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Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation (2022)

Chapter: Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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Page 1
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 2
Page 3
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 3
Page 4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 4
Page 5
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 5
Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 6
Page 7
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 7
Page 8
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 8
Page 9
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Agency Survey Questions and Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
Page 9

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1 APPENDIX A: AGENCY SURVEY QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES

2 AGENCY SURVEY QUESTIONS BCOA Description A bonded concrete overlay of asphalt-surfaced pavement (BCOA) is a relatively thin (typically 3 to 6 in) portland cement concrete (PCC) layer placed directly on an existing asphalt concrete (AC) or composite AC/PCC pavement. The bond between the PCC overlay and underlying AC ensures that the pavement behaves monolithically, so that stresses and deflections are reduced and structural capacity is increased. The use of BCOAs as a rehabilitation treatment has become increasingly more common among state highway agencies (SHAs) in recent years. While major advancements have been made in the design of BCOA, there is a need for more information on the factors governing their performance. The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) is studying BCOA performance under project 1-61, and as part of this effort, the 1-61 research team would like to learn more about agencies experiences and potential interest in participating in the study. In completing this online survey, we are asking for one response per agency and formal submission by March 23, 2018. If you have questions or problems related to this questionnaire, please contact Dr. Linda Pierce (lpierce@ncenet.com) or Mr. Kelly Smith (klsmith@appliedpavement.com). The survey can be accessed at https://www.surveygizmo.com/s3/4251642/NCHRP-1-61-Evaluation-of-BCOA. Respondent Information Name: Agency: Title: Email: Phone: BCOA Experience and Use (1) How many BCOA projects has your agency constructed? For each decade listed, please check the appropriate column. Decade None <5 projects 5-15 projects >15 projects 1960-1970 1970-1980 1980-1990 1990-2000 2000-2010 2010-present (2) Is your agency considering the construction of a BCOA project in the next 2 years? • Yes • No Project Selection (3) In what capacities are BCOAs primarily considered for use (check all that apply)? • Roadway Facility Type o Interstate route. o US route. o State route. • Traffic Volume o Low (ADT < 5,000). o Moderate 5,000 ≤ ADT ≤ 20,000).

3 o High (ADT > 20,000). • Environmental Setting o Rural environment. o Urban environment. • Application Types o Mainline. o Intersections. o Turn lanes. o Interchange ramps. o Frontage roads. o Underpasses. o Other (specify). Evaluation and Design (4) What techniques does your agency use to evaluate the existing AC pavement and its support layers (i.e., subgrade/subbase/base) for use in BCOA design (check all that apply)? • Distress surveys (manual or automated). • Coring and visual inspection of cores (i.e., thickness, layer debonding, cracking, disintegration, AC stripping, PCC D-cracking). • Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing. • Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) testing and backcalculation analysis. • Lab testing of AC (e.g., tensile strength, extraction tests) or PCC (e.g., strength, petrographic analysis). • Lab testing of subgrade, subbase, and/or base layers (e.g., gradation, Atterberg limits, stiffness/strength testing, shrink/swell testing). • Other (specify). (5) What structural design method does your agency use (or has it used) to design BCOAs? • 1993 AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures / AASHTO DARWin software. • ACPA StreetPave (Structural Design Software for Street and Road Concrete Pavements). • ACPA BCOA Thickness Designer. • FHWA Pooled Fund TPF-5(165) BCOA-ME Design Guide (Univ. of Pittsburgh). • AASHTO MEPDG Manual of Practice / AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design™ (Short-Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement [SJPCP] Module included in v2.3 and later). • Colorado Department of Transportation (DOT) Thin Concrete Overlay method. • Illinois DOT PCC Inlay/Overlay method. • Other (specify). (6) What BCOA thicknesses and joint spacings does your agency use (or has used)? Slab Thickness, in Joint Spacing 3x3 feet 4x4 feet 6x6 feet Other (specify) 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other (specify)

4 Materials (7) Does your agency utilize a specialized paving mixture for BCOA applications? • Yes o Does your agency utilize fibers in BCOA concrete mixtures? If yes, what type of fibers are used?  Yes  No o Does your agency have an early-opening-to-traffic (EOT) BCOA concrete mixture?  Yes  No o Does your agency have specific BCOA concrete mixture aggregate requirements?  Yes  No o Does your agency have specific BCOA concrete mixture cementitious materials requirements?  Yes  No o Does your agency have specific BCOA concrete mixture chemical admixture requirements?  Yes  No • No Construction (8) What pre-overlay repairs and/or surface preparation techniques are most commonly used in conjunction with BCOAs (check all that apply)? • Pre-overlay repairs. o None. o Pothole patching. o Partial-depth patching (for existing composite AC/PCC pavement, this might include removal/replacement of AC to top of PCC or removal/replacement of AC and a portion of the PCC). o Full-depth patching (extending through full thickness of existing AC or composite AC/PCC pavement). o Crack filling or sealing. o Other (specify). • Surface preparation. o None. o Milling. o Power sweeping. o Air blasting. o Shot blasting. o Water blasting. o Other (specify).

5 Maintenance and Repair (9) For the distresses commonly observed in your BCOA pavements, indicate the maintenance/repair techniques that are used to address them? (Note: It is recognized that some treatments are not applicable for some distresses [e.g., crack sealing for joint spalling]). Predominant Distress Type Maintenance/Repair Technique Crack Seal Joint Reseal Spall Repair Partial Slab Replacement Full Slab Replacement Diamond Grind Other Corner breaks Transverse cracking Longitudinal cracking Spalling at transverse joints/cracks Spalling at longitudinal joints/cracks Joint/crack faulting Slab debonding/ delamination Joint seal damage Performance (10) Does your agency have detailed condition/performance data on its BCOA projects? • Yes o What types of condition/performance data are collected and available for analysis? (check all that apply)  Smoothness/IRI.  Overall condition indicator.  Joint/crack faulting.  Transverse cracking.  Longitudinal cracking.  Corner breaks.  Joint spalling.  Shattered slabs.  PCC/AC bond quality measurements (via direct shear, FWD, ultrasonic imaging, or other tests).  FWD deflection data.  Backcalculated layer moduli.  Other (specify). • No Participation in NCHRP 1-61 (11) Do you have and would you be willing to provide your agency-specific BCOA documentation (e.g., research reports, results of in-house studies, construction specifications, maintenance and rehabilitation activities, and BCOA performance data) to the NCHRP 1-61 research team? • Yes • No (12) Would your agency be willing to actively participate in Phase II of this study by (a) providing BCOA project details and performance data and (b) providing access and traffic control to your BCOA projects for NCHRP 1-61 testing? • Yes • No

6 SUMMARY OF AGENCY RESPONSES Agencies responding to the survey include: • Arkansas DOT • California DOT • Colorado DOT • Georgia DOT • Idaho TD • Illinois DOT • Indiana DOT • Iowa DOT • Kansas DOT • Kentucky TC • Louisiana DOTD / LTRC • Maryland DOT-SHA • Michigan DOT • Mississippi DOT • Missouri DOT • Minnesota DOT • Montana DOT • North Dakota DOT • New York State DOT • Ohio DOT • Oklahoma DOT • Oregon DOT • Pennsylvania DOT • Tennessee DOT • Texas DOT • Utah DOT • Virginia DOT 1. How many BCOA projects has your agency constructed in the past, by decade? Number of Projects Total Responses 0 <5 5 to 15 >15 1960-1970 14 1 0 0 15 1970-1980 12 3 0 0 15 1980-1990 12 3 0 0 15 1990-2000 5 14 1 1 21 2000-2010 6 9 7 1 23 2010-Present 4 14 5 1 24 2. Is your agency considering the construction of a BCOA project in the next 2 years? Yes No Total Responses Considering 18 9 27 3. In what capacities are BCOAs primarily considered for use in your agency? Total Responses Roadway Facility Type Interstate Routes 8 US Routes 19 State Routes 22 County, City, or Other Local Roads 14 Traffic Volume Low Traffic Volume Roads (AADT<5,000) 16 Moderate Traffic Volume Roads (AADT 5,000 to 20,000) 22 High Traffic Volume Roads (AADT>20,000) 9 Environmental Setting Rural Environmental Setting 26 Urban Environmental Setting 17 Application Types Mainline Applications 22 Intersection Applications 18 Turning Lane Applications 10 Interchange Ramp Applications 6 Frontage Road Applications 2 Underpass Applications 1

7 3. In what capacities are BCOAs primarily considered for use in your agency? Total Responses Other Application Types Parking Lots Truck Climbing Lanes 2 (1) (1) 4. What techniques does your agency use to evaluate the existing AC pavement and its support layers (i.e., subgrade/subbase/base) for use in BCOA design? Total Responses Distress Surveys 24 Coring and Visual Inspection of Cores 27 DCP Testing 7 FWD Testing and Backcalculation 19 Lab Testing of Existing AC 4 Lab Testing of Subgrade, Subbase, and/or Base Layers 9 Other: GPR 2 5. What structural design method does your agency use (or has it used) to design BCOAs? Total Responses 1993 AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures / AASHTO DARWin software 8 ACPA StreetPave (Structural Design Software for Street and Road Concrete Pavements) 2 ACPA BCOA Thickness Designer 4 FHWA Pooled Fund TPF-5(165) BCOA-ME Design Guide (Univ. of Pittsburgh) 7 AASHTO MEPDG Manual of Practice / AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design™ (SJPCP Module included in v2.3 and later) 5 Colorado DOT Thin Concrete Overlay method 2 Illinois DOT PCC Inlay/Overlay method 1 Other Methods No structural design used, remove/replace existing hot-mix asphalt (HMA) to maintain grade TxDOT Thin Whitetopping Design Table 3 (1) (1) 6. What BCOA thicknesses and joint spacing does your agency use (or has it used)? Joint Spacing (feet) Total Responses 3x3 4x4 6x6 2-in Thick 2 1 0 3 3-in Thick 5 2 0 7 4-in Thick 3 11 4 18 5-in Thick 0 2 8 10 6-in Thick 0 2 14 16 7-in Thick 0 0 1 1 Total Responses 10 18 27 55

8 Other BCOA thickness and joint spacing combinations Joint Spacing (feet) 5.5 x 5.5 5.5 W x 6.0 L Variable1 (4 to 8) 10 x 10 11 x 11 12 x 12 12 W x 10 L 12 W x 15 L 14 W x 15 L 4.5-in Thick − 1 − − − − − − − 5.0-in Thick 1 − 1 − 1 − − − − 6.0-in Thick 1 − 1 1 1 4 1 2 − 7.0-in Thick − − − − − − − 1 1 8.0-in Thick − − − − − − − 2 − Total Responses 2 1 2 1 2 4 1 5 1 1 variable length to match underlying cracks in asphalt pavement 7. Does your agency utilize a specialized paving mixture for BCOA applications? Yes No Total Responses Specialized Paving Mixture Used for BCOA Applications? 13 14 27 Fibers Used in BCOA Concrete Mixtures? If Yes, What Type of Fibers Are Used? Polypropylene Synthetic Macrofibers Macro Polyolefin Structural Micro Fibers/Monofilament Unspecified 11 (5) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2) 2 13 Early-Opening-to-Traffic (EOT) BCOA Concrete Mixture Available? 8 5 13 Specific BCOA Concrete Mixture Requirement for Aggregate? 5 7 12 Specific BCOA Concrete Mixture Requirement for Cementitious Materials? 2 9 11 Specific BCOA Concrete Mixture Requirement for Chemical Admixtures? 1 10 11 8. What pre-overlay repairs and/or surface preparation techniques are most commonly used in conjunction with BCOAs? Total Responses Pre-overlay Repairs None 6 Pothole patching 17 Partial-depth patching 10 Full-depth patching 10 Crack filling or sealing 7 Other: New ACP layer 1 Surface preparation None 4 Milling 24 Power sweeping 18 Air blasting 8 Shot blasting 0 Water blasting 2 Other: Vacuum truck 1

9 9. For the distresses observed in your BCOA pavements, indicate the maintenance/repair techniques used to address them. Crack Seal Joint Reseal Spall Repair Partial Slab Replace- ment Full Slab Replace- ment Diamond Grind Total Responses Corner breaks 5 1 1 9 7 1 Transverse cracking 9 1 1 3 7 0 Longitudinal cracking 9 0 1 2 9 0 Spalling at transverse joints/cracks 2 5 12 2 3 0 Spalling at longitudinal joints / cracks 2 4 10 1 4 0 Joint/crack faulting 1 2 0 3 4 11 Slab debonding/ delamination 0 0 0 2 12 0 Joint seal damage 2 6 0 0 0 0 10a. Does your agency have detailed condition/performance data on its BCOA projects? Yes No Total Responses Detailed Condition/Performance Data 14 13 27 10b. What types of condition/performance data are collected and available for analysis? Total Responses Smoothness/IRI 12 Overall condition indicator 8 Joint/crack faulting 12 Transverse cracking 11 Longitudinal cracking 12 Corner breaks 6 Joint spalling 5 Shattered slabs 4 PCC/AC bond quality measurements 1 FWD deflection data 8 Backcalculated layer moduli 3 Other Condition/Performance Data GPR Ride Rutting 4 (1) (1) (2) 11. Would you be willing to provide agency-specific BCOA documentation to NCHRP 1-61 research team? Yes No Total Responses Share documentation 17 10 27 12. Willing to Actively Participate in Phase II of NCHRP 1-61 Study? Yes No Total Responses Participation 19 8 27

Next: Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans »
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 Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation
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The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 329: Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation provides Appendices A through G of the contractor’s final report, which detail survey responses from transportation agencies on bonded concrete overlays on asphalt pavements as well as agency plans and projects.

The document is supplemental to NCHRP Research Report 1007: Evaluation of Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements.

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