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Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-1 Appendix D References 1 Smerk, George M. âUrban Mass Transportation: From Private to Public to Privatization.â Transportation Journal 26, no. 1 (1986): 83â91. 2 â2019 National Transit Database National Transit Summaries & Trends.â Federal Transit Administration Office of Budget and Policy. https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/2020-12/2019-NTST-1-1_0.pdf. 3 Business Telegraph. âWhy People Donât Value Things They Get for Free,â August 5, 2021. https://www.businesstelegraph.co.uk/why-people-dont-value-things-they-get-for-free/. 4 Walker, Jarrett. âShould Fares Be Higher During Peak Hours?â Human Transit (blog), May 6, 2010. https://humantransit.org/2010/05/should-fares-be-higher-during-peak-hours.html. 5 Saphores, Jean-Daniel, Deep Shah, and Farzana Khatun. âA Review of Reduced and Free Transit Fare Programs in California,â January 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7922/G2XP735Q. 6 Deka, Devajyoti. âSocial and Environmental Justice Issues in Urban Transportation.â In The Geography of Urban Transportation, edited by Genevieve Giuliano and Susan Hanson, 3rd ed., 332â255. Guilford Publications, 2004. 7 KÄbÅowski, Wojciech. âWhy (Not) Abolish Fares? Exploring the Global Geography of Fare-Free Public Transport.â Transportation 47, no. 6 (December 1, 2020): 2807â35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-019-09986-6. 8 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 9 âFare-Free Transit,â Peopleâs Transit Alliance, https://peoplestransit.org/c/fare-free-page/; âFare- Free Buses,â LivableStreets Alliance, https://www.livablestreets.info/fare_free_buses. 10 Hess, Abigail Johnson. âAmericans Spend over 15% of Their Budgets on Transportation Costsâ These US Cities Are Trying to Make It Free.â CNBC, March 2, 2020. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/02/free-public-transportation-is-a-reality-in-100-citiesheres- why.html. 11 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 12 "Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act." Federal Transit Administration. https://www.transit.dot.gov/cares-act 13 Sullivan, Riley. âThe COVID-19 Pandemicâs Impact on Public Transportation Ridership and Revenues across New England.â Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, September 27, 2021. https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/new-england-public-policy-center-regional- briefs/2021/the-covid-19-pandemics-impact-on-public-transportation-ridership-and-revenues- across-new-england.aspx. 14 TransitCenter. âShould Transit Be Free?,â January 28, 2019. https://transitcenter.org/transit-be- free/. 15 âFramework for Program Evaluation in Public Health.â Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 17, 1999.
Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-2 16 Hassan, Mohammad Nurul, Y. Hawas, and K. Ahmed. âA Multi-Dimensional Framework for Evaluating the Transit Service Performance.â Transportation Research Part A 50 (2013): 47â61. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRA.2013.01.041. 17 Hansen, Todd, Michael Walk, Shuman Tan, and Ahmadreza Mahmoudzadeh. âPerformance Measurement and Evaluation Framework of Public Microtransit Service.â Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2675, no. 12 (December 2021): 201â13. 18 Bartin, B., K. Ozbay, and Hong Yang. âEvaluation Framework for Mobile Ticketing Applications in Public Transit: A Case Study.â IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1049/IET- ITS.2018.5248. 19 Hansen et al., 2021. 20 âRoute 28 Fare-Free Pilot Evaluation: Summary Findings.â City of Boston Transportation, March 2022. https://www.boston.gov/sites/default/files/file/2022/03/Route28_Report_FINAL.pdf. 21 âRide On Zero & Reduced Fare Study.â Montgomery County DOT, September 21, 2021. https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DOT- Transit/Resources/Files/Ride%20On%20Zero%20and%20Reduced%20Fare%20Study%20Report% 20Final.pdf 22 Montgomery County DOT, 2021. 23 âIowa City Area Transit Study: Fare Study Report.â City of Iowa City, 2020. https://www.iowa- city.org/WebLink/0/edoc/1993910/Appendix%20D%20Fare%20Study_20200917%20-%20sent.pdf 24 "City of Alexandria Low-Income Fare Pass Assessment Final Report with Appendices." City of Alexandria, May 5, 2021. https://www.mwcog.org/assets/1/6/TLC_FY21_- _Alexandria_Low_Income_Fare_Pass_Assessment_Final_Report_with_Appendices.pdf 25 Montgomery County DOT, 2021. 26 "Fare-Free Transit: Costs and Benefits.â Presentation to METRO Finance & Audit Committee, January 2020. https://ridemetro.granicus.com/MetaViewer.php?view_id=5&clip_id=1929&meta_id=45900. 27 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 28 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. TCRP Synthesis 101. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012. https://doi.org/10.17226/22753. 29 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, âZero-Fare and Reduced-Fare Options for Northern Virginia Transit Providers,â September 2, 2021. 30 Saphores et. al., 2020 31 Saphores et. al., 2020 32 Cohen, Josh. âWhoâs Afraid of Fare-Free Public Transit?â Next City, May 25, 2018. https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/whos-afraid-of-fare-free-public-transit. 33 Perrotta, Alexis F. âTransit Fare Affordability: Findings From a Qualitative Study.â Public Works Management & Policy 22, no. 3 (July 1, 2017): 226â52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X16650201. 34 Carter, TaLisa J., and Lallen T. Johnson. ââBlacks Canât Jumpâ: The Racialization of Transit Police Responses to Fare Evasion.â Race and Justice, April 8, 2021, 21533687211007548. https://doi.org/10.1177/21533687211007548. 35 "Federal Transit Assistance for Large, Small, and Nonurbanized Areas. Federal Transit Administration." 2019. https://www.transit.dot.gov/funding/grants/grant-programs/5-federal- transit-assistance-large-small-and-nonurbanized-areas 36 Saphores et. al., 2020.
Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-3 37 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 38 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 39 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 40 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 41 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 42 Florida Department of Transportation District 4, St. Lucie County Community Transit Fare-free Transit Service Evaluation Technical Memorandum. February 2020. 43 Baxandall, 2021. 44 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 45 Ibid. 46 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 47 Baxandall, 2021. 48 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 49 Cohen, 2018. 50 âTransit Zero Fare Impact Analysis.â Mid-America Regional Council, n.d. https://www.marc.org/Transportation/Plans-Studies/Transit-Mobility/Transit-Zero-Fare-Impact- Analysis. 51 RideKC. âUMKC Research Shows Economic Impact of Zero Fare Transit,â February 27, 2020. https://ridekc.org/news/umkc-research-shows-economic-impact-of-zero-fare-transit. 52 Dolven, Taylor. âCOVID Surge Testing Already Understaffed Transit Agencies in Mass.â Boston Globe, January 6, 2022. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2022/01/06/metro/covid-surge-testing- already-understaffed-transit-agencies-mass/. 53 âLabor Shortages Are Hampering Public Transportation Systems, Challenging the Recovery of City Life.â Washington Post, February 21, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/12/28/worker-shortages-public-transportation/. 54 Hodge, David C, James D Orrell, and Tim R Strauss. âFare-Free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service, and Attainment of Transit System Goals.â Washington State Department of Transportation, March 1994. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/277.1.pdf. 55 âFare Free Muni System Feasibility Analysis.â SFMTA, January 29, 2008. 56 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 57 Cats, Oded, Yusak O. Susilo, and Triin Reimal. âThe Prospects of Fare-Free Public Transport: Evidence from Tallinn.â Transportation 44, no. 5 (2017): 1083â1104. 58 Gray, Alex. âEstonia Is Making Public Transport Free.â World Economic Forum, June 1, 2018. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/06/estonia-is-making-public-transport-free/. 59 Dellheim, Judith, and Jason Prince, eds. Free Public Transit: And Why We Donât Pay to Ride Elevators. Black Rose Books, 2018. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/F/bo31274589.html. 60 Shen, J. X., and S. K. Zheng. âFare-Free Public Transit Service: Experience from Gaoping City of China.â Advances in Transportation Studies Special Issue 1 (2015): 3â12. 61 KÄbÅowski, 2020. 62 City of Iowa City, 2020.