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E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions (2022)

Chapter:References and Bibliography

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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26756.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26756.
Page 23
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26756.

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21 laws and other code compliance approaches, brand ambassadors, hotline requirements, and others—have uncertain implications for both population-level injury prevention and equity. Most pilot pro- grams have focused on equity considerations in the permitting and provision of service agreements but have no framework for evaluating the equity of safety management approaches or data by which to assess disparities in safety outcomes by race, gender, age, income, or other characteristics. There is a strong need for disaggregated data across racial and ethnic groups to center racial equity in evaluations of such policies. There was reported interest in doing more work that focused on safety and equity planning, including developing spe- cific equity plans related to safety, safety performance measures and goals, integration with ADA accommodations plans, infrastructure safety plans, performing equity assessments, and developing ongo- ing partnerships with traditionally underserved communities. Future Research Each of the topics in this report highlights areas for future research to understand how e-scooters can be more safely integrated into the transportation system, including safety for e-scooter users themselves and for other right-of-way users. This report can serve as a resource for practitioners, policymakers, and researchers seeking to investigate how to improve e-scooter safety so that e-scooters can be integrated into the transportation system and provide more mobility in urban areas and other settings. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Aizpuru, Matthew, Kevin X. Farley, Jaimie C. Rojas, Robert S. Crawford, Thomas J. Moore, and Eric R. Wagner. 2019. Motorized Scooter Inju- ries in the Era of Scooter-Shares: A Review of the National Electronic Surveillance System. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37 (6): 1133–1138. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2019.03.049. Austin Public Health. 2019. Dockless Electric Scooter-Related Injuries Study. Austin, TX: City of Austin. Austin Transportation Department. 2019. Director Rules for Deployment and Operation of Shared Small Vehicle Mobility Systems. Austin, TX: City of Austin. Badeau, Austin, Chad Carman, Michael Newman, Jacob Steenblik, Margaret Carlson, and Troy Madsen. 2019. Emergency Department Visits for Electric Scooter-Related Injuries After Introduction of an Urban Rental Program. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37 (8): 1531–1533. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2019.05.003. Bai, Shunhua, and Junfeng Jiao. 2020. Dockless E-Scooter Usage Patterns and Urban Built Environments: A Comparison Study of Austin, TX, and Minneapolis, MN. Travel Behaviour and Society 20 (July): 264–272. doi:10.1016/j.tbs.2020.04.005. Baltimore City Department of Transportation. 2019a. Baltimore City Dockless Vehicle Pilot Program Evaluation Report. Baltimore, MD. Baltimore City Department of Transportation. 2019b. Baltimore Dockless Vehicles for Hire: Rules and Regulations. Baltimore, MD. Bergen, Mark, and Joshua Brustein. 2018. Almost Every Electric Scooter Comes from This Chinese Company. Bloomberg, May 12. https://www. scooter-comes-from-this-chinese-company. Bird Rides, Inc. 2019. A Look at E-Scooter Safety. Santa Monica, CA. Blomberg, Stig Nikolaj Fasmer, Oscar Carl Moeller Rosenkrantz, Freddy Lippert, and Helle Collatz Christensen. 2019. Injury from Electric Scooters in Copenhagen: A Retrospective Cohort Study. BMJ Open 9 (12): e033988. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033988. motor vehicles to allow more space for e-scooter and bicycle riding and parking. Safety Messaging and Outreach Informational safety messaging, partnering with operators to deliver messages, hosting community events, planning for equity, and pro- viding separated bike lanes were other commonly-reported prac- tices. Outreach and public engagement efforts related to safety behaviors are generally conducted by both the public entity and the private operator, though few have studied the reach, equity impacts, or general effectiveness of these efforts. Most agencies require operators to post specific rules and regulations on the shared micro- mobility device itself and to share information on regulations with users through the smartphone app and other web-based channels. Several cities have placed an emphasis on in-person training events as a part of their outreach and engagement efforts—one example given was educating law enforcement officers. The literature did not reveal practices that addressed providing mapped safe routes for e-scooter riding, efforts to reinforce positive social norms or pro- mote a strong safety culture, messages to increase driver awareness of e-scooter users, or messages that applied equity considerations or considered the cultural competency of the communications. Given an increasing reliance on geofencing technology, one report’s recommendation for research to evaluate the role of technology in improving communications to riders (e.g., with speech messages and other auditory and haptic cues) was noteworthy. Data-Related Challenges to Understanding E-Scooter Safety Though a growing number of organizations use the MDS, there remains a lack of data standards related to e-scooter safety as well as no case definition to standardize reporting for a fall, injury, or other incident. Agencies frequently require operators to report any crash or fatality, contact with first responders, or other safety issue to the city directly, but agencies note that these incidents are likely underreported and may not be systematically reviewed. None of the pilot reports reviewed described e-scooter crash-reporting practices. The move toward standardized use of ICD-10-CM codes will greatly aid efforts to understand the number, characteristics, and severity of e-scooter injuries and to compare injuries across communities, but applicable codes have only been available for use since October  1, 2020. Researchers have recommended health impact assessments (HIAs) or policy simulations to evaluate the greater impacts of micromobility policies and programs, but no HIAs or other types of safety simulations or holistic approaches were described by agencies to support safety decision-making, possibly because of the lack of data to evaluate the effectiveness of the policies or to measure effectiveness over time. A large number of survey partici- pants reported interest in tracking e-scooter safety incidents, creating mechanisms to identify e-scooter events in police crash forms and to track events in police-reported data, and developing protocols and training for injury reporting. Equity-Related Challenges to Managing E-Scooter Safety Many safety management practices currently in use—including geofencing, nighttime service restrictions, enforcement of helmet

22 Doggett, Sarah, David R. Ragland, and Grace Felschundneff. 2018. Evaluating Research on Data Linkage to Assess Underreporting of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injury in Police Crash Data. Berkeley, CA: UC Berkeley Safe Transportation Research and Education Center. linkage-assess-underreporting-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-injury. Dwyer, Florence, Will Curran-Groome, and Katherine Harmon. 2021. E-Scooter Fatalities. Chapel Hill, NC: Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety. 2021/03/escooter_fatalities_Mar_2021.pdf. English, Kelsey C., Justin R. Allen, Kevin Rix, David F. Zane, Christopher M. Ziebell, Carlos V. R. Brown, and Lawrence H. Brown. 2020. The Char- acteristics of Dockless Electric Rental Scooter-Related Injuries in a Large U.S. City. Traffic Injury Prevention, August, 1–6. doi:10.1080/ 15389588.2020.1804059. Fang, Kevin, Asha Agrawal, Jeremy Steele, John Hunter, and Ashley Hooper. 2018. Where Do Riders Park Dockless, Shared Electric Scooters? Findings from San José, California. San José, CA: Mineta Transporta- tion Institute. Farley, Kevin Xavier, Matthew Aizpuru, Jacob M. Wilson, Charles A. Daly, John Xerogeanes, Michael B. Gottschalk, and Eric R. Wagner. 2020. Estimated Incidence of Electric Scooter Injuries in the U.S. from 2014 to 2019. JAMA Network Open 3 (8): e2014500. doi:10.1001/ jamanetworkopen.2020.14500. FHWA. 2009. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Glenn, Jeffrey, Madeline Bluth, Mannon Christianson, Jaymie Pressley, Austin Taylor, Gregory S. Macfarlane, and Robert A. Chaney. 2020. Considering the Potential Health Impacts of Electric Scooters: An Analysis of User Reported Behaviors in Provo, Utah. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (17). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17176344. Golub, Aaron, Vivian Satterfield, Michael Serritella, Jai Singh, and Senna Phillips. 2019. Assessing the Barriers to Equity in Smart Mobility Systems: A Case Study of Portland, Oregon. Portland, Oregon: Case Studies on Transportation Policy. Government of the District of Columbia. 2019. Government of the District of Columbia Department of Transportation Washington D.C. Terms and Conditions for the Public Right of Way Occupancy Permit for [PH Name]. Washington, DC. Henning, Kelly J. 2004. Overview of Syndromic Surveillance: What is Syndromic Surveillance? Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, September 24. James, Owain, J. Swiderski, John Hicks, Denis Teoman, and Ralph Buehler. 2019. Pedestrians and E-Scooters: An Initial Look at E-Scooter Parking and Perceptions by Riders and Non-Riders. Sustainability 11 (20): 5591. doi:10.3390/su11205591. Jiao, Junfeng, and Shunhua Bai. 2020. Understanding the Shared E-Scooter Travels in Austin, TX. ISPRS International Journal of Geo- Information 9 (2): 135. doi:10.3390/ijgi9020135. Johnston, Karen, Diedre Oakley, Audra Durham, Claire Bass, and Stacie Kersher. 2020. Regulating Micromobility: Examining Transportation Equity and Access. Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy 4 (35): 682–720. Kobayashi, Leslie M., Elliot Williams, Carlos V. Brown, Brent J. Emigh, Vishal Bansal, Jayraan Badiee, Kyle D. Checchi, Edward M. Castillo, and Jay Doucet. 2019. The E-merging E-pidemic of E-Scooters. Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open 4 (1): e000337. doi:10.1136/ tsaco-2019-000337. Liew, Yee Kent, Choon Peng Jeremy Wee, and Jen Heng Pek. 2019. New Peril on Our Roads: A Retrospective Study of Electric Scooter- Related Injuries. Singapore Medical Journal, July. doi:10.11622/ smedj.2019083. Bloom, Matthew B., Ali Noorzad, Carol Lin, Milton Little, Ernest Y. Lee, Daniel R. Margulies, and Sam S. Torbati. 2020. Standing Electric Scooter Injuries: Impact on a Community. American Journal of Surgery, July. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.07.020. Brown, Charles. 2016. Fear: A Silent Barrier to Bicycling in Black and Hispanic Communities. ITE Journal, September. Brown, Anne, Nicholas J. Klein, Calvin Thigpen, and Nicholas Williams. 2020. Impeding Access: The Frequency and Characteristics of Improper Scooter, Bike, and Car Parking. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Vol. 4. 2020.100099. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2020. Effects of COVID-19 on Bikeshare (Docked and Dockless) and E-scooter Operations. U.S. Department of Transportation. and-Dockless-and-E-Scooter-System-Changes-2/kar5-6dpn#effects- of-covid-19-on-bikeshare-and-e-scooter-operations-march-through- august-2020. Campbell, Alex, Nicole Wong, Paul Monk, Jacob Munro, and Zaid Bahho. 2019. The Cost of Electric-Scooter Related Orthopaedic Surgery. The New Zealand Medical Journal, August. Campbell, Ethan C. 2021. Technical Report on Bicycle Infractions in Seattle (2003–2020). Seattle, WA: Central Seattle Greenways. Caspi, Or, Michael J. Smart, and Robert B. Noland. 2020. Spatial Associations of Dockless Shared E-Scooter Usage. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (86) September: 102396. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2020.102396. Chang, Annie Y. J., Luis Miranda-Moreno, Regina Clelow, and Lijun Sun. 2019. Trend or Fad? Deciphering the Enablers of Micromobility in the U.S. Warrendale, PA: SAE International. Cicchino, Jessica B., Paige E. Kulie, and Melissa L. McCarthy. 2020a. Injuries Related to Electric Scooter and Bicycle Use in a Washington, DC, Emergency Department. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Cicchino, Jessica B., Paige E. Kulie, and Melissa L. McCarthy. 2020b. Severity of E-scooter Rider Injuries Associated with Trip Characteristics. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. City Council of Charlotte. 2019. An Ordinance Amending Chapter  14 and Chapter 19 of the City Code. Charlotte, NC. City of Atlanta. 2020. Shareable Dockless Mobility Device February 2019—March 2020. Atlanta, GA. City of Austin. 2019. Dockless Mobility Community Survey Report. Austin, TX. City of Austin. n.d. Bicycle and Micromobility Laws and Safety. https:// City of Chicago. 2020a. Chicago E-Scooter Pilot Evaluation Summary. Chicago, IL. City of Chicago. 2020b. City of Chicago Terms and Conditions for the Second Business Operations Window of the Scooter Sharing Emerging Business Permit Pilot Program. Chicago, IL. City of Denver. 2021. Dockless Mobility Vehicle Permit Pilot Program. Denver, CO. City of Kansas City, Missouri. 2020. KCMO Micromobility Pilot Program First Year Analysis. Kansas City, MO. City of Santa Monica. 2019. Santa Monica Shared Mobility Pilot Program Summary Report. Santa Monica, CA. City of Santa Monica. 2020. Santa Monica Shared Mobility Device Pilot Program Administrative Regulations. Santa Monica, CA. Denver Public Works. 2019. Denver Dockless Mobility Program Pilot Interim Report. Denver, CO: City of Denver. DiMaggio, Charles J., Marko Bukur, Stephen P. Wall, Spiros G. Frangos, and Andy Y. Wen. 2019. Injuries Associated with Electric-Powered Bikes and Scooters: Analysis of U.S. Consumer Product Data. Injury Prevention, November. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043418.

23 Portland Bureau of Transportation. 2019. Portland 2018 E-Scooter Findings Report. Portland, OR. Portland Bureau of Transportation and Alta Planning & Design. 2020. City of Portland Bureau of Transportation E-Scooter Findings Report. Portland, OR. Portland Interim Rules and Regulations Update. 2020. TRN 15.01. Puzio, Thaddeus J., Patrick B. Murphy, Josh Gazzetta, Hannah A. Dineen, Stephanie A. Savage, Erik W. Streib, and Ben L. Zarzaur. 2020. The Elec- tric Scooter: A Surging New Mode of Transportation That Comes with Risk to Riders. Traffic Injury Prevention 21 (2): 175–178. doi:10.1080/ 15389588.2019.1709176. SAE International. 2019. Taxonomy and Classification of Powered Micro- mobility Vehicles (J3194 Ground Vehicle Standard). SAE International. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA). 2019. Powered Scooter Share Mid-Pilot Evaluation. San Francisco, CA. Sanders, Rebecca L., Belinda Judelman, and Sara Schooley. 2019. NCHRP Synthesis 353: Pedestrian Safety Relative to Traffic-Speed Management. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. doi: 10.17226/25618. Sanders, Rebecca L., Michael Branion-Calles, and Trisalyn A. Nelson. 2020. To Scoot or Not to Scoot: Findings from a Recent Survey About the Benefits and Barriers of Using E-Scooters for Riders and Non- Riders. Transportation Research Part A 139 (September): 217–227. Sandt, Laura. 2019. The Basics of Micromobility and Related Motor- ized Devices for Personal Transport. Chapel Hill, NC: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Santacreu, Alexandre, George Yannis, and Ombline de Saint Leon. 2020. Safe Micromobility. International Transport Forum. Shah, Nitesh R., Sameer Aryal, Yi Wen, and Christopher R. Cherry. 2021. Comparison of Motor Vehicle-Involved E-Scooter and Bicycle Crashes Using Standardized Crash Typology. Journal of Safety Research, March. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2021.03.005. Siman-Tov, Maya, Irina Radomislensky, Israel Trauma Group, and Kobi Peleg. 2017. The Casualties from Electric Bike and Motorized Scooter Road Accidents. Traffic Injury Prevention 18 (3): 318–323. doi:10.1080/ 15389588.2016.1246723. Strasmore, Sharada. 2020. ITE E-Scooter & Safety in Washington, D.C. Webinar presented at the ITE Learning Hub: Considering E- Scooter Safety in Vision Zero and Maas/MOD Programs, Policies and Practice, April 11. Trivedi, Tarak K., Charles Liu, Anna Liza M. Antonio, Natasha Wheaton, Vanessa Kreger, Anna Yap, David Schriger, and Joann G. Elmore. 2019. Injuries Associated with Standing Electric Scooter Use.” JAMA Network Open 2 (1): e187381. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen. 2018.7381. Vision Zero San Francisco Injury Prevention Research Collaborative. 2019. E- Scooter Collision and Injury Analysis. San Francisco, CA. Wiles, Ed. 2020. Xiaomi M365 vs Ninebot-Segway ES2. Scootered. Accessed October  20. xiaomi-m365-with-ninebot-segway-es2.html. 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Assessing the Fairness and Effectiveness of Bicycle Stops in Tampa. Police Quarterly 21 (4): 461–485. doi:10.1177/1098611118781344. Mobility Lab, and Arlington, VA. 2019. Arlington County Shared Mobility Devices (SMD) Pilot Evaluation Report. Arlington, VA. Moftakhar, Timon, Michael Wanzel, Alexander Vojcsik, Franz Kralinger, Mehdi Mousavi, Stefan Hajdu, Silke Aldrian, and Julia Starlinger. 2020. Incidence and Severity of Electric Scooter Related Injuries after Introduction of an Urban Rental Programme in Vienna: A Retrospective Multicentre Study. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, August. doi:10.1007/s00402-020-03589-y. Murphy, Colin, Terra Curtis, Evan Costagliola, Regina Clewlow, Stephanie Seki, and Ruoying Xu. 2021. TCRP Research Report 230: Transit and Micromobility. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Murray, Jesse. 2020. New Safety Data: 99.9% of Lime Scooter Trips Are Incident-Free. Second Street: Lime Blog. September 14. http:// incident-free. NACTO. 2018. 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Many communities with electric‐scooter (e‐scooter) programs have observed social, health, and environmental benefits; enhanced multimodal connections; and positive economic impacts (such as those derived by delivery services and couriers using e‐scooters and the resultant jobs created). However, these effects are often accompanied by real and perceived safety challenges.

The TRB Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program's BTSCRP Research Results Digest 1: E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions is an initial deliverable to a larger ongoing project, in the form of a literature review, that identifies emerging behavioral safety issues arising from the expanding use of e-scooters and summarizes how cities are working to prevent and mitigate injuries.

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