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Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework (2022)

Chapter:Appendix D References

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
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Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
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Page179
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
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Page180

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Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-1 Appendix D References 1 Smerk, George M. “Urban Mass Transportation: From Private to Public to Privatization.” Transportation Journal 26, no. 1 (1986): 83–91. 2 “2019 National Transit Database National Transit Summaries & Trends.” Federal Transit Administration Office of Budget and Policy. https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/2020-12/2019-NTST-1-1_0.pdf. 3 Business Telegraph. “Why People Don’t Value Things They Get for Free,” August 5, 2021. https://www.businesstelegraph.co.uk/why-people-dont-value-things-they-get-for-free/. 4 Walker, Jarrett. “Should Fares Be Higher During Peak Hours?” Human Transit (blog), May 6, 2010. https://humantransit.org/2010/05/should-fares-be-higher-during-peak-hours.html. 5 Saphores, Jean-Daniel, Deep Shah, and Farzana Khatun. “A Review of Reduced and Free Transit Fare Programs in California,” January 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7922/G2XP735Q. 6 Deka, Devajyoti. “Social and Environmental Justice Issues in Urban Transportation.” In The Geography of Urban Transportation, edited by Genevieve Giuliano and Susan Hanson, 3rd ed., 332–255. Guilford Publications, 2004. 7 Kębłowski, Wojciech. “Why (Not) Abolish Fares? Exploring the Global Geography of Fare-Free Public Transport.” Transportation 47, no. 6 (December 1, 2020): 2807–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-019-09986-6. 8 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 9 “Fare-Free Transit,” People’s Transit Alliance, https://peoplestransit.org/c/fare-free-page/; “Fare- Free Buses,” LivableStreets Alliance, https://www.livablestreets.info/fare_free_buses. 10 Hess, Abigail Johnson. “Americans Spend over 15% of Their Budgets on Transportation Costs— These US Cities Are Trying to Make It Free.” CNBC, March 2, 2020. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/02/free-public-transportation-is-a-reality-in-100-citiesheres- why.html. 11 Kębłowski, 2020. 12 "Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act." Federal Transit Administration. https://www.transit.dot.gov/cares-act 13 Sullivan, Riley. “The COVID-19 Pandemic’s Impact on Public Transportation Ridership and Revenues across New England.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, September 27, 2021. https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/new-england-public-policy-center-regional- briefs/2021/the-covid-19-pandemics-impact-on-public-transportation-ridership-and-revenues- across-new-england.aspx. 14 TransitCenter. “Should Transit Be Free?,” January 28, 2019. https://transitcenter.org/transit-be- free/. 15 “Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 17, 1999.

Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-2 16 Hassan, Mohammad Nurul, Y. Hawas, and K. Ahmed. “A Multi-Dimensional Framework for Evaluating the Transit Service Performance.” Transportation Research Part A 50 (2013): 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRA.2013.01.041. 17 Hansen, Todd, Michael Walk, Shuman Tan, and Ahmadreza Mahmoudzadeh. “Performance Measurement and Evaluation Framework of Public Microtransit Service.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2675, no. 12 (December 2021): 201–13. 18 Bartin, B., K. Ozbay, and Hong Yang. “Evaluation Framework for Mobile Ticketing Applications in Public Transit: A Case Study.” IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1049/IET- ITS.2018.5248. 19 Hansen et al., 2021. 20 “Route 28 Fare-Free Pilot Evaluation: Summary Findings.” City of Boston Transportation, March 2022. https://www.boston.gov/sites/default/files/file/2022/03/Route28_Report_FINAL.pdf. 21 “Ride On Zero & Reduced Fare Study.” Montgomery County DOT, September 21, 2021. https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DOT- Transit/Resources/Files/Ride%20On%20Zero%20and%20Reduced%20Fare%20Study%20Report% 20Final.pdf 22 Montgomery County DOT, 2021. 23 “Iowa City Area Transit Study: Fare Study Report.” City of Iowa City, 2020. https://www.iowa- city.org/WebLink/0/edoc/1993910/Appendix%20D%20Fare%20Study_20200917%20-%20sent.pdf 24 "City of Alexandria Low-Income Fare Pass Assessment Final Report with Appendices." City of Alexandria, May 5, 2021. https://www.mwcog.org/assets/1/6/TLC_FY21_- _Alexandria_Low_Income_Fare_Pass_Assessment_Final_Report_with_Appendices.pdf 25 Montgomery County DOT, 2021. 26 "Fare-Free Transit: Costs and Benefits.” Presentation to METRO Finance & Audit Committee, January 2020. https://ridemetro.granicus.com/MetaViewer.php?view_id=5&clip_id=1929&meta_id=45900. 27 Kębłowski, 2020. 28 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. TCRP Synthesis 101. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012. https://doi.org/10.17226/22753. 29 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, “Zero-Fare and Reduced-Fare Options for Northern Virginia Transit Providers,” September 2, 2021. 30 Saphores et. al., 2020 31 Saphores et. al., 2020 32 Cohen, Josh. “Who’s Afraid of Fare-Free Public Transit?” Next City, May 25, 2018. https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/whos-afraid-of-fare-free-public-transit. 33 Perrotta, Alexis F. “Transit Fare Affordability: Findings From a Qualitative Study.” Public Works Management & Policy 22, no. 3 (July 1, 2017): 226–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X16650201. 34 Carter, TaLisa J., and Lallen T. Johnson. “‘Blacks Can’t Jump’: The Racialization of Transit Police Responses to Fare Evasion.” Race and Justice, April 8, 2021, 21533687211007548. https://doi.org/10.1177/21533687211007548. 35 "Federal Transit Assistance for Large, Small, and Nonurbanized Areas. Federal Transit Administration." 2019. https://www.transit.dot.gov/funding/grants/grant-programs/5-federal- transit-assistance-large-small-and-nonurbanized-areas 36 Saphores et. al., 2020.

Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework D-3 37 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 38 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 39 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 40 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 41 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2012. 42 Florida Department of Transportation District 4, St. Lucie County Community Transit Fare-free Transit Service Evaluation Technical Memorandum. February 2020. 43 Baxandall, 2021. 44 Kębłowski, 2020. 45 Ibid. 46 Northern Virginia Transportation Commission, 2021. 47 Baxandall, 2021. 48 Kębłowski, 2020. 49 Cohen, 2018. 50 “Transit Zero Fare Impact Analysis.” Mid-America Regional Council, n.d. https://www.marc.org/Transportation/Plans-Studies/Transit-Mobility/Transit-Zero-Fare-Impact- Analysis. 51 RideKC. “UMKC Research Shows Economic Impact of Zero Fare Transit,” February 27, 2020. https://ridekc.org/news/umkc-research-shows-economic-impact-of-zero-fare-transit. 52 Dolven, Taylor. “COVID Surge Testing Already Understaffed Transit Agencies in Mass.” Boston Globe, January 6, 2022. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2022/01/06/metro/covid-surge-testing- already-understaffed-transit-agencies-mass/. 53 “Labor Shortages Are Hampering Public Transportation Systems, Challenging the Recovery of City Life.” Washington Post, February 21, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/12/28/worker-shortages-public-transportation/. 54 Hodge, David C, James D Orrell, and Tim R Strauss. “Fare-Free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service, and Attainment of Transit System Goals.” Washington State Department of Transportation, March 1994. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/277.1.pdf. 55 “Fare Free Muni System Feasibility Analysis.” SFMTA, January 29, 2008. 56 Kębłowski, 2020. 57 Cats, Oded, Yusak O. Susilo, and Triin Reimal. “The Prospects of Fare-Free Public Transport: Evidence from Tallinn.” Transportation 44, no. 5 (2017): 1083–1104. 58 Gray, Alex. “Estonia Is Making Public Transport Free.” World Economic Forum, June 1, 2018. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/06/estonia-is-making-public-transport-free/. 59 Dellheim, Judith, and Jason Prince, eds. Free Public Transit: And Why We Don’t Pay to Ride Elevators. Black Rose Books, 2018. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/F/bo31274589.html. 60 Shen, J. X., and S. K. Zheng. “Fare-Free Public Transit Service: Experience from Gaoping City of China.” Advances in Transportation Studies Special Issue 1 (2015): 3–12. 61 Kębłowski, 2020. 62 City of Iowa City, 2020.

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Recognizing the strong recent interest throughout the United States to consider and implement fare-free transit, decision-making tools are needed to help public transit practitioners evaluate fare-free transit.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of TCRP Research Report 237: Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework presents a framework that can be used by public transit practitioners to evaluate the potential benefits, costs, and trade-offs of implementing fare-free transit.

Supplemental to the report is an Infographic.

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