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the HED science community does not match the demographic diversity to which it aspires, whether with respect to gender, race, ethnicity, or other underrepresented identities. This lack of representation is self-reinforcing, as students and early career researchers who feel unwelcome tend to leave the field; additionally, skilled technicians and support personnel—who understand how to make facilities operateoften wear out under a lack of opportunity. Most of the NNSA laboratories are aware of these concerns, but efforts remain fragile.

Best practices in DEIA, including those associated with HED science, ought to be identified as a model for NNSA and the national laboratories. Professional societies such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and APS offer numerous resources, for example. In short, there is an opportunity to build a diverse, equitable, inclusive, HED science workforce through an improved workplace climate.

Finding: As a recently emerging field of study, HED science has an opportunity to achieve excellence through leadership in diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility. (See Boxes 4-2 and 4-3.)

In short, misconceptions about the field can lead to under-estimating the opportunities in HED science and NNSA’s work. NNSA headquarters and researchers can help correct this by highlighting the key advances of HED science, along with the field’s Grand Challenges and opportunities for the future.

Recommendation: The NNSA should take steps to enable institutions working on high energy density research to (1) assess the workplace climate; (2) get help from subject-matter experts to make explicit and quantifiable

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEIA) goals; and (3) implement and ensure achievement of these DEIA goals.

CURRENT SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

Several programs provide opportunities and funding for students and faculty to engage with HED science at NNSA laboratories:

  • Department of Energy (DOE) science undergraduate laboratory internships
  • NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliances Program (centers of excellence, student fellowships, university grants program)
  • NNSA Minority Serving Institution Partnership Program
  • Partnerships and collaborations directly funded by NNSA laboratories
  • DOE–National Science Foundation (NSF) partnership in plasma science
  • DOE Fusion Energy Science–NNSA partnership in High-Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas
  • Early career programs (DOE Office of Science and NSF, but not NNSA)
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×
  • National Laser User Facilities (NNSA)
  • HED-related NSF centers (i.e., NSF Physics Frontier Centers)
  • Department of Defense (DoD) programs at Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Office of Naval Research, for example
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

Many of these funding mechanisms do not provide cycles that match graduate student timelines of 4-5 or more years, and may fail in encouraging students to commit to the field. This can have particularly keen consequences in disciplines explicitly pursued in only a few university programs (e.g., pulsed power, atomic physics). In addition, many of these funding mechanisms seem to be underutilized or not well known across NNSA facility leadership.

Finding: The NNSA does not have an early career program for junior faculty, as is common in other areas, which limits awareness of the field and facilities.

Recommendation: The NNSA should support more internships, postdoctoral opportunities, faculty visitorships, and early career programs in high energy density science, coordinating across the NNSA in a manner similar to that supported by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

NATIONAL LABORATORIES AND HIGH ENERGY DENSITY FACILITIES AT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

While the NNSA national laboratories and related HED facilities are not all educational institutions by design, their internships, mentorships, outreach, and collaborations with university departments are key components of (1) developing career pathways for HED science and (2) attracting, training, and retaining the HED workforce for the NNSA. This is most effectively accomplished through strong collaborations with academia, other government agencies (NSF, in particular), and international organizations. Despite a handful of targeted programs, many of these efforts are undertaken by national laboratory scientists without explicit funding or recognition.

Workforce development begins with undergraduate students; attracting young people to science even starts as early as grades K-12. For this reason, national laboratories are taking a two-pronged approach: educating the community with outreach programs for schools and public lectures, and providing internships for undergraduate students. Facilities immediately co-located with universities, such as Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), give access to a large pool of students, which is beneficial to growing the field by exposing them to HED science before graduate school.

However, with the mission-driven nature of their work, laboratory employees are often confronted by a lack of structured support and recognition for mentoring students. There is consequently a shortage of mentors and advisors for student interns at national laboratories.

Figures 4-1 through 4-3 show the enrollments during 2015-2021 in undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral HED science academic programs, respectively,

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), LLE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and SLAC. From the committee’s point of view, these figures document a variable flow of interns and postdoctoral researchers to these facilities. As seen in Figure 4-1, the numbers of undergraduate interns at the facilities have been consistently strong for LLE and have shown marked improvement over the past 3 years at LLNL. Being located on the campus of the University of Rochester is a great advantage for LLE. As for LANL, SNL, and SLAC, there is clearly an opportunity to increase the numbers. In the case of LANL, more user access time at the other facilities could improve the situation. At SLAC, the administration stated that there is a need for more senior research advisors for the students.

Figure 4-2 shows the number of graduate interns that the facilities hosted during 2015-2021. Just as for the undergraduate interns, LLE enjoys access to many potential graduate interns, and thus its numbers are strong. The numbers have also been strong at LLNL, and there is room for improved numbers at the other facilities.

Figure 4-3 shows the number of postdoctoral fellows that the facilities hosted during 2015-2021. Over the past 3 years, the LLNL numbers have been quite strong. At SLAC and LLE, the values are good, while there is a need to increase the numbers

Image
FIGURE 4-1 Enrollments of undergraduate interns at the National Nuclear Security Administration/ Department of Energy high energy density facilities—Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The numbers of undergraduate interns at the facilities have been consistently strong for LLE and have shown marked improvement over the past 3 years at LLNL.
SOURCES: Data from LANL, LLE, LLNL, Sandia, and SLAC.
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×
Image
FIGURE 4-2 Enrollments of graduate interns at the National Nuclear Security Administration/Department of Energy high energy density facilities—Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Just as for the undergraduate interns, LLE enjoys access to many potential graduate interns, and thus its numbers are strong.
SOURCES: Data from LANL, LLE, LLNL, Sandia, and SLAC.

at LANL and SNL. The numbers at LANL show a decreasing pattern over the past 3 years. Increased user access to off-site national facilities may also assist LANL in attracting additional postdoctoral researchers.

National laboratories are also instrumental in building and enabling academic collaborations. While the NNSA has Stockpile Stewardship Alliances Programs (SSAP), they are not sufficient to grow the HED science workforce, and laboratories have created their own academic collaboration programs to support graduate students in residence at the laboratories.

At SNL, the Z Fundamental Science Program provides access to the Z pulsed-power facility for academic users. Also, the Sandia Academic Alliances program offers funding opportunities with a select set of universities, and several summer internship programs provide relatively easy entry points for students and mentors. LLNL has its own HED science center dedicated to outreach and building collaborations with academia (see Box 4-4), as well as an Academic Collaboration Team University Program (ACT-UP) to support graduate students and faculty in research areas including HED science. LANL has an extensive summer internship

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×
Image
FIGURE 4-3 Numbers of postdoctoral researchers at the National Nuclear Security Administration/ Department of Energy high energy density facilities—Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The SLAC and LLE values are good, and there is a need to increase the numbers at LANL and Sandia. More user access to the other national facilities would greatly assist LANL in attracting postdoctoral researchers.
SOURCES: Data from LANL, LLE, LLNL, Sandia, and SLAC.

program that introduces students to HED science. All three national laboratories have close collaborations with several of NNSA’s Academic Centers of Excellence,1 and laboratory scientists contribute to developing HED curricula and teach at summer schools.

While some of these programs are sanctioned and/or supported by the NNSA or laboratory management, many efforts amount to volunteer efforts by laboratory scientists. Coupled with intense programmatic demands and significant barriers to collaboration, this lack of formal support or recognition can lead to burnout and attrition of the most energetic and dedicated scientists, especially at early-career stages and among staff reflecting diversity—both characteristics are in high demand.

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

Retention and Recruitment of the High Energy Density Science Workforce at NNSA Laboratories

In a competitive, post-pandemic work environment, the HED science workforce at NNSA laboratories is at risk of facing severe shortages due to attrition and difficulties in hiring (see also Box 4-5). While some departures can be attributed to retirement, most of the attrition is with mid-career employees (5-7 years) who are leaving the national laboratories to pursue other careers. These include positions in industry, startups (including emerging fusion energy startups), or even at institutions abroad.

This is a complex problem, with some aspects being specific to each NNSA/ DOE laboratory. However, one of the key remedies recognized both within the

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

national laboratories and across academia is that enhanced opportunities for collaboration with the broader scientific community lead to considerable opportunities for recruitment and retention. Better yet, when these collaborations include top-quality students and postdoctoral researchers, the win-win result is that the best science is accomplished, and the top caliber of researchers is attracted to and then retained within the laboratory system.

Role of Facilities and the Workforce

World-class facilities (as highlighted in Box 4-6), capabilities, and staff serve as attractors for the best and brightest scientific talent across disciplines. While investments in facilities, capabilities, and programs are mandatory, these need not be at the expense of investments in the workforce. Developments need to proceed at the fastest possible pace and be augmented by investments across the community to maintain and develop expertise in laser-based (including OMEGA EP-OPAL, ZEUS, NIF, and more), and pulsed-power (Z and others) facilities as well as in the development of high repetition-rate diagnostics, target design and fabrication, and real-time data analytics and associated capabilities in theory, modeling, and simulation.

While many of these areas have wide applicability to the whole of HED science, drivers for HED experiments are specific to a particular technology. Compared to lasers, pulsed power has a relatively small number of university-scale facilities suitable for training new experts in operation and design; and no mid-scale facility that can serve as a training ground for Z, the way that LLE’s Omega laser serves as a training ground and steppingstone for the larger NIF. Growth of the community’s workforce is essential to underpinning today’s remarkable facility capabilities—it is people who innovate and ensure that full value is extracted from facilities.

Finding: Significant barriers exist for broad collaborations and academic development in fundamental research, partly due to restrictions imposed by research in classified domains, thereby inhibiting recruitment and retention, as well as more rapid progress in research.

Conclusion: This is an opportune time for national laboratories to increase collaboration on HED science, by being more accessible and open in sharing results and data with academia, international collaborators, and those in the private sector.

Finding: Technical staff at NNSA laboratories and experimental facilities have developed a unique set of skills that are learned “on the job,” including diagnostic techniques, experimental setups, and detectors specific to the needs of HED science.

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×
Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

Conclusion: Training and retention of talented technical staff at NNSA laboratories and experimental facilities are crucial to HED science and the NNSA mission.

Conclusion: Formal programs that enable and reward collaborations, outreach, and mentorship significantly increase the vitality of the workforce, improving both recruitment and retention of highly trained specialists.

Recommendation: The NNSA should provide explicit support and recognition for national laboratory scientists to increase collaborations, mentorship, and outreach with the fundamental research community, in order to build public excitement and the future workforce. Examples include joint appointments or sabbatical opportunities and travel/lectureship programs that partner with minority-serving institutions and the public at large.

Recommendation: The NNSA should periodically assess and, where possible, reduce barriers to university collaborations—for example, by formally recognizing the importance of, and therefore supporting and rewarding, laboratory staff engaged in effective collaborations.

Recommendation: NNSA laboratories should enforce concrete policies for accountability around intolerable, unacceptable behaviors.

Recommendation: In addition to training PhD scientists, NNSA laboratories should invest in educational (apprenticeship) programs at institutions for training of technicians and technical staff at the bachelor’s or master’s level, doing so in line with the laboratories’ diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility goals.

Recommendation: NNSA national laboratories should promote collaborations with academia by sharing data related to unclassified research (in consistent data format) and providing open/educational versions of their computational codes.

ROLE OF INDUSTRY

With each new generation of HED science facility, new and innovative technologies need to be developed to fully explore new regimes of matter. Whether it is a new type of computing architecture, large diameters of laser glass, or cameras that can record faster time scales and smaller features, experimental facilities not only provide a platform, but a rich new set of technologies that have impact far outside

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

HED science. Advances in computational capabilities have likewise depended on close collaboration between industry and national laboratories.

Since the first experimental facilities were developed, a long-standing history of industry supporting HED science facilities has existed. In some cases, the facilities themselves would not be able to exist without extensive industrial collaboration. Additionally, the new technologies and science applications in HED-relevant areas have significant industrial applications, including in fusion energy, secondary radiation sources, and compact accelerators.

NNSA HED experimental facilities engage with industry in a wide variety of ways. For instance, during the development of the NIF and Omega laser facilities, new large-aperture glasses and crystals with extremely high damage-threshold optical coatings were developed. Schott Glass Technologies and Hoya Corporation collaborated to develop the new technologies with LLNL over a decade-long time-frame, allowing the facility to successfully achieve its ambitious design specifications.

The NNSA Exascale system El Capitan, developed by Cray Supercomputers, required the development of a computational technology that is 4 times as energy efficient yet 10 times more powerful as the current Sierra supercomputer.

The large scale of HED campaigns has also prompted the formation of several startups to develop critical diagnostics required for experiments. For instance, Kentech Technologies, Photek, and Sydor Instruments have developed ultrafast X-ray spectroscopic capabilities to enable new measurements of HED interactions. This symbiotic relationship between HED science research and industry has far-reaching implications. In one famous example, mirror technology used in HED experiments led to the formation of a virtual national laboratory that ultimately led to the successful development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, the current technology used for making computer chips (see Box 2-3).

Despite this long and successful history, retirements and the lack of major new facilities over the past decade have reduced the ability for industry to plan strategically. There are growing concerns that upcoming challenges requiring industry support will not be met, based on current planning.

For instance, while the majority of NNSA facilities operate in a single-shot mode, new facilities are anticipated to have higher repetition rate, with orders of magnitude higher data acquisition. This will require new technology, both to generate the HED sources, and for new detection and data analysis techniques.

Machine learning is an area in which U.S. industry leads, but there are currently substantial barriers to investing in HED science research. Industry often invests in areas where they see clear, obvious, economic pull. Despite funding mechanisms, such as help from the Small Business Innovation Research program to support new startups, the rapid pace of technology development combined with the long timelines imposed by the SBIR process means that by the time a

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
×

proposal is approved, newer technology may become available, and the impact of the technology diminished.

For larger campaigns such as ICF, it is clear that target technology can have a sizable impact. However, there is a limited effort to push target development forward, and it is clear that more complex technology will be needed in the future. A consensus is that resource commitments being made in this direction are too few to sustain HED work into the future.

There is also a role that industry plays with regard to the workforce. Students and postdoctoral researchers working in HED science are often unaware of the opportunities that exist outside the NNSA facilities and academia. As opposed to the limited number of locations of the latter institutions, industry provides far more flexibility when it comes to location, which can help improve participation. Additionally, greater industrial involvement offers the opportunity to expand the HED science workforce. More visibility of industrial opportunities related to HED science can broaden the community, as a wider range of career options can improve recruitment and retention.

More recently, there has also been a rapid increase in the number of companies that perform work related to HED science, specifically in inertial fusion energy (IFE). Given the long-standing expertise in HED science, combined with the historic success of industrial collaboration, there is an opportunity for the NNSA to develop partnerships with these companies to strengthen and broaden the HED science workforce. Doing so will also develop new technologies that are mutually beneficial for both fundamental-science and industrial applications. Without greater partnership, leadership, and strategic planning with industry, the NNSA is risking increased competition for the top-caliber workforce and decreased capability to meet the science technology needs for the future.

Recommendation: The NNSA should collaboratively develop industry-relevant technical roadmaps for critical capabilities in computation, diagnostics, and targets and provide more—and more frequent—funding opportunities for industry to provide these capabilities.

Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Human Capacity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26728.
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High energy density (HED) science has critical applications for society from fusion energy to sustaining the US nuclear deterrent, while also contributing to broader scientific questions such as understanding planets and their origins.

The next decade of HED science will be instrumental to growing our understanding and in the development of new technologies and processes. Fundamental Research in High Energy Density Science identifies key challenges and science questions for the field for the coming decade and proposes ways to address them.

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