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Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing (2022)

Chapter:Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Interview and Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
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86 A P P E N D I X E Interview and Survey Responses Interview Responses Airport Name: Minneapolis-St. Paul International NPIAS: Large FAA Code: AGL City: Minneapolis State: Minnesota Interviewee: Eduardo Valencia Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Metropolitan Airports Commission (MAC) Question 1 Answer: The procurement process is handled strategically through policy updates and changes given the current procurement needs. Employees are consistently trained on procurement procedures, communication, and needs assessments are critical to successful procurement practices. Question 2 Answer: Some needs are determined on a circumstantial basis, such as the need for headsets when switching to a remote environment due to COVID-19. When needs are determined, the entire technology stack is reviewed to put the network and applications into perspective. A lifecycle plan is used for technology assets to ensure components are updated as needed. When possible, needs are anticipated proactively, and procurement and sourcing solutions are aligned properly. Business units meet once per month to determine lifecycle needs and again once per year to discuss procurement strategies. Question 3 Answer: If fundamental business processes are impacted, a labor impact analysis must be completed. However, there have not been any labor impact analyses required in the business setting. Question 4 Answer: Aside from changes to fundamental business processes, some limited rules and guidelines impact the procurement process. Question 5 Answer: In addition to the annual strategy meeting and quarterly lifecycle checks, IT supports all other business units. The technology discipline must work for all silos and have an understanding of the full operation. For example, technology supports police and fire as well as the human resources department. They have different challenges and needs, yet the same technology support organization. The technology side has a really good view across the organization that business units seldom have across the board. The Chief of Police doesn’t get wrapped inside hiring problems, and HR doesn’t get immersed in extinguishing a fire. Technology requires a lot of rigor in governance.

Interview and Survey Responses 87 Question 7 Answer: See provided slides. Question 8 Answer: Buying has existed for a long time. Renting is more novel (e.g., SaaS, etc.). Consider Microsoft Teams where we don’t own it, but we rent the service for use within our business functions. We should consider providing solutions for consumption without having to buy hardware or software to perform. A lot of what we do doesn’t include equipment or software buy-in but rather includes a relationship with the suppliers. Must manage services and relationships. Question 9 Answer: The procurement practice at airports should pay a lot of attention to cooperative agreements. It’s not all that innovative, but there isn’t a lot of understanding in all airports. An example is a competitive process for buying (e.g., RFP, RFQ, etc.). You must put together requirements, publish it, then make a selection based on criterion. After that, you can engage. That takes time, is slow, etc. That is codified in most procurement rules as a public entity. The cooperative agreements, in that construct, proactively (not reactively) put competitions together to buy the knowns, such as pens, headsets, etc. They are creating RFPs non-stop. As a public entity, you can leverage the competitive process that was already completed for the exact items needed. Buy through the outcome by piggybacking on somebody else’s competitive process. Bringing cooperative agreements to reality is the kiosks at an airport. He needs to buy 35 kiosks at this time, which is nothing more than a glorified PC with peripherals. It costs $15K per kiosk. A cooperative agreement in Virginia was completed a year ago and has a list of manufacturers. They can go directly to negotiations based on timing and volume to get the best price. There are no rules that prohibit this negotiation. The follow-on concern is going to the board. If the competitive requirement is completed, they have satisfied the requirement. We put it in a memo, and it goes to negotiation. It’s important to look at the rules and interpret them. Cooperative agreements are the satisfaction of the public bidding process. Question 10 Answer: It’s ideal to get ahead really fast. Understand that you can solicit a process again or leverage the current processes to gain speed, then control timing and volume. The biggest challenge is keeping up with the needs of the business. Sourcing efficiently is critical, as well as having the capacity to keep it going in the lifecycle. This is an enormous amount of effort. It’s difficult to keep up with the pace of technology service demand. We use ServiceNow as a SaaS. Question 11 Answer: See MAC Policies and Procedures 2201, MAC Commercial Card (March 22, 2018), and provided slides. Question 6 Answer: Fear, knowledge, and “job security” prevents questioning, which can create people who are not fans. Ask the questions. Why do we need three bids? Why do 15- day waiting periods exist? The comfort of the “known” and questioning of the authority in the interpretation can create friction. The political piece is also a challenge. Consider how automation impacts human-based employment. The lifecycle of the RFP process does not always yield the best value. In some cases, negotiation succeeded. The trick to procurement is something you know as a customer. Timing and volume are two of the main variables. When you can buy in bulk and aggregate, you can control the outcome. RFPs very seldom control timing and volume, so you get a “generic” response. A workaround would be gaining an understanding of when the fiscal year ends for many suppliers. Negotiate deals before the books close. Negotiate with the timing on when they have to book sales and negotiate at volume. RFPs create a lesser volume of propositions.

88 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing contract piece moving. When IT presents solutions, demos are used to explain the need. They then develop a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) process, which brings in the procurement team. If the solution is over $100,000, the procurement solution must go to the Board for authorization of purchase. If the selected companies can prove they will work in the PoC, they are generally selected. There is money involved in vetting organizations so they are typically selected unless they fail. If the business feels strong about the solution, but there is no way to purchase it, they explore other options such as an RFP, RFQ, etc. This is rare because it takes 6 months to procure, which is far too long for technology. RFPs, etc. are competitive and transparent and may lead to a selection that doesn’t support what you wanted. If everyone has a contract vehicle that can be used, they can set up the selection process themselves and make it competitive. The vetting piece is robust as they invest in the test before purchase. IT Governance Committee is made up of different business suits around the authority. They have reps on the committee, who demonstrate a business unit wants to do something, use case, and potential cost, get permission to move forward on the PoC. Business units get a chance to buy-in, allocate resources, and be part of the solution if the PoC is approved. They present the option to the Committee as well as the outcomes of the PoC to move the idea forward (e.g., here is the result of the PoC, the funding channel, etc.). This creates a lot of ownership in the acquisition and leads with the business. IT – and all technology initiatives – covers PoC under their budget. The infrastructure for managing this is via an invoice to the business unit. It isn’t an invoice that gets paid, but it is tracked to demonstrate why and how an annual budget request is made. They could also go through the CIP presentation – they go in with the business unit to present the case. Pitch the idea under available monies each year. There is lots of planning, but a certain amount of innovation dollars. The larger companies typically have the better abilities to execute and are more mature. The bigger companies also have contracts with Value-Added Resellers (VARs). This is a chance to use the smaller companies rather than strictly using the small company. Question 2 Answer: Needs are identified by IT, management, or when experiencing any problems that must be addressed. Question 3 Answer: State guidelines, legal, and the procurement team have specific rules. For example, if a contract was not done in a public meeting, it couldn’t be used. Any contract with the authority, unless it was an RFP or ITN, the contract had to demonstrate that it was negotiated at a public meeting. They couldn’t use it. Anti-discrimination language is required in all contracts. Cybersecurity language and insurance for breaches must be carried. They do offer waivers at times as they want to know the insurance to them if damage comes. Unfortunately, some smaller companies don’t have insurance; they work together to find a happy medium to mitigate the risk (e.g., identify options or absolve financial burdens for acquiring insurance). In the cybersecurity process, they have a tool [Security Scorecard] they Airport Name: Tampa International Airport NPIAS: Large FAA Code: ASO City: Hillsboro County State: Florida Interviewee: Marcus Session Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Hillsboro County Aviation Authority Question 1 Answer: Business managers are embedded in meetings, where lessons learned are documented and solutions are brought in. Conferences are used to “eyeball” vendors. Once a solution is identified, they need a business sponsorship to validate the purchase for the business unit, which is a requirement. If the business doesn’t want to support it, they don’t move it forward. Vendors are brought to procurement to explain their solution and get the

Interview and Survey Responses 89 Question 5 Answer: See response to Question 3. Question 6 Answer: The disconnect between procurement and legal is understanding IT and how it works. For example, with all the security stuff regarding Solar Winds, we tried to create a pre-staged crisis process in place for the last year. A company comes in (pre-paid, procurement, contract) and gets right to work on mitigation to prevent the situation from getting worse. They have not been able to get that done. The workaround is to provide some education (e.g., not building a building). We justified this with decision-making and risk assessments. We understand the rules in place, but the simple risk is that a breach that could take 3 weeks to a month to get all procurement vehicles in place to do business with the entity could take too much time. If the situation gets worse, is that a risk from the business perspective that you are willing to take? They only have 4 security folks in place, and it will take 3 weeks to respond; the boss is over procurement and legal and will listen. It does make them studder. It caused them to identify an emergency process they could use to negotiate the contract and get it in place. You must be knowledgeable about procurement and legal manuals. Or, frame the problem with a particular purpose. Use the business case to demonstrate a level of risk that allows them to consider if going outside the process is greater or not buying the product is a greater risk. They must decide the risk appetite and tolerance. Compliance is always met. Amendments can be made. ITN was not a procurement vehicle until we explained how IT worked, how the majority of companies do business, and why it is useful. ITNs have always been there – which we didn’t think we needed until it was presented and approved by the board. Universities only use ITNs (his past workplace). It is out there and well known by procurement, it just doesn’t seem to get used as well. Most IT groups inside an organization don’t know enough about the procurement world to recommend trying an ITN. Look at the problem – stop banging your head against the wall – and figure out the solution. Construction is only about building the building brick by brick. Building software is intangible and requires education, which leads to solution-finding. Question 7 Answer: The most common technology procurement vehicles are VARs and ITNs. Question 8 Answer: Co-ops, state contracts (from any state that meets certain criteria), piggybacking with an airport that did an RFP or ITN (and written a certain way) can be used. The procurement team has talked with other airports and work together to write contracts that “piggybackable” so they can be used across the board. If it meets the procurement rules and contract vehicle, we use it. Question 9 Answer: Vendor fairs are hosted by the procurement department. We have a VAR or contract vehicle in place to do business. We connect VARs currently in the system, connect through the pipeline, then get on contract with a larger entity to gain traction. A subscribe to, and the tool scrubs the vendor providing a grade and justification for the grade. They can ask questions that are relevant and leads to an open exchange with the potential vendor. They must lead with the protection of the organization and doing business with responsible folks. The procurement team does a lot of the work for IT as they pre-vet for components that matter (e.g., CMMC). Question 4 Answer: $100K must go to the board for approval. Anything over $65K requires 3 competing quotes and does vetting with procurement. Under $65K, they can pick whoever they want.

90 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing necessarily track “it” and is not responsible unless someone starts to question the use of the product, contract need, etc. The business users must be able to justify what they bought and why. Any technology purchases in the organization need approval from IT before procurement moves forward. Procurement asks the questions if it is software, hardware, or services – then passes them to IT for approval. This allows for justified business use and prevents a range of issues that could impact the airport. Have an IT approval process or a questionnaire that IT develops for you and establishes parameters before moving the product forward. They put out an RFP for Gartner as they couldn’t guy Gartner on existing contracts. They are the world-leader that created their own vertical. They had 100 companies respond to the RFP and claim to be able to create 100,000 documents to match. An RFP process is subjected to the requirements rather than the best – designed for transparency, but doesn’t necessarily show the right vendor off of a written submission. Pre-established rankings in the RFP process – must go with the higher-ranked firm – then can lead to protests and delays. We can eliminate more vendors just by asking questions through negotiation. Leverage the expertise of the IT and procurement together (pre-vetting) – technology must go through IT to determine which companies can do what. Question 11 Answer: The procurement team won the award for “best procurement team” multiple times. Airport Name: Washington Dulles International / Ronald Reagan Washington National NPIAS: Large FAA Code: AEA City: Arlington State: Virginia Interviewee: Andrew Ndolo Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority (MWAA) Question 1 Answer: A recent procurement was the purchase of Transoft Solutions Software. The procurement of the software had to go through the procurement approval processes. Those processes include the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), a panel of nine individuals, and the board’s approval. Technology procurement is subjected to the TAC Review. A detailed presentation must include the items listed below with projected lengths of time (when possible). • A project overview (background, business problem, and type of project). The business review committee reviews the project overview before presenting it to the Board of Directors (BOD). This initial step takes approximately three weeks. • Project Team, team structure, and stakeholders. • Business requirements and value alignment with clearly defined success criteria. • An alternative analysis is considered instead of or alternative to the project. • Solution design outline. Buyer-Supplier event occurs every year. Procurement has a training program that shows how to do business with Tampa. Following the published steps and program gets folks involved appropriately. This positions the vendors for success when they are ready to buy something. The supplier portal has well over 1,000 vendors that are pre-vetted. Question 10 Answer: It needs to include a process to include ownership, sponsors, and funding. Before my arrival, it was assumed that IT owned everything. Things would show up in the IT budget that could not be justified. Fact-finding missions led to me understanding who did what and why something is used. If there isn’t ownership upfront on purchases, then things get purchased and just stay on the books with a lack of use. Procurement doesn’t

Interview and Survey Responses 91 • Service level agreement, project risks (with mitigation), and the communications plan between airports and vendors (e.g., training, software updates, etc.). The training plan must include end-user and sustainment training. • Governance structures to capture server, network, security, software, contract COTR, and the vendor Points-of Contact (POC). Members of the Office of Technology cover server, network, and security. Software falls under Manager Planning Department. COTR makes sure contracts, invoicing, etc., are in place. The presentation must be approved via a vote by the TAC. It then goes to the Board of Directors (BOD). Once the BOD passes it, it goes through contracting. The whole process can take up to 2 years as the TAC meets once every 1-2 months. If the TAC approves, it moves forward. If the TAC disapproves, due diligence is performed, and the process is repeated. Having those Transoft Solutions Software in-house makes it very smooth, timely, and cost- effective. The procurement team won the award for “best procurement team” multiple times. Question 2 Answer: There are three approaches: capital improvement, maintenance, and trying something new (e.g., touchless technologies). Based on the three perspectives, each moves forward. A capital improvement is programmed into the strategic plan and mostly occurs at a particular year and time. Maintenance could bring new software in place (if needed). New technology is as defined. Unless there is a feasibility study needed, a consultant could get hired. A cost estimate from the consultant allows the airport to move forward (or not). The consultant is usually a last resort. Question 3 Answer: Federal procurement law governs the processes and procedures. For example, sole-sourcing requires substantial justification and additional rules (e.g., advertised before procuring). For instance, Transoft Solutions Software was a sole source. When looking at alternate options, other vendors were reselling the core software with additional reselling costs (e.g., vendor fees). Question 4 Answer: Anything under $10K, is considered a service call log. The TAC Committee can approve anything under $50K. If it is $50K or above, it goes to the TAC for further presentation to the board. Question 5 Answer: Project Sponsor, Manager, Team Structure, and Stakeholders are involved. Question 6 Answer: The governance structure and BOD organizational structure operate as an airport authority. Given the hierarchy structure, there are naysayers. Some don’t want an item, and others are highly resistant to change. The workaround is engaging the stakeholders. Share the case, justification, and prove the purchase is imperative. Not all departments know all the needs; the process must be the same for all. For example, the Engineering Department doesn’t know why and what the Marketing Department needs for success. Question 7 Answer: RFP processes are followed. The need must be advertised and competitively procured. The security assessment highlights if the vendor needs access to the network. When there is no impact on the security assessment, it speeds the process. • Tools and platforms required to support a new purchase are captured. • Major and minor deliverables. • The deployment plan, schedule, and timeline are presented. • Security assessments demonstrating impacts on business units, such as IT. • Financial information (implementation, subscription, funding source, and estimated 5- year costs). The first-year cost is of primary concern.

92 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 8 Answer: When it comes to software, it must go through the rigors. Very few companies have the specific software needed to solve the problem. The solution ends up being the one that is best for the holistic organization. Question 9 Answer: During the procurement process, there are various rules and regulations on purchasing software outside of the United States. A mechanism for procuring is to use a process where you can get the technology from the United States to comply with the regulations and laws. Question 10 Answer: The best way to navigate the process is to have the subject matter expert involved in the procurement process. Question 11 Answer: Templates cannot be shared as they capture internal business processes. A lot of materials can be found online under federal procurement rules and regulations. Airport Name: Seattle–Tacoma International NPIAS: Large FAA Code: ANM City: Seattle State: Washington Interviewee: Dave Wilson Phone: Email: Ownership: Quasi-Governmental – Port of Seattle Question 1 Answer: There are two paths. The first is a classical IT project (e.g., technology that is IT) that goes through the intake. The project is purely IT in nature. For projects that are different (e.g., airfield lighting system), they go through statuses that begin with the identification of a need. Statuses are identified below. A director of the airport (or peer) can approve a status 1 project. A status 2 project is a large capital or IT project that requires higher-level approval. • Status 1 – Director identifies a need. • Status 2 – Business case – it is a project notebook (e.g., scope, plan, etc.). • Status 3 – Project notebook and are going to commission authorization to use the funds/start the project. Many begin with a design. The estimating process for estimating the capital and soft cost is highlighted. They added something new – which is an anticipated technology process to allow for technology changes during implementation. Smart lighting is a perfect example where LED was one step and the next step is embedded controls such as motion sensing or ambient light. There is a budget now for new projects (via the contingency budget). • They also have an art budget. Most budgets have a budget for major art pieces. There is an art committee made up of 1-2 elected officials. Certain parts of the budget require a procurement of art. They have an Art Director. • Status 4 – Begin project. • Status 5 – Put it in production. • Status 6 – Archive. If it’s over $300K, IT works with business units to build a business case. Then the IT governance board (made up of) reviews for approval. Then, it goes to the investment committee. They report to the managing director. The Investment Committee is annually evaluating capital investments and prioritizing them. An evaluation process includes all projects for the year and is aligned based on priority, which draws a line based on budget and Procurements not impacting security can be posted straight to the board for a final vote. Those are very rare. All processes must be documented.

Interview and Survey Responses 93 cash flows. Then, it gets approved or denied. Evaluate the business merit of the application. We compare it against other investments. The Investment Committee compares and contracts with IT and landscaping, which all costs money. If it is regulatory, it is a higher priority. If it is safety and security, it is higher. There are 10 priorities in the airport with some having higher priority. The capital investment requirement is driven by $300K. $300K – port commission (5 elected officials) make the final determination. Also, we do a proof of concept. We try not to do too many pilot projects. The proof is an agreement to work with a third party. They don’t get paid and sustain the intellectual property rights. Results of a test are shared with the 3rd party. Port of Seattle manages the seaport and airports. For example, large capital project planning started in 2012 and now indoor navigation came into play. A change order was issued to get it in rather. IT Projects (strictly) fall into the corporate department. If you are doing a capital development project (e.g., redesigning the ticket counters – most is construction but there are major technology projects). Question 2 Answer: They have 10 priorities. Procurement must align with the priorities. In 2019, the priority was growth where they went from 13th busiest to 8th busiest in 5 years and needed to build 12 new gates (north satellite) and international arrivals facility development. They had hold onboards (e.g., flew from Tokyo to SEA – depending on when you arrived, you had to sit on board for 40 minutes and immigration processing was backed up; the same can happen if the weather is bad). The needs reflect the 10 priorities. The goals behind them adjust. For example – innovation and efficiency were a priority from 2019. Every department must incorporate 2 shark tank ideas or 2 lean projects or one of each. In 2020, this was changed to 1 from each. From 2017, the high-level priorities haven’t changed. Looking to 2025 projects. Annual SWOT inside plans for 10 years – then analyze the 5-year plan. This can lead the project. Look at Sustainable Aviation Master Plan (SAMP) uses a long-term vision for planning. The long-term vision in technology is 5 years from now. The long-term planning vision needs to be 10 years from now. For example, look at the cell phone lot. Only invest enough to make it function and be in harmony with the plans. Needs can change, for example, they changed with the COVID-19 pandemic. They accelerated some of the construction work because of limited passenger traffic. Instead of night work that requires set-up, breakdown overnight for 8 hours, they moved it to the day and saved money. Installing touchless, sneeze guards, labels, etc. was also a cost. Question 3 Answer: They have to follow RCW in Washington state. It is the procurement rules that are very strict on how to buy something. There is an RFP, RFI process, and series of levels. Under $20K, $50K, etc. If under $150K = three quotes, then pick the contractor. Washington state laws also govern large capital projects. Procurements must be competitive and must use an RFP process. The airport doesn’t use tax dollars. The bulk of the funding comes from airline fees and concession sales. FAA gives some money. Question 4 Answer: See response to Question 3. Question 5 Answer: They have a chief procurement office, the purchasing organization that facilitates and manages the process for them.

94 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 6 Answer: The biggest friction is that it takes too long to get the solutions we need through procurement. Question 7 Answer: RFI and RFP are the two principal tools for procurement. They have a P-Card for anything under $5K. There are 23K people through the facility (COVID) and 50K pre-COVID. Technology can be purchased, but anything for the enterprise will exceed the threshold. Consider the total cost of ownership. We don’t want to put something in that $299K just to avoid the $300K. Above $20K, it becomes an asset. We have different buckets of money. Question 8 Answer: Different state laws govern the processes. The city of San Francisco manages the rules for SFO, etc. It depends on the state contract procurement processes that can use an existing contract. It is very limited, and we must know the contract exists. Can also look at federal equivalents. Question 9 Answer: In 2017, LENS kicked off the innovation accelerator program. As the director for airport innovation, he put together a process called the shark tank. Every quarter, his team works with them, develops presentations, and presents them to Airport Directors. Set-up with cushy chairs and have an audience watch the 10-minute pitch. They work with them on the LEAN Canvas and follow the presentation format. They do rehearsals, work with them on research, do business case analysis, identify how to make presentations, do some prototyping. Four to five employees end up getting the opportunity to work with the innovation hub. People shouldn’t fear innovation. And managers shouldn’t be a barrier to entry for ideas. There are 10-minute presentations on the deal. The canned process starts with 1) storytelling (inspiration for the idea and can be an ice breaker because nobody can argue with why you got the idea and you are talking about why you came to the idea). 2) describe the idea or the problem (i.e., what is it going to be). For example, David working in a landslide and never wants to see an escalator fall again (most escalator falls than anywhere else). 3) what is your vision – what does the idea look like 5 years from now? 5) what is the proposal – how do you get there? 6) call to action – directors to this now. There have been 59 presentations so far and several have been implemented and shown up in national level news (FOX News), Time, etc. SEA Visitor Pass Program – sign up for background check and can pass through the gate to meet someone at the gate. The evolution of the shark tank is an innovation challenge. Innovation has two elements: 1) ah-ha moments or 2) plagiarize. Another option is the directors identify a problem and want the employees to identify how to solve the problem. Two approaches: • Idea-driven • A problem that needs to be solved Densification is an example innovation challenge. They outgrew the office building. They didn’t want to make the cubes smaller. This happened pre-COVID and almost made COVID easier. They have proven worldwide the teleworking works, saving millions of dollars by not remodeling a facility. A current idea is Amazon lockers for business units and traveling parents with diapers. TSA will not allow it. We also do research and special systems with biometrics. Rolling out biometric air exists and we do a lot of prototyping. Question 10 Answer: In a perfect world, we could quickly pilot a project that a friendly airport has already identified as successful. Some very successful and innovative airports include Skipple airport, Heathrow, Orlando, and Gatwick airport. Plagiarism is the highest form of flattery, but we must have a mechanism we can follow. “Be a fast follower of one of the industry leaders.”

Interview and Survey Responses 95 Question 11 Answer: We can share our 10 priorities and the Shark Tank Program and Templates. Airport Name: Los Angeles International NPIAS: Large FAA Code: AWP City: Los Angeles State: California Interviewee: Brandon Eaton Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) Question 1 Answer: It is a robust process that begins with a determination of the need. A proposed technology solution must be studied to determine if it meets the need, aligns with goals, etc. The technology needs to be tested and viewed by visiting airports that may have similar solutions. The actual procurement is a full and dedicated team. Question 2 Answer: Needs are identified at any level, any time. Question 3 Answer: The website outlines rules that govern procurement and processes. External from the written materials, certain people in each division have credit cards and are used for emergency situations. Each division is different, with a different number of people that get a card. There are set limits and requirements for using the limit. An example is the activation of the EOC. Question 4 Answer: Options are based on the dollar amount. Depending on the technology, capital budgeting may cover the expense. Technology outside of the capital budget depends on the cost and ability to meet the need. Depending on the cost, the division meets with the budget committee. The item(s) is put on the “wish list” and entered into the procurement pipeline. If executive management looks at the request for a capital item, and there are competing requirements, it will not get funded. Question 5 Answer: Executive management makes the final determination. Other situations incorporate the city council, the Board of Airport Commissions, and the Board of Airport Authority. Question 6 Answer: Emergency situations impact the process and are a variable to consider. Workarounds and friction are directly managed by the assigned procurement team. Question 7 Answer: The Request for Bid (RFB) process under the City Charter is most common. It is an open and competitive bidding process in awarding the contract to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder meeting the product/services specifications. Question 8 Answer: The RFQ and RFI process is embedded to never give the appearance of nepotism or foul play. Sole source options exist only if other vendors are not capable or do not provide the needed technology

96 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 9 Answer: When it comes to technology and innovation, collaboration with other airports keeps knowledge and exchanges alive in the industry. For example, the multi-million- dollar department of operations center was modeled after Denver. Question 10 Answer: Ideas can start from anywhere and build substantially. Question 11 Answer: See website. Airport Name: Austin–Bergstrom International NPIAS: Medium FAA Code: ASW City: Austin State: Texas Interviewee: Diana Heath Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – City of Austin Question 1 Answer: There are about five different legs of the operation that depend on what is being bought. Because they are a city-run airport within the state of Texas, the procurement processes and procurement policies and rules are dictated by the city and the state of Texas. The state takes precedence. Routine O&M includes licenses, small parts, and pieces, renewal contracts, workstations, monitors, etc. Most of those come off a master agreement – a cooperative master agreement that the city as with the Department of Information Resources. Other things come off other cooperative contracts, such as BuyBoard, that other cities have gone into an agreement that the airport can use. Occasionally, they use the GSA contract. There are also dollar limits. Anything under $5K requires three quotes and can be purchased off the open market. Anything over $5K, they try to go off a cooperative contract or a master contract (e.g., servers, desktops, laptops). Where possible, there are lots of large monitors in the terminal. The Department of Aviation has a master contract with a vendor. They also try to set up master contracts or use a cooperative contract. When there are large new system purchases or large software purchases (e.g., refurbish the entire access control system) goes through an Invitation for Bid (IFB) and Request for Proposal (RFP) process. Specifications get approval to move forward, the City of Austin Central Purchasing. Regardless, everything goes through the City of Austin Central Purchasing. They handle the final contract, then provide the contract back to the airport. Purchasing Group is helpful as is IT procurement staff, who understands the purchase. Question 2 Answer: In 2014, they did a master plan and talked to everyone about what technology they needed. They are working through that. They also accept one-on-one requests. They try to sort through needs based on existing catalogs. When they find something that does not fit, they meet to discuss what is needed. They set specifications, then go out for bid. Question 3 Answer: City of Austin Central Purchasing.

Interview and Survey Responses 97 Question 4 Answer: Anything under $3K can be purchased with a credit card. Anything between $3-5K requires three bids. Anything over $5K, they look for a cooperative contract or master agreement. At $50K, they required an IFB and RFP. Question 5 Answer: The requests can come in from anywhere within the organization and sometimes from the tenants depending on the need. The airport owns all the infrastructure, so tenants can request. There is an internal process between the Department of Aviation and IT to determine if it is a routine purchase (e.g., a new laptop for a new employee). This could have a master agreement that the Administrative Assistant can handle and work with the downtown city system to request the purchase. If it is more complicated, it goes to the project management team and business analysts’ team to do an analysis review. Everyone can go out and get quotes. The manager determines whether they are going to spend the money or not. If it is not in the budget, it is not happening (as of right now). They also have an administrative assistant that works on operational purchases and puts them in the city request system. The project team does anything related to CAP-related projects for technology or construction. They do buy some of the IT items (e.g., switches) instead of buying those through the sub-contractor. Question 6 Answer: No workarounds are available. The biggest friction is the backload downtown and the length of time it takes to acquire, especially when they are doing the IFB or RFP. There are a lot of steps involved and a long timeline. If someone requested a new software tool, depending on what the ultimate cost is, from the beginning to end including the needs analysis, specification, and purchase could take anywhere from 3 to 18 months. Cost and complexity dictate the procurement process. If it is a simple subscription, they could get it quickly. If it is a very complicated new system that requires an RFP, the RFP timeline (once it gets downtown and documents are received) is anywhere from a 9 to a 12-month process to get it on contract. The minimum solicitation is 30 days. There are a lot of reviews on the front and backend from compliance, insurance, and risk. There are evaluations then another round of review. Then you must schedule a general item on the Airport Advisory Commission agenda at least one month before the meeting. Then it goes to City Council. You must be on the City Council agenda three months prior. Question 7 Answer: Credit card purchases, master agreements, IFB, or RFP. Question 8 Answer: None. Question 9 Answer: Public-private partnerships with a local think tank and IT organizations to solve the problem. This would be like those in the development world. Because of certain ethics, laws, and policies, that becomes very difficult if you do not approach this with a formal ask. There must always be an appearance of fairness. Even when approached by a vendor or group, they can informally engage, but do not have a legal way to initiate engagements. Utilize working groups and proof-of-concepts would be helpful. They try to use the proof-of- concepts or pilot with existing vendors, which have contracts. Pilots (which are free) can sometimes be executed. The city tends to want insurance and all the paperwork even when free and no contract is in place.

98 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 10 Answer: Have one or two dedicated people that did nothing but purchase internally or externally. There would not be quite as many steps or some of the steps would be automated. As a semi-autonomous city entity, they have their internal processes and must follow the city processes. Ideally, they could follow the city processes on-site with dedicated, embedded people that only do airport work. Some of this would speed up the process and potentially cut- off four months in the processing cycle. Central purchasing has started dedicating a staff member to the airport but is still doing other purchases as well. The city has a lot of work still. Relief from minutia, rules, liability, would be great. However, the proof is still relevant (e.g., financial means, insurance, etc.). Wi-Fi master contract is a third-party agreement. Question 11 Answer: They will send documentation, which includes the instruction “cheat sheet” that explains how the process worked internally. It gives parameters for sole source, etc. to guide the process. It also gives the process flow for purchase requests. Airport Name: Cleveland Hopkins International NPIAS: Medium FAA Code: AGL City: Cleveland State: Ohio Interviewee: Javier Badillo Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – City of Cleveland Question 1 Answer: There is a 9-month process through the City of Cleveland to get approval. It is required for every airport. Process includes: • Requesting legislation for purchasing the software is required. • The legislation goes to the technical advisory committee at the city level, which meets and discusses every purchase based on need, use by others, etc. Tech advisory committee looks at economies of scale when possible and how it affects other entities in the city – if it can be used by other entities, the purchase is made through the airports but the legislation is written so other entities can join • Proceeds to the City CIO/CFO/OEO commission for approval. • Request bids. Must get permission to send the bid out. • Once bids return, he takes them to the Board of Control to explain the evaluation process and selection methodology. • Contracting requires approval by legal. An attorney does all the terms and modifies them to reflect the city of Cleveland. Existing services have codified ordinances for upgrades. Products on GSA or with purchasing agreements that allow for access require two quotes. In other cases, three quotes are required. With COVID, every purchase needs to be signed off by the director to confirm if it was an emergency purchase or not. CLE was 5% above the national average for passengers (4.2 million passengers when projected 4.1 million with COVID-19; originally projected 10M passengers). The 4–5-month process is now 6-7 months due to COVID. Question 2 Answer: There was a plan to upgrade end-of-life equipment. We had a design and several quotes to do this upgrade. There was a ransomware attack that occurred, an analysis occurred for “quick” recovery. The first option was to recover back on existing equipment vs. procure new equipment. We could have stayed with existing equipment, but it would have been limited and an upgrade would still have been needed. We brought up systems on the old system before procuring the new one. The critical systems were brought up on the old. Still in the process of upgrading the firewalls.

Interview and Survey Responses 99 The most critical system to get up and running was the flight notification system (FIDS). The FAA manages to get the planes here. Flight operations have their own piece of software they handle. The next most critical system is email. We had a project manager, supervisor for the helpdesk, a systems analyst, and a network analyst; none of these individuals have the certifications to manage email. Through the TAC, we knew there was an Office 365 approach in the mix. We took the opportunity to move the exchange server to the cloud. We are instituting lifecycle management as they speak. We are inventorying all assets now – access points, UPSs, switches, etc. There will be a 4-year lifecycle for PCs. Last year, we purchased hardware to start on the oldest workstations (8+ years old). By the end of this year, we will have all HPs for employees with the exception of kiosk computers will be replaced. This covers 60% of all computers. By the end of 2024, we will be on the lifecycle. This will allow us to better estimate the 5-year budget once the lifecycle is underway. There is a new policy that every person only gets one device rather than multiple. This reduces the number of computers – we can’t outgrow them too quickly. Software for lifecycle management is a process of investigating. Having one process would be ideal. Looking at a module within Solar Winds, but taking a step back even after analysis of all modules. This has an open-source doing network monitoring now – ZABBIX. For now, it is a spreadsheet that we are managing. We post it once a week to the staff and never publishes the original. Economies of scale – there is a one-year contract with three one-year extensions with a vendor to supply computer hardware. This gets rebid every 4 years. This happened this past year to rule out the new contract. Switch side – longer-lasting hardware, but lifecycle replacement will take more time. We have 70 devices to replace this year. End-of-life equipment will be changed out by the end of this year. The city prefers Dell because of the working relationship. The HP contract split when they had the contract. We are getting to the point where most of what we do is browser base. We would like to see a lease rather than purchase-based contracts. Because we are under the city, we must track every order from the time of order until disposal. Someone must inventory a closet of switches for disposal. Someone must go erase everything. The Division of Waste Management has a contract with a vendor to dispose of computer hardware. Dell offered a cradle to grave process of shipping all old hardware to them, certificate of disposal then gave credit on the next purchase. The city said no. We are ordering 90 devices this year. They will be shipped and picked-up from central receiving, then we reimage them. Question 3 Answer: See website. Question 4 Answer: See Forms & Publications. Question 5 Answer: Finance has a senior clerk that handles all is procurement. She calls and gets all the quotes/paperwork. She has another person on the contract side. They have 12 contracts but average approximately 60 procurements per year. There is a project manager over those two individuals as well. Our airport needs to go to the city – to the TAC – then back to procurement. We are trying to do a 2-year procurement vs. a 1-year cycle.

100 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing We all need network monitoring right now. Three different departments (City, Utility, and Airport) would buy under one contract. They are slowly working on this process. The city takes the lead for enterprise licensing. Question 6 Answer: There are times where the advisory committee doesn’t understand the airport needs and how it ties into the regulations (FAA/TSA). We send a brief on the “why” to assist. This has not been streamlined due to COVID. Question 7 Answer: They are PO-based. 20-25% are GSA. The rest are vendor-based. Keep renewing or put out a bid to upgrade. There are lots of repeat awards because they know the system and win the bid. The entry level for other vendors is a lot higher. We perform analysis on each piece of application and determine any pieces of duplication. We have a payment management system. Question 8 Answer: Our other options include those presented by other airports or design builds for construction approaches. Question 9 Answer: Getting ready to award a professional services contract. Two IT vendors are needed: one on the network and the other on the application and services side. They overview everything they do with the vendor to work on priority projects (e.g., build-out SharePoint Intranet page, Cisco Prime for wireless). After an introduction discussion, we want to be a leading-edge on gap analysis. One of the pending, future projects is integration. Asset management is a priority. There is a lot of real estate to manage (e.g., 30-year-old concrete beds on the airfield). There is a construction project that was supposed to open on Thanksgiving and something new is always buried. They are doing 3D scans of the airport and putting it in a model. From technology, we are looking at what data is collected, how it can be centralized, then imported into a tool that can be queried to find out the answers (AI). There has never been a discussion about analytics, data management, and data collection. They aren’t ready for it because there are too many systems. In the next ten years, a user may call and the software can recognize the extension or quickly type, see the profile, determine the device, and analyze the problem. Having this capability is great, but it can be a problem if the employee doesn’t understand it. Resistance is the pocketbook. If it doesn’t benefit the city, it doesn’t get done. There are two levels of transition. Within the organization, you must get buy-in from the director and executive management team want to take the airport. There is a 40% chance of buy-in at this point; the staffing includes a lot of support staff, which makes it hard to buy into something they don’t see (e.g., don’t see passengers). Airlines must also buy into the process. Once complete, City Hall has to buy into this, and they may know nothing about the needs of the airports. Nothing is centralized in the cities. GIS is housed out of public utilities, but that is the only one due to the branching of the water system into several counties. Office of Radio Communication is out of utilities. Everything is connected through this single system. Question 10 Answer: Stakeholders had other thoughts that could be communicated more effectively with less than seven signatures (and fewer high-level signatures – some from the mayor) for every purchase. If it is just a renewal, it should go quicker. There is a need to streamline the process. In a perfect world, airport purchasing would be independent of the city.

Interview and Survey Responses 101 Communication is the basis of procurement. Every July/August launches the budget process. Every section of the airport that wants to buy something IT needs to send a request to IT to put them into the budget. Of the 5 departments (Finance, HR, Air Service/Terminal Services, Cleveland Airport Systems (Operations), IT, Planning, and Engineering), we received 1 budget request. We had to independently ping the other 4 departments. We do have a budget transfer system for unplanned purchases. IT needs to stop being an afterthought. Question 11 Answer: We just contracted for a lease management system in the cloud and are still waiting on the project plan. A lot of contracts are going cloud-based; it should only be accessible from a work environment. That means we need to have credentials onto the cloud- based system to find out who the users are to manage turnover. Five years ago, some items were pulled into IT (e.g., lease management). There needs to be a clear divide between software/hardware/services. Infrastructure should stay within the department and pull-out sensors, etc. IT has become the middleman and is forced to spend money based on a business decision that was never planned before the project started. Our goal is to have an IT partner at the table. Airport Name: Bradley International Airport (BDL) NPIAS: Medium FAA Code: ANE City: Windsor Locks State: Connecticut Interviewee: Laurie Sirois and Jeremy Killoran Phone: Email: Ownership: Quasi-Public – Connecticut Airport Authority (CAA) Question 1 Answer: All the procurement needs are governed by the Connecticut Airport Authority (CAA) Statutes and Regulations. Compliance is mandatory with an effort to adhere to open, public bidding. Question 2 Answer: CAA is a quasi-public agency to own, improve, and operative Bradley International Airport (BDL) and the five state-owned general aviation airports (Danielson, Groton-New London, Hartford-Brainard, Waterbury-Oxford, and Windham). Note: there are municipal airports they do not own. Jeremy Killoran, Manager of Information Technology for CAA, handles the IT for all the airports. Software, hardware, and services fall under IT. Jeremy is physically located at BDL. The other airports are smaller with limited staff. As IT needs arise, the airports and departments in BDL contact Jeremy. Jeremy does initial research and “shopping around” to identify potential solutions and procurement options. Jeremy directly reports to the Deputy Executive of Administration with the need to initiate procurement activities. When the need is submitted, it is a 1:1 conversation between the department or airport. The process generally does not solicit input or requests for others regarding the need. Question 3 Answer: Connecticut Airport Authority (CAA) guidelines and rules govern the procurement and processes. As a quasi-public agency, they are also held to several state guidelines and audits. Procurement rules come from the finance department. The finance department manages several revenue streams, including but not limited to concessions, parking, Airport Improvement Program (AIP), Passenger Facility Charges (e.g., tax on every ticket), and taxes on airplanes registered in the state. FAA AIP-funded projects must comply with federal regulations. Question 4 Answer: Procurements are based on thresholds. Price thresholds and type of project dictate the process but are religiously followed just in case there is a chance for reimbursement.

102 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing • Less than $2.5K: direct contact, aim to get three quotes for the best price and purchase. This tends to be a supply. Laurie is looking at increasing this dollar amount given the current costs of goods and services. • Less than $10K: call around to get an oral bid. Oral bids include a documented phone conversation or website information pull. • Less than $50K: requires a detailed scope and three written quotes. A timeframe to reply is required allowing for accurate submission comparisons. Ultimately, the award supports the “lowest responsive, responsible bidder.” Note: a vendor or supplier may not get the contract or order because they do not meet the specs. • Over $50K: requires a public bidding process. CAA has their own CAA Procurement Portal referred to as Procureware. All bids are posted in Procureware, which is locked so no information is exchanged in or out. An invitation to bid is provided to registered vendors. Is this accurate? The same award model applies where the “lowest responsive, responsible bidder” wins the work. Question 5 Answer: Nobody in the organization can just go ahead and purchase anything. Every purchase order goes through Laurie Sirois, the Manager of Grants, Procurement, and Insurance Programs. IT purchases are not approved by Laurie until Jeremy signs the approval. This process creates safety measures, ensures standardized procedures, and ensures the procurement is awarded to the “lowest responsive, responsible bidder.” Laurie and Jeremy directly report to the Deputy Executive of Administration. Laurie, Jeremy, Upper Management, and the selected committee members are involved in the procurement process. Question 6 Answer: See response to Question 10. Question 7 Answer: Requests for Interest are sent with hopes firms reply with interest in bidding. If there are folks interested (depending on the detail in the proposal that comes in), they can go direct to negotiation. Calls for clarification or invitations to present often follow this process before contract signatures. Invitation to Bid is published by Jeremy or a hired consultant who does the work to get interest. Upon award, prices are immediately uploaded for the public to see – shows firms, pricing, bidders, etc. Request for Proposal (RFP) and a Request for Information (RFI) processes include a committee of three to five internal individuals. Committee members get the RFP and RFI submissions in Procureware. Laurie downloads it and sends it to the committee for individual and independent review. The committee assembles as a group to select the top 3-5 firms submitting. The committee has an open dialogue discussion that references a scoring matrix. As a group, the score dictates the top recommendation. This recommendation comes back to Laurie for review. Laurie submits the recommendation to the Deputy Executive Director for approval. • Committee members stereotypically include the person issuing the RFP, a CAA employee with knowledge of the need, and a CAA employee with “enough to be dangerous” knowledge. A chairperson is appointed in this committee to guide the process. • CAA tries not to have any of Jeremy’s subordinates on the committee. • Laurie is never on the committee to facilitate associated questions and answers from the committee. • The general council is part of CAA and addresses sticky situations. • Procureware is locked down because pricing is not normally shared, especially with something that will get federal funding and has specific qualifications.

Interview and Survey Responses 103 • The process takes about 6 months. • Procurement takes about 6 weeks. Piggybacking/Adoptable State Department of Administrative Services contracts are an option. Public Bidding Agencies (e.g., co-op) are an option. Examples include the State of Connecticut Audio Visual Contract, Sourcewell, and CDW Government, LLC (CDW-G), who awarded Sourcewell contract 081419-CDW for IT goods and services acquisition. Co-ops provide five or six options with pricing from competitively solicited cooperative contracts. Jeremy can select which option is most applicable, passing the saving along to the airports. Sole source is typically used to procure something proprietary (e.g., a program written for the airport). It simply is not cost-effective or feasible to use other procurement processes in these cases. Question 8 Answer: None. Question 9 Answer: Nothing to recommend. Question 10 Answer: They are very happy with the process. They have a lot of options and always find something that works well within the rules. For airports just starting a formal procurement process or seeking to advance current practices, CAA recommends a structure with due diligence and conscientious budget awareness. In CAA, there is an added benefit in Jeremy serving as the central node. He is aware of needs, options for procurement, and governing rules. Replicating the process eliminates guesswork, streamlines maintenance / additional acquisition of “like” or “complementary” products and services, and the procurement flow. Airports not having a formal process are setting themselves up for bid protests from other companies, internal networks, etc. The resulting bad publicity creates a reputation that is hard to recover. Question 11 Answer: CAA has a book on procurement policies and procedures that is currently being updated. Airport Name: Greenville–Spartanburg International NPIAS: Small FAA Code: ASO City: Greer State: South Carolina Interviewee: Jonathan Stone Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Greenville–Spartanburg Airport Commission Question 1 Answer: There is a standard RFP template for professional services (includes software and IT services). The pre-booking software system was done through the RFP process. Complex IT procurements are typically sole-sourced, not a public solicitation. There is limited availability of qualified suppliers and no formal standardization program. Informally, end-users do consider it, which also helps identify IT systems to maintain a standardized. The typical RFP process is 60-90 days. The most challenging part is timing solicitations and

104 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing awards against thresholds of visibility. The Board of Commissioners must approve all aspects. An internal award may be done but has to sit on commission for weeks. There is no formal requirement for the number of qualified organizations, but they try to get at least three as a best practice. Question 2 Answer: There is no formal process for all technology procurements. Requirements owners (end users) have the discretion to either solicit to open market, sole- source, or RFP to the public. Solicitations are typically open for 30 days. We do not do sealed bids for technology. Question 3 Answer: The pot of money is federally funded or self-funded. This airport does not have the ability to tap into state funding. Question 4 Answer: None. Question 5 Answer: The Director of IT and our executive team are the stakeholders. The Director of IT advises on all things IT-related if necessary. At the very least the Director of IT is aware of these things. Question 6 Answer: Friction can come from a lack of lead time. Procurement is one of the last groups to be brought in for a requirement and solicitation. By then, the requirement owners have already seen demos and established relationships. It’s easier for them to manipulate the process and get what they want, rather than what they need. Question 7 Answer: RFPs are the most common in their experience. They also think it’s the most ideal because RFPs still foster open competition, but an entity can control minimum qualification standards without having to develop a 100% complete scope of work. This helps the entity fully vet proposers and award a contract to the offeror who adds the most value to the entity. Question 8 Answer: No public solicitation for subscriptions. Question 9 Answer: I think submitting a pre-qualification questionnaire for complex software solutions can be useful to speed up the procurement cycle time. It will weed out companies who may not be financially responsible or simply not capable of meeting the need of an entity. It will also provide an entity with additional information about their need that may affect what it ultimately procured and it will help speed up the solicitation process. Question 10 Answer: Ideally, the procurement process should cover three phases: • Phase 1: Strategically plan the IT need; • Phase 2: Develop the solicitation and a detailed scope of work; and • Phase 3: Evaluate, award, and execute a contract. Question 11 Answer: See provided links to IT courses offered by NIGP: • NIGP Courses • NIGP Webinars • NIGP Specializations

Interview and Survey Responses 105 Airport Name: Memphis–Shelby County Airport NPIAS: Small FAA Code: ASO City: Memphis State: Tennessee Interviewee: Kenneth Parrish Phone: Email: Ownership: Quasi-Governmental – Memphis–Shelby County Airport Authority Question 1 Answer: The process at the airport is simple. The IT department specifies the products we need with technical specifications. IT sends the information to Procurement. Procurement looks to the procurement options (e.g., co-op, state contracts, and opportunities) for a potential match to the request. Options are presented to the IT department. The IT department selects the best option, and formal procurement procedures commence. In rare cases, the process is bypassed due to the difficulty in matching the exact need. An example is shared use projects, which are projects where new airport systems share a space (e.g., the Southwest gate). The airport went out to a public bid to get a contracted consultant to handle this shared space project. Question 2 Answer: The IT department works with the executive management staff on the 5- year plan to identify where they are going and what is needed to achieve that vision. An example is a process of opening a new terminal because of tearing down an original terminal. This endeavor has a lot of IT needs. Many are new needs as the terminal building is not stereotypical. A second example supports “work from home” security needs and areas. Question 3 Answer: Rules are based on SOPs and the state of TN laws. They must abide by how they process and what they do. Anything over $3,000 needs more than one quote. If under $25,000, technology solutions can be procured with three quotes. Anything over $25,000 must go out to public bid unless it can be procured through a co-op or state contract. The Procurement Department is working on threshold changes. Anything under $5,000 would require one quote. Anything up to $10,000 would require three quotes. The upper threshold of $25,000 would increase to $50,000. This recommendation matches the TN government entities and other airports’ practices. The outcome makes procurement easier due to increases in costs of goods and services. This request was submitted last year with the goal of it taking effect 1 Jan 2021. Note: the fiscal year cycle starts on 1 July. This is standard for airports. Question 4 Answer: The airport tries to look at each IT procurement separately, being mindful of the thresholds. Even if the request is under the threshold, it is best practice to get multiple quotes. This keeps everyone honest, especially when dealing with routine vendors who know the amounts and set pricing accordingly. Public bids can take two to three months. Co-op and state contracts allow for flexibility and increased speed, especially for anything over $25K. These options also make it a little bit more competitive. Example co-ops are Sourcewell and Omnia Partners, and National Joint Powers Alliance® (NJPA). They have not “given” a contract to Sourcewell for piggybacking. For example, they could do a contract then bring the contract to Sourcewell for continued sharing. MEM needs to start looking at this as an airport. Piggybacking on awarded consultants for shared used situations is ideal. A selected vendor manages the project and recommends product/suppliers needed to complete the project. Question 5 Answer: The IT department works with the executive management staff. Procurement does not get involved with IT needs. The only time procurement gets involved is when they get the capital outlay budget. They look at what departments want, call up IT, then start looking at proactive ways to get the item(s).

106 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing The procurement department includes the Director, Manager, two buyers, one critical person, and four warehouse staff members. The warehouse does the day-to-day purchasing. The buyers handle the RFP and RFQ process. A committee of seven individuals is assembled to evaluate submitted RFPs. Each is provided a hard copy for independent review. For RFPs and RFQs, a panel interviews suppliers. Each supplier is asked the same questions and provided an opportunity to ask questions. The panel has a score sheet to evaluate each supplier on criteria. Question 6 Answer: The uniqueness of software IT needs is a variable. Software procurement is different than buying something standard (e.g., maintenance vehicle). Trying to get the specifications to define the need is very difficult. The holistic use of the purchased software must be considered to avoid repetitive bidding processes creating further complexities given software uniqueness. Hardware can be matched pretty easily. Services do not have to go out for public bid and are often procured through sole-source and single-source methods. This is because the airport has a piece of equipment that is already serviced by a company. The soft cost (e.g., retraining) is too high and does not make fiscal sense. A single source or co-op method of procurement is most effective. Other services are subjected to the procurement processes and thresholds. However, if it is something new and linked to a product, the examination needs to occur in a case-by-base. When in doubt, follow the same processes. Co-op and state contracts are usually the first steps as these vehicles allow the airport to focus minimal manpower on unique, non- standardized purchases like technology. Without the co-op and state contracts, the airport would never catch up. An example is the use of state contracts for purchasing all vehicles. Public bids on all vehicle purchases would monopolize time. Education is still a big struggle and needs attention. Vendors and suppliers, especially in the DBE space are unclear on how to do business with the airport. This creates a hurdle as working on the government side of airports is a challenge. The Mid-South Minority Business Council leads the education efforts with different outreach efforts such as symposiums. Most states have these types of councils that publish RFPs/RFQs and hold symposiums to gather more participants. • The Airport Purchasing Group does seminars for procurement personnel already in the system, but there is no education process for the public on “how to get involved.” The government in general is missing this, not just airports. Doing business with the government is very different and “work-intensive” that deters folks from going after the business when vendors/suppliers have a misconception that there is a slim chance of winning the work. Other variables for vendors and suppliers include personnel. Rarely do the smaller firms have individuals available to read 100+ page documents for dissection and then bidding. MEM has a standardized bid package and a “small bid” project variation. Both are used, with greater use of the small bid variation recently to remove cumbersome processes and asks such as financial statements. A final hurdle is a submission. MEM has thrown out submissions because the vendors did not turn in everything, didn’t turn it on time, etc. The airport is relooking at certain requirements that should not be considered and have historically eliminated the firm on the initial reply. For example, a submission that received ten bids would have four or five removed before getting started. Attention to unnecessary submission elements would allow for greater inclusion. Question 7 Answer: State contracts, co-op, and sole source are the most common. Piggyback is also quite common as contracts were awarded through the public bidding process. The documentation and paperwork are replicated for the piggybacking entity. For example, MEM piggybacked on Denver’s purchase of Workday.

Interview and Survey Responses 107 A lot of airports do this because it is appliable to any government entity. Example: Motorola towers were put in throughout the city of Memphis. The airport will piggyback on this exact contract, repeating the exact elements. When there is an issue, legal manages the specifics. Requests for Proposals (RFPs), Requests for Qualification (RFQs), and Requests for Bids (RFBs) are published in the local papers. The Daily News, Tri-State Paper (Minority-owned), and La Prensa (Hispanic-owned) run the announcement for two days, per state law. The airport also puts it on the website under “Do Busines with MEM.” It stays on the website for up to three- or four-weeks post-award. Note: the website posting is not required and does not offset the need for local newspaper announcements. MEMVendor.com registration as a potential supplier provides announcements and copies of the bid as well. When the contract hits the street, registered vendors get a copy of that contract via email. All potential vendors can still watch the website and the paper. Question 8 Answer: They are not aware of other options but are interested in finding out what others do. Options for shared use projects and implementation of new software systems (e.g., Workday piggybacked on Denver) would be ideal. Question 9 Answer: MEM has a good Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program spearheaded by the diversity division. • Engagement with the community is a critical key step as it allows for the identification of qualified DBE firms. Once identified, the procurement department can work with the DBE to get their feet in the door for doing business with the airport. • B2Gnow is heavily used to power the diversity program. Four years ago, Ken was tasked with bringing the B2Gnow software up to speed for procurement. In 2020, it now posts every RFP. Notifications are pushed across the country quickly and easily rather than just publishing it in the local paper. • MEMVendor.com links to B2G. The small business participation program includes only certain projects and is designed for participation by DBE that is under the $1M threshold. The airport also hosts job fairs and shark tank options to expand the scope of participation. Ken was interviewed and spoke on how to get involved. Just started using General Services Administration (GSA) last year. blends into the co-op process. They currently talk to other entities in the state to find out what the others are doing (e.g., school, city, etc.). TN looked at electronic bidding processes about 1.5 years ago. They have not looked at it from the airport angle yet. B2G is a step in that direction. The airport must start doing some automation in the procurement process. One specific reason is in support of the RFP committees. Each committee member gets a copy of the RFP, which can be very large. Converting to a thumb drive submission, at a minimum would be better. Getting rid of the paper must be an initiative. The hurdles to electronic bidding include the cost and protection. Most firms offering a portal for submission are charging the vendors and suppliers a fee (e.g., pay to get a copy of the bid). How do you get the software package that is “free for everyone” or cost-effective? How do you ensure the integrity of the bid submissions? For example, the committee opens hard copy bids at the same time. How is this replicated online? Question 10 Answer: The process is straightforward, but always talking to people to improve and gather more participants. Many participants ensure the best quality, bid, etc. The more streamlined, the more involved, the better the outcome. The state has an Airport Purchasing Group, which meets and shares. Before COVID, the last one he went to was in Texas. It included 50 procurement people from different airports.

108 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Focused on networking, sharing, reviewing processes. Procurement members of this group can send an email to “all” in this group to examine past work, processes, etc. The state of TN has a procurement group as well. Members meet once/month and talk about procurement stuff. It is geared toward the government and not just the airport. A lot of the “talk” is about schools and sharing. Question 11 Answer: Yes, Ken will send if/after legal approval. Airport Name: City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport NPIAS: Small FAA Code: ANM City: Colorado Springs State: Colorado Interviewee: Chris Padilla Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – City of Colorado Springs Question 1 Answer: If it is a technology that is not familiar, it begins with research. An RFI can be sent to gain more insights. An RFQ can occur next to identify and see more about a system before issuing an RFP. It could also go straight to RFP. There is a pre-bid meeting before the deadline of bid proposal submissions. This allows vendors to come out, ask questions; it also allows the airport to see home many vendors are interested. The RFP Scope of work, requirements, etc. at a high level – published for 2 weeks. The deadline activates a period of questions. A cut-off day is 3 or 4 days before the bid proposal is due. The bid packet is reviewed by the committee chosen for the project. A short list allows them to select two or three vendors to present to the committee. The committee would complete a form that gives weighted averages to score the presentations. After that, there is an award letter to the vendor with a notice to proceed. Question 2 Answer: There are multiple avenues, but no formal process. Needs are identified as projects and new situations arise. These are usually identified at a managerial level. We have seen front-line staff identify a need or want. It escalates to the manager, then goes to procurement. If approved, the budget must be available to support it. Approval triggers the whole process. An example is an accounting system. Older accounting systems, or older versions, are not supported by the technology company. New accounting software is identified as a need. It is a very reactive set-up. The only proactive piece is inventory. Management knew who had what computer and how old that device was. At risk-devices were replaced when 3-year cyclical reviews were conducted. There are onboarding processes that connect to IT inventory. Question 3 Answer: The city has an airport advisory committee. This committee follows the city’s procurement rules and processes. Question 4 Answer: The rules and guidelines are based on monetary thresholds. Anything under $25K doesn’t require a contract. There isn’t a formal process for procurement unless there is a need that needs to be covered within the contract (e.g., liability, insurance). Anything from $25-50K required an informal process, which includes a requirement to gather three quotes. Anything over $50K requires a formal RFI, RFQ, or RFP process.

Interview and Survey Responses 109 Some P-Cards are left up to the discretion of whoever manages the P-Cards. A preference would be to have invoicing for tracking. In most cases, P-Cards live outside of reporting systems, so the “preference” documents and supports the purchase. Question 5 Answer: The director-level (airport and facility operations) are internal stakeholders. Day-to-day procurement resides with the procurement specialists. They run the process and make sure the process is followed. Other airports seem to have managerial oversight at the director’s discretion. Daily procurement is based on function and department. For example, advertising is under one person. Leasing lives with another team. Airlines and concessions are jointly reviewed under air service development and properties personnel. Smaller items (e.g., under $5K) goes to a procurement person to purchase. Question 6 Answer: The biggest one is communication between the end-users and the person who owns the contract. The typical “human” issues include communication, deadlines, and dates. The workaround is to host regular meetings. Nobody leaves the meeting without clarification. Dates and deadlines are addressed with committee members, making sure their managers, reports, and directors, support commitment to published dates for interviews, hosted Q&As, etc. With commitment and managerial support, it worked. Question 7 Answer: P-Card, RFI, RFQ, and RFP are the most common. Airports have everything from quick downloadable online IT items all the way to large infrastructure – including the industrial level. For example, the lighting system is very complex and high-level, which is very IT heavy. The mainframes, software that communicates with radio signals for pilot-controlled lighting through microphone clicks, security, etc. are all very IT heavy. Cameras, motion sensors, and other items are included. Shockingly, things like scheduling software can be downloaded for a large sum of money. Airports are their own “little city.” Question 8 Answer: Cooperative procurements are common when multiple airports have the same needs. This can extend to other parts of the same government as well. For example, a need for custodial services can arise and the airport can team up with other departments for a cooperative agreement. Sometimes procurement occurs at the state and national levels. Part of the policy can be to piggyback on those existing contracts. They can then pick a candidate from an existing procurement. There are different varieties. Each organization is required to have its own policies. As long as the process is followed and supported by the attorney’s office, then the process governs. It protects against risks. Question 9 Answer: Think tanks are powerful as they are generating multiple views and opinions. The “get together” allows the airport to identify what needs to be done based on use cases. Collaboration and networking are huge, especially with IT. More and more airports are extending outreach to identify and learn about the same IT software and hardware. The exchange of pros/cons and ideas on using it again is important. This is especially true with smaller airports. Question 10 Answer: Identification, communication, being able to support the need/want, initial research, committee assembly, using the committee to create and scope and RFP, having everyone commit to a timeline and deadlines. From a procurement process, elimination of risk and lawsuits in the selection process would be ideal. This would allow for the assembly of quotes that comply with the budget, but the airport needs protection.

110 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing It would be nice to have the FAA assemble a procurement template that could go to any airport. If the state could also provide this template, that would streamline the process. There isn’t a national-standardized template. Each RFP is unique and outside of the “boilerplate” that requires the committee to scrutinize the scope of work, requirements, problem mitigation, etc. Vendors also want to negotiate items, including boilerplate items. This creates unique documents every single time. Templates for very specific things (e.g., leases, software, etc.) often don’t cover IT-specific issues. An agreement between the IT provider and the airport did not exist and needed to be created. Externally, each company is different when it comes to negotiation unless the vendor has already gone through the federal contract consortium (e.g., searchable list). However, there are often missing pieces that are highly relevant to the airport. In a perfect world, if any external IT company could create an external template, everyone would know what they were getting into before contract negotiations. Question 11 Answer: Not available at this time but can send a request to the airport. Airport Name: Aspen-Pitkin Co. NPIAS: Nonhub FAA Code: ANM City: Pitkin State: Colorado Interviewee: John Kinney Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – Pitkin County Question 1 Answer: Technology procurement is a two-step process. If it is a big technology, the IT department is included as a Subject Matter Expert (SME). If it is germane to the airport, the airport handles it. Procurement is one-size-fits-all and very dollar-driven. At a certain dollar level, you get informal or formal bids. Informal can be three documented phone calls. A formal bid would be actual written proposals that are approximately one-page. A full procurement is an RFP. If FAA or TSA funds are used, an RFQ is required and serves as the threshold of activation. Local county-code procedures are used when FAA and TSA are not involved. Professional services (planning, engineering, technology, etc.) are qualification-based. Selections are made and negotiations occur to determine contract prices. Must choose then can negotiate contract prices. There are unique “real bind” cases that use federal programs for the procurement of certain programs. The dollar amount is generally $1M+, allowing the procurement to use a provided Federal or State contract that allocates a preferred vendor to a project and already features hundreds of pages of access control, hardware, and software. An alternate option is the use of system integrators, which are entities that do not carry any product lines. System integrators scope the project, do an assessment of available options, and go after specific hardware and software. For the professional services component, system integrators check with the FAA and TSA to determine if grants are involved. An example of the process is the new command center at the airport. Question 2 Answer: They found out the hard way that issues at an airport are so different for the operations, safety, security aspect that people who have had decades of IT experience only specialize in “off the shelf” products. A majority of airport needs do not have “off-the- shelf” products. It has gotten much better in the past decade because folks have realized there are hundreds of airports with grant dollars. Products are becoming more and more specialized (e.g., flow rates, efficiencies).

Interview and Survey Responses 111 Example: Arrowbond – put out by SOB – software tracks all things that create airfield efficiency. Example: Transponders in vehicles (e.g., snow removal) with alarms that prevent active runway infiltration. Most IT have never heard of the stuff. They will sit on the committee and advise decision- makers on what should be selected to fit into the existing operations. Always try to a problem definition meeting/concept of operations. Bring in all folks in the airport that could piggyback onto the idea as a solution to a shared problem. What are the problems? What are you trying to solve? They are heavily socialized to the scope and define the problem. Finance is always involved. Question 3 Answer: Local municipality procurement procedures. Larger airports have their own local processes (e.g., Denver – converted in 2009). This is because the dollars are so big at the airports. Question 4 Answer: Recognize it is government and comply. Bring the procurement people into the process and let them feel the “pain.” Offer a “full-time” position to manage procurement for the airport. This worked for 6-8 months, then decided to redesign the procurement procedures for the airport and the county. This created a hybrid of 85/15 split. Question 5 Answer: Stakeholders involved are topic-driven. An example is a security access control system that impacts everyone (e.g., airlines, rental cars, etc.). Geographically they were brought in to discuss how robust involvement should be. In other times, procurement may be simple and only involved stakeholders in the terminal. Question 6 Answer: The success of deliverables is proportionate to the design-end of the RFP and the number of players who are directly/indirectly/could be impacted is part of the process. The more inclusive it is upfront to flush out variables and consider all perspectives or create a phased approach (e.g., years from now) creates expectation management, ownership, and ideas. Planning and scoping of the project and defining the concept of operation is the key. They definitely have challenges, but not a lot of volume compared to some of the larger airports. They do it well considering the volume. If you go into large development (e.g., move the runway, scape the airport), it would be astronomical and exceed staff, culture, technology, approval processes to spend the amount of money it would cost per week/weekend basis. They are at a crossroads where they either make procurement responsive to complexity or crash and burn. This is a current dilemma. LAX development right now is $7M/day x 7 days/week. Question 7 Answer: Downtown can buy in bulk and homogenous the system. This homogenous the technical support. Enterprise purchases for hardware, software, etc. for daily basis use. Question 8 Answer: Consider speaking with the county. Question 9 Answer: It’s a double-edged sword because of the size of airport procurements. Small procurement is $100K+. Large is millions. There are nasty politics when “not chosen” with attacks on the process, individual, etc. The most effective approach is to embrace the process. The government is about the process and not about P&L. Process is the judgment and serves as the shield for the airport. The most effective tool is the process. Increasing

112 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing participation can be tough. The knowledge of the process is not supported by the end product. The airport decision-makers are held hostage. “Most responsive” bidder is a new term rather than the “lowest.” Define responsive. If retaining the lowest bid, there is a heavy penalty on the last projects completed at the airport. Use a sliding scale to evaluate and track historical performances. Could be awarded work or banned due to poor performance. History is minimal for new bidders. Added circumstances that are exceptions from due diligence could introduce a sliding scale. Add subjectivity beyond the lowest bidder. Question 10 Answer: Don’t take a shortcut without solid, multiple approvals on the procurement process. This could indicate big trouble. Question 11 Answer: John retired from Aspen. Retired in August but was asked to stay on in an advisory role under 1 December. Airport Name: Pilot Station Airport NPIAS: Nonprimary Commercial Service, Nonhub FAA Code: AAL City: Pilot Station State: Alaska Interviewee: Erik Weingarth Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities (DOT&PF) Question 1 Answer: The DOT has two computers – a state equipment fleet and one for airport manager. DOT procurement goes through the northern region office in Fairbanks. Question 2 Answer: IT department in Fairbanks determines and pushes solutions to the airport. The focus is on state-driven procurement. Internet capacity is an issue. Question 3 Answer: Because of the state budget, we must notify the district office of a request. We can’t just make purchases – it all much go through an approval chain. For example, airport lighting requests can take 3-4 months from request to receiving the equipment. Mail can take 2-3 weeks from Anchorage to the local area. Question 4 Answer: We sometimes beg and borrow from others across the state. Lots of airports do not have fast enough Internet to deal with the software requirements on newer equipment. Question 5 Answer: Stakeholders involved include: • IT Department in Fairbanks • Manager • Superintendent Calvin Shaeffer (Gnome) • Director of Department of Transportation (Fairbanks) – final decision maker based on state funds

Interview and Survey Responses 113 Question 6 Answer: The state budget, weather, location, COVID (lack of planes to move freight in a timely manner). The state budget is the largest pain point. Workarounds include begging and borrowing where possible. Question 7 Answer: We are not familiar with procurement bidding. There are different policies based on what items/equipment are being requested – all at the state level (Fairbanks DOT). Question 8 Answer: None. Question 9 Answer: Nothing comes to mind, not even meeting with other airports. We only send emails when looking for parts. Question 10 Answer: We would like to be able to directly request solutions, rather than depending on a regional state office to approve based on budget. Question 11 Answer: We are not able to provide any. Airport Name: Waynesville-St. Robert Regional Airport at Forney Field NPIAS: Nonprimary Commercial Service, Nonhub FAA Code: ACE City: Fort Leonard Wood State: Missouri Interviewee: Anonymous Phone: Anonymous Email: Anonymous Ownership: Authority – Iberia Parish Airport Authority Question 1 Answer: Technology procurement goes through the city. FAA inspections do not happen here. Nine out of ten procurement processes contact the city to determine the services they want or need. Most of their purchases are DoD down to DA and down to them. They have to be compatible with the NIC and network system. Question 2 Answer: See response to Question 1. Question 3 Answer: Essential air services fall under the FAA. Airlines that participate in this program make a bid with the military and the city. City gets all the money and then divides it to the airline. They own the airline (military building, runway, etc.) they have a joint use with the city and army on who can do what. They lease land to the city. They cover all bases with the FAA. There are only 5 airports for joint-use military civilian airports.

114 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 4 Answer: Not provided. Question 5 Answer: Not provided. Question 6 Answer: Not provided. Question 7 Answer: Not provided. Question 8 Answer: Not provided. Question 9 Answer: Not provided. Question 10 Answer: Not provided. Question 11 Answer: Not provided. Airport Name: Acadiana Regional & LeMaire Memorial Airport NPIAS: General Aviation FAA Code: ASW City: New Iberia State: Louisiana Interviewee: Maurice Songy Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Iberia Parish Airport Authority Question 1 Answer: When they need something with technology, the biggest factor is cost. Anything under $5K, they can procure without commission approval. They do have to get quotes and bids to keep purchasing fair. The actual airport chairman can approve anything above $5K and less than $10K. Anything above $10K requires parish council permission.

Interview and Survey Responses 115 Question 2 Answer: It is on an as-needed basis. They have to show justification on how it would make their job easier or better via documentation, then comply with the thresholds. Recommendations are taken to the commission for approval. Question 3 Answer: The biggest one is cost. After that, the actual procurement process governs the processes. You must show at least three bids or quotes (or a good faith effort to get the quotes) before purchasing. Quotes are usually only appliable to anything over $5K. The goal is to lessen the accusation of impropriety. Question 4 Answer: Monetary thresholds present options. The lowest bid or quote could be in the position to “not service they need.” If using something other than the lowest bid, written justification must be submitted for auditing purposes. Question 5 Answer: The biggest stakeholders include the administrative staff as they use the technology. If it has anything to do with the maintenance staff (e.g., keep track of maintenance items), they are the key players that would present the need with a justification. The next layer is the commission (described above). Question 6 Answer: Friction occurs when the “best suited” product isn’t the lowest cost submitted. Justification for selection must be submitted when not selecting the lowest-cost product. The airport staff must answer questions that may arise from the justification. Question 7 Answer: Word of mouth from other airports and online research are most applicable to the small world of airports. Asking the question to trusted colleagues is the best source of information to then execute procurement as described. Question 8 Answer: Going to conferences to see available technology is optimal. For example, an airfield inspection program demonstrated the available products he needed at this airport. Question 9 Answer: Networking generates information flow and pull. A speaker elaborating on a topic, in addition to the questions asked to provide needed insights and ideas. Products need to advertise online in a manner that attracts airport interest. Call and ask if the airport will look at a product. Cold calling is a big part! Question 10 Answer: If the government wasn’t always looking over the shoulder, the shown need could be purchased. The checks and balances are understood, especially in a government entity. Unfortunately, it has made it hard on ethical employees. Trust in his commission has been very helpful and streamlines the process. Outside of technology procurement, airports need to listen to what employees say. What makes their job easier and what can be purchased to help? Question 11 Answer: If you have rules in place for procurement, follow the rules to save the headache in the end. You don’t want to “dig things up” to justify an action during an audit.

116 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Ownership: Private – Causey Aviation, Inc. Question 1 Answer: Airport technology is not really purchased. The bulk of the technological operations reside at larger public airports. Question 2 Answer: As needed purchases are made based on research, conventions, vendor meetings, online findings, and word-of-mouth. Question 3 Answer: Small business return-on-investment or mandate for compliance governs the processes. An example is the 2016 mandate from the FAA that all civilian aircraft has equipment installed call ADS-B OUT by January 1, 2020, to prevent grounding of aircraft. The entity purchased the equipment and installed it. Question 4 Answer: See response to Question 3. Question 5 Answer: There is not a technology procurement department. There is a person dedicated to buying aircraft parts. There isn’t enough procurement of technology for an individual department. Question 6 Answer: None currently due to size. Question 7 Answer: Information vehicles include research and insights into technology. Information is used to negotiate the best prices. Credit cards and checks are common forms of acquisition. Question 8 Answer: Establishing a consortium of like-industry companies interested in working on advanced mobility and delivery of services (e.g., healthcare) is of high interest. There is a potential opportunity to shape how the market might develop. Non-profit membership and board members that include a myriad of representation to advance a cause provide valuable insights on emerging technology. Collaboration on projects happens often. Establishments designed to “join forces” for stronger negotiations by bulk and volume are ideal. Question 9 Answer: Stated ideas are solid and would be helpful. The Agility Prime program under the Air Force is a good idea to advance competitiveness and acquire access to facilities, resources, and equipment that accelerates technology. Airport Name: Causey NPIAS: Unclassified FAA Code: ASO City: Liberty State: North Carolina Interviewee: Jeff Causey Phone: Email:

Interview and Survey Responses 117 Question 11 Answer: None currently. Airport Name: Eastern West Virginia Regional Airport/Shepherd Field NPIAS: Reliever FAA Code: AEA City: Martinsburg State: West Virginia Interviewee: Neil Doran Phone: Email: Ownership: Authority – Eastern West Virginia Regional Airport Authority Question 1 Answer: They are still a small-budget airport and very primitive. They are not part of the county government. They have a regional airport authority but use the county IT department for services. They do not have a procurement policy and are not bound by a policy. Question 2 Answer: It is an informal process that includes staff ideas on renovation and enhancements. They brought a private FBO and Part 135 air charter on the field and set up a new GA executive terminal and front desk. They are doing a receipt printer, thermal printer, multi-line phone purchase, etc. County IT is setting it up with equipment and then may charge for set-up and configuration. Question 3 Answer: There are no internal rules. Direction from the board members would like them to investigate what the state of WV does for procurement. They found different manuals published by the state DOT with spending thresholds and associated requirements. Question 4 Answer: They are unlimited at this point with executive authority to get quotes from county IT or not. They talk about the different models knowing that the airport authority model offers some freedom from the bureaucracy that exists with additional guidelines. Question 5 Answer: In technology, they might call upon different members of the BOD (e.g., Vice-Chair is an IT professional with a computer company and consulting firm). The interviewee does not make money or benefit from the process but can volunteer expertise on a particular technology. Question 6 Answer: None that require mentioning recently. Approximately 1.5 years ago, the BOD decided to supplement the interviewee by creating a new position for an Executive Director (a non-aviation person) that handles such matters as economic development, lobbying, governmental relations, much of our public relations, overseeing our budget and entity as CEO. While not an elected official, the individual's background is in state and local government and economic development. It is not uncommon to have an aviation professional as airport manager and another non- aviation professional with more advanced political skills as "Executive Director/CEO." That person does not necessarily have to be an aviation expert. For example, at Tweed-New Haven, they typically have a state senator or other politician as Executive Director and have a separate Airport Manager that runs the day-to-day airport matters. Question 10 Answer: None currently.

118 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing It did not use to be that way when there was a smaller budget and mainly an airport administrative authority. There was a lot of micro-managing of the budget and BOD bylaws that tied the staff's hands. There was a rule that if it was an expenditure beyond the budget, there was a $1.5K limit on spending. Approval would have to wait on the next meeting to make a move or take care of a bill. The BOD would be irritated by the minutia of dealing with something small. The limit is one-time payments not to exceed $10K. The executive director can authorize and can go to the executive committee to deal with an expenditure. There is a $2K/month limit for single expenditures if it is an ongoing payment. Question 7 Answer: Anything they buy is small scale. They have a purchasing card issued through the state. There are also a few other staff credit cards available. They have an accounting person/billing officer doing auto-pay and wire transfers. The new acquisitions of FBO and Part 135 may have additional expenditures and may need higher approval to get the aircraft out and operational. Question 8 Answer: They are familiar with these at other airports but have not used things like state-buying programs. It is not ruled out for the future. Most are one-off and as-needed expenses that will not need the state-level of procurement oversight. They are growing in sophistication but currently in a transition. Question 9 Answer: They are not qualified enough to identify a recommendation. Innovation makes sense, given the fiduciary responsibility to the public to guard the use of funds and have a level playing field to allow local and nation-wide vendors to bid for services. They publish RFPs and RFQs on the website, but it seems to date they are doing more, "We need an engineering firm or soliciting interest in air cargo or doing a grant-funded project." This would require a more formal procurement process in the future and contribute to a need for policies and procedures. Question 10 Answer: Simple for the GA world given the level of funding and number of staff members. The national funding for airports gives priority to funding rewards to commercial service airports. Take the politics out of funding. Invisible Intelligence LLC and the GARD system is a software system that counts the number of takeoff and landings by software algorithms using a basic scanner and uses ADSB. Airports that do not have air traffic control tours or only-part time (theirs) and GA airports cannot tell you the number of takeoffs and landings. They guess. People have old numbers (30 years old), and the FAA gives money out based on submitted numbers. GARD System is a $4-6K purchase that only needs a laptop and scanner and can go anywhere. The FAA should fund and mandate them and require this data is collected when they do any funding activities. This would give credit where credit is due in terms of funding. Many small airports do not need all the funding that they get due to politics. Look at the numbers and fund appropriately. Consider the CARES Act. This GA got $30K, and ATL got $338M. This is an unfair distribution of funds. FAA is not putting money where it is needed or where the airplanes are. Use the numbers, remove the human error, and take out the distortions from the funding process. Numbers are self-reported with no validation in commercial services via 5010 reports vs. GA must report to basedaircraft.com (national based inventory program), which is heavily audited. Contract privatization – manipulation of numbers to get the funding they want for the contract tower program. FAA has a cost-benefit ratio. It seems that adding the Executive Director to the team increased the confidence the board has in our collective abilities. We have also experienced more freedom to expend the funds needed to pursue our vision and goals for the airport.

Interview and Survey Responses 119 This airport has 8 x C17 military aircraft, and the FAA does not give any credit. It is not what they do not get; it is just the "acceptance" of what information is submitted with a lack of follow-up on the information. Question 11 Answer: None. Organization: Federal Aviation Administration NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Washington State: D.C. Interviewee: Stephanie Austin Phone: Email: Ownership: Public - Federal Question 1 Answer: The Federal Aviation Administration has a division that focuses on procurement, including information technology needs. Investment decisions are supported by guidance, based on need and funding origination. Question 2 Answer: Procurement needs are determined through a Procurement Justification Template. Question 3 Answer: When procuring new solutions, SMEs may be consulted to determine if the system needs and characteristics. If there is a software need, the current software is reviewed to ensure there is not a product already available. Question 4 Answer: There is an Asset Management Policy that can determine roles. Question 5 Answer: The current FAA procurement process is subject to continuous process improvement efforts. Question 6 Answer: There are currently no glaring variables that impact the procurement process. Question 7 Answer: Their Acquisition Management Policy is extensive. It requires details, options, decision making processes, and research processes. FAA tried to reduce the hours, but politics got in the way and justified the existing staff hours. This airport has nearly 100 airplanes at his airport and got $30K. Bluefield has six airplanes and got $69K because years ago they had one civilian jet. If you call, they do not know anything about the jet.

120 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 8 Answer: None. Question 9 Answer: The FAA recommends training for its employees, documenting the procurement process, using a policy for redundancy, and using a contract database. Question 10 Answer: It should include contractor searches, needs assessment, and a review of current tools to make sure what is needed isn’t already procured. Question 11 Answer: See fast.faa.gov for website on procurement. See the specific Procurement Guide. Organization: Sourcewell NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Staples State: Minnesota Interviewee: David Duhn Phone: Email: Ownership: Public - Federal Question 1 Answer: They go through the same process as all government agencies. They bid an award through the same city/county/state process. Because they are a .gov, they follow the same rules. Question 2 Answer: Member agencies, or those they serve pose the question. For example, “Do you have a solution for X.” The member's need for a contract vehicle in a category drives the solicitation. They use three guiding questions. • Is there a need? • Is there an unmet need? • Can they bring value? Question 3 Answer: Most agencies have their own procurement guide or manual that captures standards and best practices that meet or exceed regulatory requirements. They are a little different. When an airport needs something, they solicit bids then award. Their co-op awards a supplier so other agencies can use their contract to satisfy a bidding requirement. Question 4 Answer: Joint powers laws guide the rules for use. A perfect reference is the use of a state contract. This case study alludes to a “state contract for all 50 states.” Reasons for not using them: • They (Sourcewell) do not have a solution for everything. • Job security can also a concern (e.g., if I am not writing the bids, what is my job). Transition to a strategic approach for procurement is mitigating this challenge. • They think they can get a better price. • Political concerns about fair and open competition. Perception is the reality in some cases and plays a major role in the decision to use the co-op. Other entities do what this co-op does, but they are for profit. They get an agency to do the bid, then go out and market it. When the agency does the bid, they make a contract that is

Interview and Survey Responses 121 solicited by a government agency but marketed by the co-op. This isn’t wrong, just different. Think of this example; they are a credit union, and the others are a bank. A “.gov” was achieved two years ago. They have to add “mn.gov” because of GSA. GSA governs the “.gov” space. This clarifies that it is a fellow-government agency. All governments have unique governance structures that make it a challenge. Question 5 Answer: They have an elected BOD who are already government officials. They are then elected to their board. All employees are public employees. The heart of what they do is the procurement process. It is entirely fair, open, and competitive. The procurement department has pristine processes. The award of excellence in procurement was given the past five years for their processes. Their job is to make sure they have solutions that the entities will value. A team goes out to participating agencies to identify how they can help, fill gaps, and better service needs. The supplier and agency never have to use the contract. The value is focused on outstanding service, quality suppliers, vetting, etc. They publish RFPs (see affidavit of advertisements on the website) for a solution. They do not solicit for SKUs, they solicit for a solution. Every entry is competing for 1000 points. They aren’t competing against each other for the award. CDWG has a contract for nearly 15 years that had to be won three different times. The selection team looks at the natural cut-off point and awards suppliers above the line (e.g., anyone over XXX points). In the case of technology, CDWG, SHI, and Connections with different catalogs that have very different market focus. Think of heavy equipment and know that some have preferences (e.g., Ford, John Deer, etc.). In technology, some folks have a preference (e.g., Dell, Chromebook). Question 6 Answer: The most difficult piece is the scope of the solicitation as they are looking for a solution. The State of NY has awarded hundreds of OEMs for technology across dozens of categories with multiple managers. They have a single CDWG catalog. These are two very different approaches. The solution cannot be so broad where there is “stuff and related stuff.” For example, can you sell furniture and auditorium seating? Must prevent category creep. There is some creep and there needs to be (e.g., computer and ink). They understand the challenge and ensures the supplier understands that. Do you sell services? Pure is very hard. Yes, but it is harder to define. The agencies are clamoring for this right now. Ernst & Young does 5G consulting. He has to present the solutions and is presenting that for the airports next week. Airports do more PPP than anyone, but have a set amount of real estate in their “small cities.” Terms of the agreement will dictate the use case as some will install, but then require a 10- year contract for services. Most contracts have some element of service that comes with it. Question 7 Answer: Every state has technology contracts that can be accessed. States tend to have rather narrow scopes (e.g., six models of laptops and they have 600). Technology is their largest category by far. It is approaching $700-800M per year in purchases as they know they can go to one spot and have a variety of options. They want help “building” the solution rather than multiple stops. Question 8 Answer: None

122 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 9 Answer: Airport Purchasing Group presentation. This group (APG) is the feet on the street. Everything has to come across their desk. Those are the people they speak to – the gatekeeper. FAA funding is complicated. The governance of buckets of money is an issue. There are security issues. PPP with airlines is an issue. Different governance structures can cause issues. They have been the primary sponsor for airports for ten years. Airports always want to be unique. They need to accept that other government entities require the same things. Airports don’t want to eliminate the central bond that airports share. Question 10 Answer: Jet bridges do not meet the three criteria. However, Denver did and then numerous other airports purchased this off their work. The solution needs to be scalable. They have not gone to the executive level with the solution. They need greater awareness since they don’t act or look like a government agency. Question 11 Answer: None Organization: Texas A&M Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: College Station State: Texas Interviewee: Andrew Jarrett Phone: Email: Ownership: Public – Texas A&M University System Question 1 Answer: Decision-making occurs in terms of homogenous with the brands or not. Big tech brands offer everything you need. They tend to “pick one” for networking, firewalls, and endpoints. They work with an inside sales rep for these selections. All of networking will be a certain brand. Consider the brand and then confirm specs. The goal is integration. Using one brand making for a standard set of stuff with one set of support phone numbers. It limits the vendor management piece too with only one set of managers to control. All servers are Dell EMC, and all equipment is also Dell. They give incredible pricing. For firewall, Palo Alto is used because the features are desirable. There are a minimum number of configurations to support. Roll-out updates are all on the same timeline. Question 2 Answer: For scoping, server capacity as an example; a large data center and server center environment requires knowledge on how many. They need enough free space to download ¼ infrastructure at a time without impacting the organization. They must consider architecture storage and the need to build. System lifecycle is important. Once a solution is out of warranty, they don’t want to rely on it for the production environment. The rule of thumb is roughly every four years. Anything that is no longer vendor-supported (e.g., not producing firmware for updates to the equipment) must go because that is an audit failure. It can be repurposed in a test environment. Planning is crucial, even if the capacity doesn’t grow (e.g., no new space and computing power needed – not possible because new items take more resources so inevitable growth). They must consider 75% capacity in terms of hardware to consider updating. Networking equipment could last longer than the 4–5-year timeline. When the vendor stops supporting and stops producing firmware and updates for the equipment, no more patches can be done. Phones or wireless access points (where power is from network cable rather than plug into the wall) have to be planned out. Cisco phones at peak use would pull a certain amount of watts; they must analyze to determine the hardware per peak capacity. Consider a disaster where all phones would pull power when rebooting. Consider peak power.

Interview and Survey Responses 123 For bandwidth, what are the capacity and data net flow? What does a normal day look like? What does a bad day look like? Think about camera streams when an incident occurs; everyone could pull (surge), and that would impact capacity. Is it necessary to have a surge capacity or not? Map to a normal day and consider capacity on a normal day. With services, they must clarify the types of services. SaaS and cloud-based vs. managed services. They are separated into two buckets of managed services (managed IT or managed security services). They may bring in an MSP to manage or run the department. There are also incident response retainers, etc. This allows someone to be in your environment only when you need them. SaaS, or software as a service, can offload some of the applications that live in house and control them in the cloud. Networking as a service (e.g., Meraki from Cisco, doesn’t manage the devices because they are all in a portal (all through a web interface and it pushes it out). Everything has a service. They can put CRM in the cloud. They put in a helpdesk ticket in the cloud and tie it together (i.e., RymedyForce from BMC). All kinds of accounting, HR, niche compliance are all 3rd party vendors. They have moved away from the “on-site” presence to a cloud-based presence. Providing a software solution to someone else is hard because you are maintaining your product in the customer’s environment. Recommendations depend on context. There are situations where it is “better and easier.” The tradeoff is you are no longer in the driver's seat of your environment. It lives on someone else’s servers and they are in charge of monitoring and securing them. We always ask, “Is this a multi-tenant environment?” If it is multi-tenant, if there is a security flaw, you are generally exploited along with everyone on that server. If it is an independent environment, there is less risk. The municipal party payment process used a third-party processor that had a security breach. They lied and everyone had their data stolen. Public perception is that “the city got hacked.” You are still responsible for the fall-out of the outage or breach despite not having control (or minimal control) of the outage or breach. Policy around “thou shalt” and make it breach of contract if they don’t will help with legal; doesn’t help with the public perception or trust. Individual risk-based decision because there are still supply chain attacks (solar winds example). Do what you are told, and the vendor can still get hacked. Question 3 Answer: Vendor due diligence, especially if cloud service or any service provider, requires a baseline cybersecurity standard or NIST SP800-53 with proof of compliance all the way down to “basic rules” in place for access to network and data. Public entities have their own rules. Figure out how to do a “no-bid” procurement environment if you are homogenous with a brand while still meeting the quota of public bids when over a threshold. Sole source justification can be tricky. Central procurement center, not having a specialist that understands technology and how to talk to IT vendors, requires relaying through a third-party and doesn’t always work in the interest in the end-use. Having an IT manager or creating an IT procurement position is ideal. They need a tech specialist that speaks the language. With vendor vetting, if you are in a production environment with critical anything (life, safety, sensitive data), only buy through producers or channel partners. SHI or CDW are channel partners for everyone that carries leading brands of everything. Work with one sales rep to get pricing for a particular need. Question 4 Answer: Policy guides are their options. Individual business units have created endpoints. Software options do not physically exist. The software runs on hardware. Management of this is a combination of enterprise and end-point. Business units know what they need and should keep in-tune with what is evolving in the space (e.g., CRM in Sales Department). IT works with the department to determine what is best and periodically review. Remind the business

124 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing unit that they can go back to the IT organization and repeat the process to determine the needs. Looking at the end-point, most are preinstalled due to entitlement (e.g., MS 365) and pre-configured on the hardware. If you want something more (e.g., Viso and MS project) then it can be added due to pre-approval. AJ does unique tasks and had to put requests for every single thing he wanted. Eventually, he got an exemption memo that said he managed his own computer; he must produce whatever it is for audits, and he must manage it (e.g., patches, etc.). Overlap with security is crucial (e.g., no local admin on machines and no running of certain software). If security is doing what they should, there should be technical controls in place to prevent what is already approved (e.g., MS has in-tune to let installs of pre-vetted downloads/installs but prevents those not on the list). Anything requiring a license must be installed by IT procurement. This allows for expiration tracking. This is a big deal. If you don’t have the license and are running the paid software you didn’t pay for, a reconning will eventually come. A remote server makes this happen due to “phone home” capabilities. When the big company does an audit on the licenses, they will identify who is abusing them. Hardware physically exists. Enterprise hardware (infrastructure such as firewall, wireless access points) and End-point hardware (laptop, printers, docks, etc.). Business units (inside the policies of IT) drive the end-point hardware. On the enterprise side, that is the IT organization's overall strategy with lifecycle management. This is where we are going (e.g., virtualization) and this is how we will control growth, etc. The IT organization itself drives this. Services are performed on the infrastructure by a provider and other services (managed services) that don’t live on-premises. Question 5 Answer: See response to Question 4. Question 6 Answer: Inherent in every organization is politics. Whenever you centralize a function (e.g., procurement, IT management), or when you apply a rigid structure to something that needs to be more fluid, there can be problems. With senior leadership in IT (CIO, CISO, etc.), there is a “no” and “yes” school of thought. IT should provide the services that business units need and request. In some organizations, IT has decided what the business units need. If you don’t like it, then too bad. In some others, there is a “wild” run because IT is not empowered by leadership. The balance is critical or there is automatic friction. Security is the same way. Enable safety or lockdown with no choice. In some instances, there is no choice (e.g., CMMC won’t let programmers run local admin on a machine at all time). They can still be rigid and flexible. Be flexible with forward- thinking. Enable the organization to perform effectively and safely. Impose some limits and technical controls but have processes to enable the one-offs when they need to happen. Don’t make business units suffer to do the things they need to do. If the procurement office is disconnected from technology, the balance is off. Business units will go straight to the procurement office without input from technology. If every single purchase (e.g., no standard routine purchases – all require IT input) creates a bottleneck. Enable the process for common-use cases and have a process for one-offs. If procurement and technology management and/or senior leader and technology are not planning enterprise stuff, there is a HUGE investment in a short period of time. If spending money requires seven signatures or more, then you run into an emergency problem. They need the ability to request a “similar” item and ask for a drop-ship.

Interview and Survey Responses 125 Emergency technology procurement processes need to be in place as well. Think about major cybersecurity issues. Feds take everything for evidence and examination. If the procurement process takes multiple days, you continue to impact the operation and reputation. Must have a mechanism for emergency procurement. Question 7 Answer: They have exempted most technology from RFPs. Sole source of IT infrastructure is authorized by policy. All vendors with A&M System live in AggieBuyall. The portal helps navigate vendors and meet quotas. Giant portals may not be worth it. Focus on the individual then build. RFPs for technology is hard. The cheapest bid is not a good solution, especially when managed services could be incorporated and don’t necessarily accomplish what is needed. Low-balling everyone could include a cap in the hours (~10) then charge a huge amount when the cap is exceeded. It is not a bid process as much as it is who is driving the tech planning. The RFP process is painful and inefficient as a good technology manager and the director is going to hire people who know the Core Switch Stack, Servers, and Hardware wanted. They are sort of limited by the capabilities on hand. If the local expert is extremely knowledgeable by a brand or expertise (e.g., Cisco), you don’t want to stray. Big vendors offer certifications that keep the expert in the ecosystem. Question 8 Answer: The IT purchasing person will run down whatever is asked for. Anything with software licenses and anything that has network connectivity (e.g., hosted on the network) has to run through the IT organization to be purchased. There are controls to prevent that (e.g., plug something in the wall at TEEX and it will get jailed) through Network Access Control. IT purchasing personnel reports to IT and not the procurement office. The reporting to technology management makes sure business units are not going rogue. This ensures that all individual business units are playing within the IT system's wants. Individual authorization for purchases that aren’t desirable in the IT system must be managed by the respective business unit. An example is smart TVs that business units want to connect to the network. Every business unit wants a different brand, and now they cannot service them. Consolidate under one brand and one vendor for universal support. Make it an IT-driven process and not a business unit process. Fragmentation gets harder to manage with scalability. In a highly political organization, it is challenging to establish cooperation. Technology and procurement need to be separate and not technology procurement. Delegate or share the authority in an effective manner. An idea is not approving purchases unless blessed by IT. If it isn’t something standard that is documented, IT reviews then sends it to procurement. Or, IT creates a menu and anyone can ask via a submitted ticket (or email) with exactly what they want. IT organizations have great ticketing and could make it easy to go through the procurement process. Question 9 Answer: If you are a big enough organization, you need to hire an IT specialist. Think about an emergency when an IC is at the CP to order resources. You need someone with IT expertise in the procurement process. If the procurement is enough per year, then hire. If not, work in some cross-training. Have the most tech-savvy procurement person work with IT to understand needs. Or, have someone in technology review quotes. Having a robust plan (e.g., have IT provide documentation to get something like this started) must include the vendors they work with, the contacts, and the contact’s phone numbers. IT can guide them through the process – all the way down to a part number. There are ways to

126 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing leverage it. Hire a procurement firm (SHI or CDW) that has to channel relationships. Or you can create the library in-house highlighting who you do business with. Include avg per year and avg per quarter to determine how much money technology is spent per year. This predicts regular IT spending. Innovation hubs don’t normally work well (e.g., technology innovation center develops the strategy). Unless you find someone who wants to do technology procurement and the strategy, most organizations have to drive themselves as it is their technology and their needs. Someone organic has to develop it from outlines, ideas, suggestions. Maintaining it for repeatability and scalability requires a champion. Question 10 Answer: Simple is key. The technology organization says we need something, they get their own quote, then hand it to procurement. They do all the research, vendor relationship, etc. Other than the cutting of the PO, IT drives and handles procurement. Procurement just processes it. Big vendors make it easy. You can configure exactly what you want (cut and paste) then pass it to procurement for purchase. Procurement can just go buy after talking to an inside sales rep. Look at Dell. The big dogs are pushing the small out because the people who need something can go get all the information they need themselves, then tell procurement exactly what they need. TEEX has an IT procurement specialist. He is highly technical and can work with a lot of base model stuff, but then get to buy the new stuff for advanced pen-testing and vulnerability assessments. Question 11 Answer: Lifecycle management for core infrastructure. Programs are done with lifecycle management, focus on minimum specs of a device to run Windows 10, X build, and run a certain amount of capacity. If it meets minimum spec and is functional, it can be used. Individual programs’ business offices determine when they want new programs. There is a menu, and you can always go off. IT policy drives clearly states what they will support. Organization: WSP Global NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Raleigh State: North Carolina Interviewee: Gaël Le Bris Phone: Email: Ownership: Private – Corporation Question 1 Answer: It depends on the type of system. For instance, FOD radars and airport operations software solutions might warrant atypical processes. FOD radars are recent technologies and the offer is limited. Airport operations solutions are not covered by any FAA standards or guidance but might interface with FAA ATO systems at some point (e.g., through SWIM). Other factors that might influence procurement processes are the size of the airport, the complexity of its ecosystem of stakeholders, the airport ownership and governance structure, etc. One of the main difficulties in procuring emerging solutions is that there is no guidance available for developing the RFP or procurement documents. All stakeholders concerned by the technology need to be involved with the development of the specifications. This can be achieved through an assembled working group. A contractor can also assist with this process and provide procurement and then project/program management services. Question 2 Answer: Few of the systems touch the domain of only one stakeholder (internal and external). Discussions across stakeholders with external experts contributing can be a necessity. One difficulty can be the novelty of technology solutions. Occasionally, there may not be a U.S. supplier for this technology. In this case: What about having multiple submissions (competition)? What if only non-U.S. suppliers are available (vs projects with

Interview and Survey Responses 127 funding subject to Buy American Act)? Can they comply with the procurement processes and requirements (such as DBE%)? How can we help them complying with these requirements without violating the rules? Regardless the state of the offer in the U.S.: How can we provide access to DBEs especially on very specific technologies with strong proprietary issues that are only provided by large firms? Question 3 Answer: Advisory Circulars and other FAA documents provide a lot of information for used by both the project owner and the potential contractors throughout the process. For those items that are not FAA standards per se (such as airport operations software solutions), airports cannot benefit from these FAA publications. Question 4 Answer: Depending on the airport and the type of system/software, the options vary. For emerging technologies (e.g., active anti-UAS solutions), the FAA might initiate a pilot or evaluation program and seek airports volunteering for hosting such tests. Question 5 Answer: Depending on the technology, this varies. For example, an airport operations management system includes IT, operations department, flight operators, and ground handlers at a minimum. Gather information about the system to understand which stakeholders should be included. Determine the stakeholders’ role in the implementation and operations of the technology. Initiate a collaborative working group as soon as they are identified (see ACRP Research Report 229). Question 6 Answer: One of the keys is to clearly define the need. The technology should serve the operations – not the opposite. Implementing a technology just because others have it is not the right approach. The technology should address specific needs and a strategy regarding the future of the operations at the airport. Why are we trying to achieve? Is this technology what we need? Is this technology making things more simple for our operations? Is this creating more workload/tasks for our operations? Do we have the resources to run the technology? If not: Can we add the needed resources to our staff? Or share the workload with other stakeholders? Keep in mind the goal of the project and the final users. When several operational improvements and new technologies are on the horizon, a roadmap of the long-term future of airport operations should be defined with the stakeholders. ACRP Research Report 229: Airport Collaborative Decision Making (ACDM) to Manage Adverse Conditions proposes a framework to develop such roadmap with a collaborative approach: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/181702.aspx. See also the case study on the Roadmap CDM@CDG 2020+ in the electronic toolbox (available at the same link). Question 7 Answer: Sole provider procurement processes should only be used in very specific situations and where it is clear that there is only one supplier or consultant capable of providing a solution. The usual process with new and innovative technologies is to issue a RFI first before the RFQ and/or RFP. The RFI helps identifying the key players in that market. It captures the attention of potential providers who may not have airport-specific technology but could adapt their products. Question 8 Answer: This is something quite common outside of the U.S. (esp. EU as part of their SESAR JU program). Consortia is one, but the number of rules that drive the process prevents additional options. Airport operators wanting to be at the forefront are developing other ways to cooperate with the private sector, such as R&D initiatives, incubators, and innovation labs. Within these frameworks, start-ups and “legacy” solution providers can use the airport as a playground to test their technologies and/or benefit from the experience of the airport staff. Labs allow for the attempt/use of new systems to gain a better understanding of the airport environment. Examples of innovation labs:

128 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing • San Diego: https://www.san.org/innovate. • MWAA: http://www.mwaalabs.com/. • Outside of the United States: • Group ADP’s InnovationHub: https://www.parisaeroport.fr/en/group/group- strategy/our-strategy/innovation. Question 9 Answer: Issuing an RFI before the RFP can be a good way to educate yourself about an emerging technology and understand the state of the art. This is an opportunity to get input from potential providers, and also to pave the way to a RFQ or RFP. Question 10 Answer: Getting a clear understanding and definition of the need. Bring a group of stakeholders together to help develop the specifications and requirements. Use the RFI phase as much as possible. Depending on the technology, do a workshop. Invite providers, universities, and other airports who have worked on the same issue to educate you on the technology. Of course, follow the applicable procurement rules and understand the requirements. If there is a case for sole sourcing like it can happen with emerging technologies, it should be carefully justified. Technology procurement can be limited and may have to include foreign entities if there is no adequate U.S. providers. This can be an issue if the technology or system fall under the Buy American Act and if the non-U.S. entity has concerns over proprietary rights and competitive advantages. Look for pilot program information. If it is expensive, and there is no federal or state grant to help, consider a trial period before acquiring the system. The trial period can have only part of the system or technology in place. Question 11 Answer: Innovation roadmaps and airport operations enhancement plans can be a good way to involve the stakeholders and leveraging innovation. Such roadmap can be a broader discussion on the overall needs of the operations at an individual airport in order to enhance efficiency and resiliency. See the example of the ACDM roadmaps in ACRP Research Report 229 on Airport Collaborative Decision Making (ACDM) to Manage Adverse Conditions as well as the case study on the Roadmap CDM@CDG 2020+ in the ACDM toolbox. Organization: Software Vendor NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Country: Canada Interviewee: Anonymous Phone: Anonymous Email: Anonymous Ownership: Private - Corporation Question 1 Answer: The available software includes a variety of different design and planning software or modeling and simulation software. Clients recognize the software or search for a particular capability. Web inquiries or referrals generate direct online requests for the software. Search optimization enhances the recognition and exposure component of sales. Airports and governments acquire the software through a formal Purchase Order (PO) process. Consultants can make a request, host a live demonstration, then request a license. There is not a set process that all entities follow or adopt for software use. Question 2 Answer: The entire organization is heavily focused on research and development (R&D). User-group forums, ongoing educational opportunities, and webinars allow for end-user experience testimonials and introductions of minor and major updates. Updates to the software occur annually and reflect a client wish list. The wish list is a collection of technical requests, helpdesk tickets, and other inquiries gathered via communication mediums. A consolidation of these entries creates area(s) of focus.

Interview and Survey Responses 129 Usage reports demonstrate value and create a focal point for R&D efforts. Recognizing the heavy use of the design and planning software in North America and simulation software in Europe traces back to mergers and acquisitions. Acquiring companies creates enhanced capabilities for addressing needs and corporate scalability. Question 3 Answer: New clients are not required to do a vendor registration. However, the goal is for the purchasing agency to use the software in/on the continent of purchase. Some standard terms and conditions do not enter negotiations. Question 4 Answer: Licenses vary and can include a one-month demonstration license for end-user evaluation, IT security reviews, compatibility testing, system integration, etc. A user- subscription or perpetual license is sold following the demo license. A three-month rental license for a Proof of Concept (PoC) reduces costs. Small maintenance insurance programs are funded inside perpetual user licenses and normally reflect a 20% charge. The program provides 24/7 technical support, upgrades, and access to enhancements. This offsets a need for consultancy services, which are not sold or provided. Value-added resellers (VARs) are finite and not present in North America. There is occasional confusion on this point as some firms hire companies to procure the software. Question 5 Answer: Airport planners considering expansion and current/existing projects are the target audience. This select group is the end-user of the design and planning software. Engagement with this group of individuals and the larger group of end-users is important despite a potential lack of buying power. Clients must want (and be able to) use the software for it to keep generating value. Question 6 Answer: Sole sourcing is a challenge. Justifying how the software is different from others can be tricky. A public tender can create substantial delays due to the required level of transparency. Understanding the requirement and exercising patience in the process is the necessary solution. Unlike professional services that are billed against deliverables, software sales are less complex. Confidence in the product prevents hurdles. Question 7 Answer: Direct requests via email and follow-up engagements lead to direct sales via clients and consultants. Airports tend to initiate a request from the end-user, then redirect the contact with the firm to IT procurement. Procurement vehicles reflect a range of options. Question 8 Answer: Education on the software early and at no-cost is critical. The firm provided the software to students going into the industry. This usage generates interest from educational institutions, which often request the integration of the software in the curriculum. There is no charge for this license. Upskilling the workforce in the educational environment increases advocacy and exposure while giving back to the student-based community. Question 9 Answer: Share feedback to enhance the software. Participate in webinars to understand applications of the software. Most webinars hosted by the firms include 80% representation from existing clients. Question 10 Answer: Internal confidence in the software at a competitive price makes it appealing to a client and creates vendor patience in the sales cycle. Part of the sales cycle requires differentiation. Conducting evaluations internally streamlines the process.

130 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 11 Answer: Webinar registration adds an individual to the mailing roster for additional inquiries and access to materials. Organization: Consultants (Consolidated) NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Richmond, BC Country: Canada Interviewees: Jeff Price, Andrew Petrow, Tye Reedy, and Nathan Nidiffer Phone: Email: Ownership: Private - Corporation Question 1 Answer: When it comes to computer and software acquisition that is not safety or security related, the procurement in airports is typically not federally regulated. However, all other AIP projects along with PFC funded projects are required to follow the federal procurement policies. The airport gets stuck following their procurement policies. Look at several types of procurement processes, like airports and best practices in large industries, then determine based on the good processes and how they solve problems. Combine the best of this/that to make a nice flow. Look at the normal city and accounting processes to see how they do things (i.e., set-asides). Usability, the ability to upgrade, and the safety and security aspects involved are critical issues, such as in airfield lighting and the physical access control system. Software procurement is a difficult one. There are a ton of questions organizations should ask themselves before procuring any software. Questions such as 1) if an IT solution really needed 2) are there network security concerns and can the internal IT Dept support the new software 3) should the company pursue a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) or hire a developer to code (internally coding is always more expensive and should be a last resort in my opinion 4) end-user input and testing before purchasing the software, etc. Question 2 Answer: Type of software, like communications, access control system (although this can be separate from the software), everything right down to the utilities, transit systems, revenue systems on the land side area, etc. Everything has software involved, so how specific should it get. It really depends on the size, even in-field inspections. The larger the airport, the more automation. Typically, less as smaller as they don't have the volume/activity. However, they can use cheaper software because they don't need all the capabilities. Question 3 Answer: They might have some one-offs on security due to cybersecurity involvement. Security is the same as DoD and airports, but in general airport security rules are very different for DoD vs. civilian airports. The only time DoD is involved is when joint-use airports with DoD. Shared-used airports also have to follow TSA 1542 and DoD protocols. Question 4 Answer: Not provided. Question 5 Answer: Primary types of management: • City: Management by city government (Atlanta) so the mayor is the chief of everything. Everything must go through the city procurement processes and change daily. Navigating through this - in a timely manner. Use their procurement cell and operation. Do not have a separate procurement process.

Interview and Survey Responses 131 • Authority: The other version is managed by a board - composed of city and state leaders that oversee the management of the airport. They hire a team to manage the airport, but the board has oversight of this process. Could be one or multiple people. There are six other types of airport management including State management (Alaska, Massport), Commission (where the airport retains its connection to the municipality but has an independent board (LAX), Port Authority (where the board oversees other agencies including aviation such as the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey), Federal (NASA and BLM airports, plus Metropolitan Washington Airport’s Authority), Private (Branson, MO), and joint-city (Dallas/Ft. Worth). Question 6 Answer: Not provided. Question 7 Answer: There are two types of procurement: Enterprise-wide and airport- specific. Since ATL is part of the city, they can buy an enterprise-wide solution or something airport-specific. In both cases, it goes to the city. If it is an enterprise-wide level purchase, you must know the intent, how it is used, and the intended audiences. If it can be used by multiple organizations (i.e., payroll), they would purchase enterprise-wide. If it is for running the airport, it still has to be approved by the city. Question 8 Answer: Not provided. Question 9 Answer: Not provided. Question 10 Answer: Not provided. Question 11 Answer: • What we want + Utopian society + deliverable = is it worth going forward? • Experience - Company must have time. Don't wait until the last minute. Example: expense management software purchase didn't ask the end-users what they needed and didn't allow for running the software in a test and live environment. Must operate in tandem with current and new software so you can go back. • Data repository must be able to talk from the old to the new software. Don't want legacy software running in the background. • Host focus groups on those using the software + limitation on existing software and limitations on proposed options. This limits the # of options and opportunities. • Build or buy something that can be modified. Homegrown software requires the team forever as there is a long-term set of problems. • Implementation - never take down existing software the day you implement new software. There will be bugs and fallback issues.

132 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Organization: Airports Council International – North America NPIAS: N/A FAA Code: N/A City: Washington, D.C. Country: USA Interviewee: Aneil Patel Phone: Email: Ownership: Non-Profit Question 1 Answer: They are a 501(c)(3), non-profit with no procurement rules and regulations. They operate as a trade association. Question 2 Answer: Members’ needs are very different based on the airports based on the amount of funding contributed to the technology stream. The governance structure may impact the budget and process. For example, if innovation is embedded (e.g., SEA, SAN, DFW). The diversity and size of the airport have the greatest impact. The right approach given the number of stakeholders. Question 3 Answer: None apply. Question 4 Answer: Not applicable. Question 5 Answer: It depends on where the technology lies. If it impacts the airline? Concessionaire? Looking at these angles requires buy-in from the stakeholders. Who is paying for the technology matters as well. If the airport pays for the technology, some may also use a cost-recovery approach. For example, internal Wi-Fi is purchased, and secure Wi-Fi is provided to concessionaries who pay a share of it. Question 6 Answer: The number of steps to procure anything over a certain threshold can be a challenge. Question 7 Answer: RFPs. More RFIs are arising and are a bit different. SEA and BOS (Massport) issued an RFI on innovation toward the end of last year. BOS was very broad – can assume multiple submissions were received. This provided BOS with a vehicle to explore different innovations with respect to technology. Cooperative agreement within the state could be highly leveraged. This type of agreement may allow a faster rate of procurement. Question 8 Answer: None to mention. With high-value procurements, we want to be sure to check all boxes. A formal RFP ensures that. Question 9 Answer: None to mention.

Interview and Survey Responses 133 Question 10 Answer: Everyone wants the ideal world, but we’re not sure that all will get there. The main goal for an airport is to streamline the process while maintaining checks and balances. Streamlining is really to expedite the process because they want to bring more products and services to the airport faster. There is always a trade-off as an airport doesn’t want to skip a vital and important step that may be an issue in the future. Ultimately, it comes back to the challenge of governance and internal processes. Laying out the best practices and other similar industries (public and private). Ultimately leave it to the airport to adjust and define their airport procurement process. There are various teams that may have different views. It is not made by one person. Legal, procurement, IT. Question 11 Answer: Everyone likes to talk about it, but nobody has a good answer. Certain airports have worked with procurement to streamline the process, but every airport operates differently. It is a public-entity challenge (specifically) and other privatized airports have a process like private companies. One example is the Philadelphia airport who worked with procurement to streamline technology and innovation. A second example is San Francisco. The city has a “buyers-market” so all the local agencies (e.g., airports, courts, etc.) can go to the city-online market and have been pre-approved by the city of San Francisco. The thresholds drive the ability to purchase, which often has to be procured by the city. It follows an internal cooperative agreement flow. MWAA technology and the biometric solution were created internally. They have been able to sell it to other airports, for example, DFW purchased the MWAA software. That was done under a local, inter-agency agreement. It wasn’t the normal channels, but it expedited the procurement process. Some would suggest U.S. airports lag behind in innovation due to formalities in the process and other external variables. Survey Responses Date of Response: 2/12/2021 Question 1 Answer: Small hub Question 2 Answer: Quarterly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, Other Question 4 Answer: Not applicable Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Governance, Knowledge, Leadership Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/18/2021 Question 1 Answer: Regional Question 2 Answer: Monthly Question 3 Answer: City/County/State Funded Programs, FAA Airport Improvement Program Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Knowledge Question 7 Answer: Yes

134 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/18/2021 Question 1 Answer: Basic, Local, Nonhub, Unclassified Question 2 Answer: Daily Question 3 Answer: City/County/State Funded Programs, FAA Airport Improvement Program, Other, TSA Agreements Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Time Question 7 Answer: Unsure Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements, Other Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/18/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub, Medium hub, National Question 2 Answer: Other Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, FAA Airport Improvement Program, Other Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Knowledge, Leadership, Other, Time Question 7 Answer: Unsure Question 8 Answer: Yes Question 9 Answer: Other Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/19/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, FAA Airport Improvement Program, TSA Agreements Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Unsure Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Knowledge, Time Question 7 Answer: Yes Question 8 Answer: Unsure Question 9 Answer: Other Question 10 Answer: Unsure Question 11 Answer: Yes

Interview and Survey Responses 135 Question 1 Answer: National, RegionalSmall hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Knowledge, Time Question 7 Answer: Yes Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub Question 2 Answer: Quarterly Question 3 Answer: FAA Airport Improvement Program, Other Question 4 Answer: Not Applicable Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Other Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Nonhub Question 2 Answer: Other Question 3 Answer: City/County/State Funded Programs Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, FAA Airport Improvement Program, TSA Agreements Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Other, Time Question 7 Answer: No Date of Response: 2/22/2021

136 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub Question 2 Answer: Quarterly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, FAA Airport Improvement Program Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Other Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Unsure Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Small hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, FAA Airport Improvement Program Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: Unsure Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: National Question 2 Answer: Monthly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, Other Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes

Interview and Survey Responses 137 Question 2 Answer: Monthly, Weekly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Other Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Time Question 7 Answer: Yes Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, FAA Airport Improvement Program, TSA Agreements Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: Unsure Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub Question 2 Answer: Other Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Governance Question 7 Answer: Yes Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Other Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub, Regional Question 2 Answer: Weekly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, FAA Airport Improvement Program, Other Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Governance Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub

138 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub, Regional Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, Other Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Budget, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/22/2021 Question 1 Answer: Large hub Question 2 Answer: All apply Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions, FAA Airport Improvement Program Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Governance, Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/23/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub Question 2 Answer: Quarterly Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees Question 4 Answer: Enhance Question 5 Answer: Yes Question 6 Answer: Time Question 7 Answer: No Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements Question 10 Answer: Yes Question 11 Answer: Yes Date of Response: 2/23/2021 Question 1 Answer: Medium hub Question 2 Answer: Monthly Question 9 Answer: Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions

Interview and Survey Responses 139 Question 3 Answer: Airline Fees, Concessions Question 4 Answer: Restrict Question 5 Answer: Unsure Question 6 Answer: Budget, Governance, Knowledge, Leadership, Time Question 7 Answer: Unsure Question 8 Answer: No Question 9 Answer: API Integration, Cooperative Agreements, Subscriptions Question 10 Answer: No Question 11 Answer: Yes 7 7 3 2 3 4 1 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Nonhub National Regional Local Basic Unclassified Figure E-1 - Survey Question 1: Please check all that apply to your airport. 33% 19% 19% 9.50% 4.80% 14.30% Figure E-2 - Survey Question 2: How often does your organization procure technology? All Apply Monthly Quarterly Weekly Daily Other Figure E-3 - Question 3: How does your organization receive funding for technology procurement? (Check all that apply) 8% 21% 31% 19% 6% 15% TSA Agreements FAA Airport Improvement Program Airline Fees Concessions City/County/State Funded Programs Other

140 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing 10 8 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Enhance Restrict Not Applicable Figure E-4 - Question 4: Funding sources _______ procurement practice. 90% 10% Figure E-5 - Question 5: Does your airport allow for emergency technology procurement? Yes No Unsure 14 3 14 6 14 4 0 5 10 15 Time Leadership Budget Knowledge Governance Other Figure E-6 - Question 6: What challenges affect your current procurement processes? (Check all that apply)

Interview and Survey Responses 141 25% 60% 15% Figure E-7 - Question 7: Does your organization utilize a subscription service or platform to manage or obtain technology procurements? Yes No Unsure 5% 80% 15% Figure E-8 - Question 8: Does your organization utilize a crowdsourcing approach for technology procurement or funding of technology procurement? Yes No Unsure 9 11 12 4 0 5 10 15 API Integration Cooperative Agreements Subscriptions Other Figure E-9 - Question 9: Do you use any of the following third-party integrator(s)?

142 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing 55% 40% 5% Figure E-10 - Question 10: Does your organization provide education on information technology or procurement? Yes No Unsure Figure E-11 - Question 11: Does governance, airport size, and airport activity structure influence technology procurement for airports? Yes No Unsure

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED ISBN 978-0-309-68730-0 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 6 8 7 3 0 0 9 0 0 0 0

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The technology procurement process includes sourcing and acquiring software, hardware, and services. Systems and nuances of technology procurement vary within each airport, and navigating such variances at a pace that meets the airports’ needs and technology evolution can be challenging.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 120: Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing identifies the efficient and innovative technology sourcing and procurement practices developed by airports.

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