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Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework (2023)


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Page 121
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.

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References Bartin, B., K. Ozbay, and H. Yang. 2018. “Evaluation Framework for Mobile Ticketing Applications in Public Transit: A Case Study.” IET Intelligent Transport Systems. Baxandall, P. March 24, 2021. “Freeing the Climate: Environmental Benefits of Eliminating Transit Fares.” Massachusetts Budget & Policy Center. benefits-of-eliminating-transit-fares/ Boyle, D. K. 2016. TCRP Synthesis 121: Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless. Trans- portation Research Board, Washington, DC. Business Telegraph. August 5, 2021. “Why People Don’t Value Things They Get for Free.” Carter, T. J., and L. T. Johnson. April 8, 2021. “‘Blacks Can’t Jump’: The Racialization of Transit Police Responses to Fare Evasion.” Race and Justice, 21533687211007548. Cats, O., Y. O. Susilo, and T. Reimal. 2017. “The Prospects of Fare-Free Public Transport: Evidence from Tallinn.” Transportation 44, No. 5, 1083–1104. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 17, 1999. “Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48, No. RR-11. City of Alexandria. May 5, 2021. City of Alexandria Low-Income Fare Pass Assessment: Final Summary Report. Final_Report_with_Appendices.pdf City of Boston—Transportation. March 2022. “Route 28 Fare-Free Pilot Evaluation: Summary Findings” (Power Point presentation). City of Iowa City. 2020. Iowa City Area Transit Study: Appendix D: Fare Study Report. WebLink/0/edoc/1993910/Appendix%20D%20Fare%20Study_20200917%20-%20sent.pdf Cohen, J. May 25, 2018. “Who’s Afraid of Fare-Free Public Transit?” Next City. whos-afraid-of-fare-free-public-transit Deka, D. 2004. “Social and Environmental Justice Issues in Urban Transportation.” In The Geography of Urban Transportation, 3rd ed., G. Giuliano and S. Hanson, eds., 332–255. Guilford Publications. Dellheim, J., and J. Prince, eds. 2018. Free Public Transit: And Why We Don’t Pay to Ride Elevators. Black Rose Books. Dolven, T. January 6, 2022. “COVID Surge Testing Already Understaffed Transit Agencies in Mass.” Boston Globe. agencies-mass/ Florida Department of Transportation—District 4. February 2020. St. Lucie County Community Transit Fare-Free Transit Service Evaluation Technical Memorandum. FTA. 2015. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Guidance. FTA Circular 4710.1. regulations-and-guidance/fta-circular-47101-americans-disabilities-act-guidance FTA. n.d. “5. Federal Transit Assistance for Large, Small, and Nonurbanized Areas” (web page). https://www.transit. FTA Office of Budget and Policy. 2020. 2019 National Transit Database National Transit Summaries and Trends. FTA Office of Communications and Congressional Affairs. n.d. “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act” (web page). Grant, M., J. D’Ignazio, A. Bond, and A. McKeeman. September 2013. Performance-Based Planning and Programming Guidebook. FHWA-HEP-13-041. Prepared for FHWA by ICF International, Inc., Fairfax, VA. https://www.transit. 121  

122   Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework Gray, A. June 1, 2018. “Estonia Is Making Public Transport Free.” World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum. org/agenda/2018/06/estonia-is-making-public-transport-free/ Hansen, T., M. Walk, S. Tan, and A. Mahmoudzadeh. December 2021. “Performance Measurement and Evalua- tion Framework of Public Microtransit Service.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2675, 201–13. Hassan, M. N., Y. Hawas, and K. Ahmed. 2013. “A Multi-Dimensional Framework for Evaluating the Transit Service Performance.” Transportation Research Part A, 50, 47–61. Hess, A. J. March 2, 2020. “Americans Spend over 15% of Their Budgets on Transportation Costs—These US Cities Are Trying to Make It Free.” CNBC. is-a-reality-in-100-citiesheres-why.html Hodge, D.C., J. D. Orrell, and T. R. Strauss. March 1994. Fare-Free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service, and Attainment of Transit System Goals. WA-RD 277.1. Washington State Department of Transportation. https:// Kębłowski, W. December 1, 2020. “Why (Not) Abolish Fares? Exploring the Global Geography of Fare-Free Public Transport.” Transportation 47, No. 6. 2807–35. LivableStreets Alliance. n.d. “Fare-Free Buses” (web page). METRO (Houston). January 2020. “Fare-Free Transit: Costs and Benefits” (PowerPoint Presentation to METRO Finance & Audit Committee). id=45900 Mid-America Regional Council, n.d. “Transit Zero Fare Impact Analysis.” Plans-Studies/Transit-Mobility/Transit-Zero-Fare-Impact-Analysis Montgomery County Department of Transportation (MCDOT). September 21, 2021. Ride On Zero & Reduced Fare Study. and%20Reduced%20Fare%20Study%20Report%20Final.pdf Multisystems, Inc., Mundle & Associates, Inc., and Simon & Simon Research and Associates, Inc. TCRP Report 94: Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003. Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. June 2021. Link Transit Comprehensive System Analysis: Final Report. Prepared for Link Transit. LINK%20TRANSIT/FINAL%20REPORT%20DRAFT-FULL.pdf Northern Virginia Transportation Commission. September 2, 2021. Zero-Fare and Reduced-Fare Options for Northern Virginia Transit Providers. Reduced-Fare%20White%20Paper%20Final%202021-08-30.pdf People’s Transit Alliance. n.d. “Fare-Free Transit” (web page). Perrotta, A. F. July 1, 2017. “Transit Fare Affordability: Findings from a Qualitative Study.” Public Works Management & Policy, 22, No. 3, 226–52. RideKC. February 27, 2020. “UMKC Research Shows Economic Impact of Zero Fare Transit.” news/umkc-research-shows-economic-impact-of-zero-fare-transit Rosenberg, E. February 21, 2022. “Labor Shortages Are Hampering Public Transportation Systems, Challenging the Recovery of City Life.” Washington Post. shortages-public-transportation/ Saphores, J.-D., D. Shah, and F. Khatun. January 22, 2020. “A Review of Reduced and Free Transit Fare Programs in California.” University of California Office of the President: University of California Institute of Transportation Studies. Retrieved from Sharon Greene + Associates, AECOM Consult, Inc., Transportation Management & Design, Inc., and Causeway Financial Consulting, Inc. January 29, 2008. “Fare Free Muni System Feasibility Analysis.” Prepared for San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Shen, J. X., and S. K. Zheng. 2015. “Fare-Free Public Transit Service: Experience from Gaoping City of China.” Advances in Transportation Studies, Special Issue 1, 3–12. Smerk, G. M. 1986. “Urban Mass Transportation: From Private to Public to Privatization.” Transportation Journal 26, No. 1, 83–91. Sullivan, R. September 27, 2021. “The COVID-19 Pandemic’s Impact on Public Transportation Ridership and Revenues Across New England.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. england-public-policy-center-regional-briefs/2021/the-covid-19-pandemics-impact-on-public-transportation- ridership-and-revenues-across-new-england.aspx TransitCenter. January 28, 2019. “Should Transit Be Free?” Volinski, J. 2012. TCRP Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., Walker, J. May 6, 2010. “Should Fares Be Higher During Peak Hours?” Human Transit (blog), https://humantransit. org/2010/05/should-fares-be-higher-during-peak-hours.html

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED ISBN 978-0-309-69831-3 90000 9 780309 698313

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Recognizing the strong recent interest throughout the United States to consider and implement fare-free transit, decision-making tools are needed to help public transit practitioners evaluate fare-free transit.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 237: Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework presents a framework that can be used by public transit practitioners to evaluate the potential benefits, costs, and trade-offs of implementing fare-free transit.

Supplemental to the report is an Infographic.

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