Ontologies in the
Accelerating Research and the
Spread of Knowledge
Committee on Accelerating Behavioral Science
through Ontology Development and Use
Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science, Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institute on Aging, National Library of Medicine, National Science Foundation (1729167), NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) (HHSN263201800029I/75N98020F00010). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-69519-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-69519-8
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26755
Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.
Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Ontologies in the Behavioral Sciences: Accelerating Research and the Spread of Knowledge, Digest Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26755.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.
Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.
Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.
For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
COMMITTEE ON ACCELERATING BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE THROUGH ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND USE
ROBERT M. KAPLAN1 (Chair), Clinical Excellence Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine
DEMBA BA, Brain Science Initiative, Harvard University
LISA FELDMAN BARRETT, College of Science, Northeastern University
JIANG BIAN, Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Florida
KATY BÖRNER, Luddy School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, Indiana University
BRUCE F. CHORPITA, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles
DAVID DANKS, Halıcıoğlu Data Science Institute and Department of Philosophy, University of California, San Diego
KARINA W. DAVIDSON, Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health
RANDALL W. ENGLE2,3, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology
CATHERINE A. HARTLEY, Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science. New York University
MARK A. MUSEN1, Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, Stanford University
VIMLA L. PATEL, Center for Cognitive Studies in Medicine and Public Health, New York Academy of Medicine
FRANK PUGA, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham
CARLA SHARP, Department of Psychology, University of Houston
TIMOTHY J. STRAUMAN, Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University
CUI TAO, School of Biomedical Informatics, University of Texas Health Center at Houston
JAMES F. WOODWARD, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh
ALEXANDRA S. BEATTY, Study Director, Senior Program Officer
TINA M. WINTERS, Program Officer
J. ASHTON BULLOCK, Senior Program Assistant
1 Member, National Academy of Medicine
2 Member, National Academy of Sciences
3 Resigned from committee May 2021
BOARD ON BEHAVIORAL, SENSORY, AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES
TERRIE E. MOFFITT4 (Chair), Duke University
RICHARD N. ASLIN5, Yale University
JOHN BAUGH, Washington University in St. Louis
WILSON S. GEISLER5, University of Texas at Austin
MICHELE GELFAND5, University of Maryland, College Park
ULRICH MAYR, University of Oregon
KATHERINE L. MILKMAN, University of Pennsylvania
ELIZABETH A. PHELPS, Harvard University
DAVID E. POEPPEL, New York University
STACEY SINCLAIR, Princeton University
TIMOTHY J. STRAUMAN, Duke University
Daniel Weiss, Board Director
4 Member, National Academy of Medicine
5 Member, National Academy of Sciences
Challenges with Synthesizing and Applying Knowledge
Challenges with Generalizing Research Findings and Building and Structuring Knowledge
How Ontologies Facilitate Science
4 Ontologies in the Behavioral Sciences
A Formally Specified Ontology: The Behavioral Change Intervention Ontology
Classification Systems for Mental Health Problems
A Categorical Classification System: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
A Dimensional Classification System: Research Domain Criteria
A Quantitative Approach: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology