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Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework (2023)

Chapter: References

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Page 121
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
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References

Bartin, B., K. Ozbay, and H. Yang. 2018. “Evaluation Framework for Mobile Ticketing Applications in Public Transit: A Case Study.” IET Intelligent Transport Systems. https://doi.org/10.1049/IET-ITS.2018.5248

Baxandall, P. March 24, 2021. “Freeing the Climate: Environmental Benefits of Eliminating Transit Fares.” Massachusetts Budget & Policy Center. https://massbudget.org/2021/03/24/freeing-the-climate-environmentalbenefits-of-eliminating-transit-fares/

Boyle, D. K. 2016. TCRP Synthesis 121: Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Business Telegraph. August 5, 2021. “Why People Don’t Value Things They Get for Free.” https://www.businesstelegraph.co.uk/why-people-dont-value-things-they-get-for-free/

Carter, T. J., and L. T. Johnson. April 8, 2021. “‘Blacks Can’t Jump’: The Racialization of Transit Police Responses to Fare Evasion.” Race and Justice, 21533687211007548. https://doi.org/10.1177/21533687211007548

Cats, O., Y. O. Susilo, and T. Reimal. 2017. “The Prospects of Fare-Free Public Transport: Evidence from Tallinn.” Transportation 44, No. 5, 1083–1104.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 17, 1999. “Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48, No. RR-11.

City of Alexandria. May 5, 2021. City of Alexandria Low-Income Fare Pass Assessment: Final Summary Report. https://www.mwcog.org/assets/1/6/TLC_FY21_-_Alexandria_Low_Income_Fare_Pass_Assessment_Final_Report_with_Appendices.pdf

City of Boston—Transportation. March 2022. “Route 28 Fare-Free Pilot Evaluation: Summary Findings” (Power Point presentation). https://www.boston.gov/sites/default/files/file/2022/03/Route28_Report_FINAL.pdf

City of Iowa City. 2020. Iowa City Area Transit Study: Appendix D: Fare Study Report. https://www.iowa-city.org/WebLink/0/edoc/1993910/Appendix%20D%20Fare%20Study_20200917%20-%20sent.pdf

Cohen, J. May 25, 2018. “Who’s Afraid of Fare-Free Public Transit?” Next City. https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/whos-afraid-of-fare-free-public-transit

Deka, D. 2004. “Social and Environmental Justice Issues in Urban Transportation.” In The Geography of Urban Transportation, 3rd ed., G. Giuliano and S. Hanson, eds., 332–255. Guilford Publications.

Dellheim, J., and J. Prince, eds. 2018. Free Public Transit: And Why We Don’t Pay to Ride Elevators. Black Rose Books. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/F/bo31274589.html

Dolven, T. January 6, 2022. “COVID Surge Testing Already Understaffed Transit Agencies in Mass.” Boston Globe. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2022/01/06/metro/covid-surge-testing-already-understaffed-transitagencies-mass/

Florida Department of Transportation—District 4. February 2020. St. Lucie County Community Transit Fare-Free Transit Service Evaluation Technical Memorandum.

FTA. 2015. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Guidance. FTA Circular 4710.1. https://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/fta-circular-47101-americans-disabilities-act-guidance

FTA. n.d. “5. Federal Transit Assistance for Large, Small, and Nonurbanized Areas” (web page). https://www.transit.dot.gov/funding/grants/grant-programs/5-federal-transit-assistance-large-small-and-nonurbanized-areas

FTA Office of Budget and Policy. 2020. 2019 National Transit Database National Transit Summaries and Trends.https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/2020-12/2019-NTST-1-1_0.pdf

FTA Office of Communications and Congressional Affairs. n.d. “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act” (web page). https://www.transit.dot.gov/cares-act

Grant, M., J. D’Ignazio, A. Bond, and A. McKeeman. September 2013. Performance-Based Planning and Programming Guidebook. FHWA-HEP-13-041. Prepared for FHWA by ICF International, Inc., Fairfax, VA. https://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/Performance_Based_Planning_and_Programming_Guidebook.pdf

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
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Gray, A. June 1, 2018. “Estonia Is Making Public Transport Free.” World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/06/estonia-is-making-public-transport-free/

Hansen, T., M. Walk, S. Tan, and A. Mahmoudzadeh. December 2021. “Performance Measurement and Evaluation Framework of Public Microtransit Service.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2675, 201–13.

Hassan, M. N., Y. Hawas, and K. Ahmed. 2013. “A Multi-Dimensional Framework for Evaluating the Transit Service Performance.” Transportation Research Part A, 50, 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRA.2013.01.041

Hess, A. J. March 2, 2020. “Americans Spend over 15% of Their Budgets on Transportation Costs—These US Cities Are Trying to Make It Free.” CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/02/free-public-transportationis-a-reality-in-100-citiesheres-why.html

Hodge, D.C., J. D. Orrell, and T. R. Strauss. March 1994. Fare-Free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service, and Attainment of Transit System Goals. WA-RD 277.1. Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/277.1.pdf

Kębłowski, W. December 1, 2020. “Why (Not) Abolish Fares? Exploring the Global Geography of Fare-Free Public Transport.” Transportation 47, No. 6. 2807–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-019-09986-6

LivableStreets Alliance. n.d. “Fare-Free Buses” (web page). https://www.livablestreets.info/fare_free_buses

METRO (Houston). January 2020. “Fare-Free Transit: Costs and Benefits” (PowerPoint Presentation to METRO Finance & Audit Committee). https://ridemetro.granicus.com/MetaViewer.php?view_id=5&clip_id=1929&meta_id=45900

Mid-America Regional Council, n.d. “Transit Zero Fare Impact Analysis.” https://www.marc.org/Transportation/Plans-Studies/Transit-Mobility/Transit-Zero-Fare-Impact-Analysis

Montgomery County Department of Transportation (MCDOT). September 21, 2021. Ride On Zero & Reduced Fare Study.https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DOT-Transit/Resources/Files/Ride%20On%20Zero%20and%20Reduced%20Fare%20Study%20Report%20Final.pdf

Multisystems, Inc., Mundle & Associates, Inc., and Simon & Simon Research and Associates, Inc. TCRP Report 94: Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003.

Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. June 2021. Link Transit Comprehensive System Analysis: Final Report. Prepared for Link Transit. https://cms7files1.revize.com/linktransitwa/document_center/ABOUT%20LINK%20TRANSIT/FINAL%20REPORT%20DRAFT-FULL.pdf

Northern Virginia Transportation Commission. September 2, 2021. Zero-Fare and Reduced-Fare Options for Northern Virginia Transit Providers.https://novatransit.org/uploads/studiesarchive/Zero-Fare%20and%20Reduced-Fare%20White%20Paper%20Final%202021-08-30.pdf

People’s Transit Alliance. n.d. “Fare-Free Transit” (web page). https://peoplestransit.org/c/fare-free-page/

Perrotta, A. F. July 1, 2017. “Transit Fare Affordability: Findings from a Qualitative Study.” Public Works Management & Policy, 22, No. 3, 226–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X16650201

RideKC. February 27, 2020. “UMKC Research Shows Economic Impact of Zero Fare Transit.” https://ridekc.org/news/umkc-research-shows-economic-impact-of-zero-fare-transit

Rosenberg, E. February 21, 2022. “Labor Shortages Are Hampering Public Transportation Systems, Challenging the Recovery of City Life.” Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/12/28/workershortages-public-transportation/

Saphores, J.-D., D. Shah, and F. Khatun. January 22, 2020. “A Review of Reduced and Free Transit Fare Programs in California.” University of California Office of the President: University of California Institute of Transportation Studies. http://dx.doi.org/10.7922/G2XP735Q. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/74m7f3rx

Sharon Greene + Associates, AECOM Consult, Inc., Transportation Management & Design, Inc., and Causeway Financial Consulting, Inc. January 29, 2008. “Fare Free Muni System Feasibility Analysis.” Prepared for San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency.

Shen, J. X., and S. K. Zheng. 2015. “Fare-Free Public Transit Service: Experience from Gaoping City of China.” Advances in Transportation Studies, Special Issue 1, 3–12.

Smerk, G. M. 1986. “Urban Mass Transportation: From Private to Public to Privatization.” Transportation Journal 26, No. 1, 83–91.

Sullivan, R. September 27, 2021. “The COVID-19 Pandemic’s Impact on Public Transportation Ridership and Revenues Across New England.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/newengland-public-policy-center-regional-briefs/2021/the-covid-19-pandemics-impact-on-public-transportationridership-and-revenues-across-new-england.aspx

TransitCenter. January 28, 2019. “Should Transit Be Free?” https://transitcenter.org/transit-be-free/

Volinski, J. 2012. TCRP Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., https://doi.org/10.17226/22753

Walker, J. May 6, 2010. “Should Fares Be Higher During Peak Hours?” Human Transit (blog), https://humantransit.org/2010/05/should-fares-be-higher-during-peak-hours.html

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications:

A4A Airlines for America
AAAE American Association of Airport Executives
AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America
ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
APTA American Public Transportation Association
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATA American Trucking Associations
CTAA Community Transportation Association of America
CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DOE Department of Energy
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015)
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
FRA Federal Railroad Administration
FTA Federal Transit Administration
GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association
HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers
MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012)
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials
NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program
NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NTSB National Transportation Safety Board
PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005)
TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program
TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998)
TRB Transportation Research Board
TSA Transportation Security Administration
U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×

Image

Page 121
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×
Page 121
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×
Page 122
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×
Page 123
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26732.
×
Page 124
Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework Get This Book
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 Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework
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Recognizing the strong recent interest throughout the United States to consider and implement fare-free transit, decision-making tools are needed to help public transit practitioners evaluate fare-free transit.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 237: Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework presents a framework that can be used by public transit practitioners to evaluate the potential benefits, costs, and trade-offs of implementing fare-free transit.

Supplemental to the report is an Infographic.

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