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Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation (2022)

Chapter: Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agency BCOA Standard Specifications and Standard Plans." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26759.
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10 APPENDIX B: AGENCY BCOA STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARD PLANS

11 This appendix provides a link to Standard Specifications for some of the agencies (Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, and Pennsylvania) participating in this study. In the event the Standard Specification is no longer used or is unavailable on-line, the text specific to BCOAs has been provided in this appendix. Where applicable, agency Special Provisions, Standard Plans, or Contract Plans specific to BCOAs have also been included.

12 COLORADO DOT Standard Specification (2019): https://www.codot.gov/business/designsupport/cdot-construction- specifications/2019-construction-specifications/2019-specs-book. Section 412.20 Construction by Slip-Form Method and Section 412.21 Determining Pavement Thickness. Standard Plan (2006): https://www.codot.gov/business/designsupport/standard-plans/2006-m-standards/2006- project-special-details/thin-whitetopping/d-412-2-thin-whitetopping-typical-joint-layout.pdf. Used with the permission of the Colorado DOT.

13 IOWA DOT Standard Specification (2015): https://iowadot.gov/erl/current/GS/content/2310.htm. Section 2310 Portland Cement Concrete Overlay. Used with the permission of the Iowa DOT.

14 Used with the permission of the Iowa DOT.

15 Used with the permission of the Iowa DOT.

16 Used with the permission of the Iowa DOT.

17 Used with the permission of the Iowa DOT.

18 KANSAS DOT Standard Specification (2007): https://www.ksdot.org/Assets/wwwksdotorg/bureaus/burConsMain/ specprov/2007/pdf/07-05004.pdf. Section 504 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Bonded Inlay or Overlay Over Hot-Mix Asphalt. Image courtesy Kansas DOT.

19 LOUISIANA DOTD Standard Specification – ultra-thin whitetopping is not included in current Standards. The following Special Provision was provided by the Louisiana DOTD. ULTRA-THIN WHITETOPPING (UTW) [2-4 inches (50-100 mm) thick] This work shall consist of the placement of a special portland cement concrete surface course over an existing milled and cleaned flexible pavement. Prior to the start of work, the contractor shall submit, to the engineer for approval, a plan for accomplishing the work including the type of equipment to be used. All work shall be in accordance with the 2000 Standard Specifications for Roads and Bridges. The contractor shall mill and sweep the existing pavement and visually inspect for loose and defective materials or areas that shall be corrected in accordance with Subsection 507.05. The surface of the UTW concrete pavement shall be in accordance with the lines, grades, and dimensions as shown on the plans and/or as directed by the engineer. The contractor shall also provide all traffic control. Material shall conform to the following requirements. Materials Requirements Portland Cement: Type I or II 1001.01 Fly Ash: Type C or F 1018.15 Ground Iron Blast Furnace Slag 1018.28 Aggregates 1003.01 and 1003.02 (Maximum aggregate size shall not exceed one-third of pavement thickness) Admixtures 1011.02 Water 1018.01 Synthetic Fibers ASTM C 1116 (Type III) Synthetic fibers shall be added at a rate of 3 pounds per cubic yard (1.78 kg per cu m) of concrete. Admixtures shall be incorporated into the concrete mixture, if necessary, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, with approval of the engineer. If approved, a high range water- reducing admixture (superplasticizer), as shown in QPL 58, may be used. The slump, prior to adding the superplasticizer, shall not exceed 4 inches (100 mm). The slump, achieved with a superplasticizer, shall not exceed 8 inches (200 millimeters) at time of placement. In the event that slip-form paving is used, slump will be a maximum of 2 inches (50 mm). Fly ash or ground iron blast furnace slag may be substituted for cement by weight (mass) in accordance with Subsection 901.08. When fly ash or slag is used, the contractor shall demonstrate, through trial batching that any early strength requirements will be achieved in accordance with contract specifications. All cementitious materials will be included when determining the water/cement ratio, which is not to exceed 0.42. If necessary, a set accelerator, either a chloride type or non-chloride type, as shown in QPL 58 may be added to achieve contract specifications. The contractor shall verify the mix design and provide documentation to the engineer showing that the mix design will achieve a minimum flexural strength of 700 psi (5.0 MPa) in 28 days, as well as any other requirements listed in the plans or Table I below. For projects requiring accelerated early strength, the contractor shall verify the mix design and provide documentation to the engineer showing that the mix design will achieve a minimum flexural strength of 500 psi (3.5 MPa) in 24 hours, as well as the other requirements listed in the plans or Table 1below. UTW pavement that does not meet or exceed a flexural strength of 700 psi (5.0 MPa) in 28 days will be removed and replaced. The contractor shall submit to the engineer the aggregate and concrete test results performed by a DOTD certified technician during the verification process. Minimum tests for aggregates shall be specific .gravity; moisture, and gradation. The minimum tests for concrete shall be slump, air content, unit weight (mass), yield, and flexural strength performed during mix design submittal. For verification of the mix design the test requirements in Table 1 shall be met.

20 Table 1 Test Requirements Slump TR 207 Less than or equal to 4 inches (100 mm) without water reducers and 8 inches (200 mm) with water reducers [unless a slip-form paver is used in which case slump will be 2 inches (50 mm) maximum] Air Content TR 202 3 to 5 percent Minimum Flexural Strength ASTM C 78-02 700 psi (4.8 MPa) in 28 days 500 psi (3.5 MPa) in 24 hours for projects requiring accelerated early strength The contractor's Certified Concrete Technician shall be responsible for sampling and testing of the concrete in the presence of the engineer or his delegated representative. A minimum of four test beams shall be made for each continuous placement of 100 cubic yards (75 cu m) of concrete. Flexural strength testing shall be performed to accommodate traffic movements and to ensure proper strength of the pavement. A flexural strength test shall be the average of two beams. Test beams shall be tested in accordance with ASTM C-78 at time intervals as approved by the engineer. Slump and air tests shall be performed at the jobsite in accordance with DOTD TR 207 and DOTD TR 202. Beams shall be stored and cured in accordance with DOTD TR 226. Concrete shall be spread uniformly without segregation. Concrete may be struck off with a vibratory screed or placed with a slip-form paver. Any excess concrete laitance on the surface shall be struck off during finishing providing a durable riding surface. Before paving, the asphaltic pavement surface shall be clean and dry, then dampened with no standing water just prior to placement of the concrete. Concrete placement shall be in accordance with Subsection 601.06. Final finishing of the concrete pavement surface shall be in accordance with Subsection 601.08. The surface of the concrete pavement shall be transverse tined in accordance with Subsection 601.08(h). A drag finish will not be required. Curing compound, as approved in QPL 65, shall be applied in accordance with Subsection 601.10, but at 1.5 times the recommended rate. If the time period between floating and texturing of t11e concrete exceeds 30 minutes or during rapid drying conditions, til.ie concrete shall be kept damp by fogging with water to prevent rapid evaporation from the surface. Sawing of the pavement joints shall commence as soon as the concrete has gained sufficient strength to support the weight of a lightweight early entry sawing machine and where raveling will not occur. In the timing of sawing joints, transverse joints are more critical than longitudinal joints. Joints shall be cut to a depth of 1/3 the pavements thickness. The sawing operation shall be completed before any cracking occurs (generally within 10 hours after placing the concrete). No equipment, other than the sawing machine, will be permitted on the UTW pavement during sawing operations. Sufficient back-up equipment shall be provided at the jobsite to continue sawing operations in the event of a breakdown of the primary sawing equipment. The contractor shall repair any cracking, chipping, spalling, or raveling of the concrete by removal and replacement at no direct pay by approved methods to the satisfaction of the engineer. Longitudinal and transverse joints shall be spaced in accordance with Table 2 below. The largest dimension of any panel shall not exceed 125 percent of the smallest dimension, unless approved by the engineer, however, for special geometric conditions; the largest dimension may be increased to 150 percent of the smallest dimension. Minimum angles between any two intersecting joints shall be 80 degrees. Joints shall intersect pavement edges at 90 degrees and extend in a straight line for a minimum of 1 112 feet (0.45 m) from the pavement edge. Unless otherwise specified, joints of adjacent panels shall be aligned. Isolation joints shall be used only where pavement abuts buildings, existing curbs, manholes, or other fixed objects. Table 2. Spacing Between Joints* UTW Pavement Thickness, inches (mm) Maximum Spacing of Joints, feet (mm) 2 (50) 2 (0.6) 2 1/2 (65) 2 1/2 (0.75) 3 (75) 3 (0.9) 3 1/2 (90) 3 1/2 (1.05) 4 (100) 4 (1.2) *When necessary to achieve uniformity, joint spacing [feet (m)] may be increased to 125 percent of the pavement thickness [inches (mm)] i.e., with 4 inch (100 mm) slab thickness, the corresponding joint spacing could be increased to 5 feet (1.5 m) center to center. (If approved by the engineer for a few isolated areas, the spacing may be increased to 150 percent of the pavement thickness.)

21 The contractor shall furnish equipment and employ methods that produce an acceptable riding surface in accordance with Subsection 601.11. Pavement tie-in areas with surface deviations in excess of 0.25 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m) shall be corrected. Pavement shoulder, turnouts, parking areas, and crossovers with surface deviations in excess of 0.5 inch in l0 feet ( 13 mm in 3 m) shall be corrected. The contractor shall furnish an approved 10 foot (3 m) metal static straightedge for testing. The engineer will determine when the UTW pavement will be opened to traffic. No traffic will be allowed on the completed pavement until the concrete has attained a minimum flexural strength of 500 psi (3.5 MPa). UTW will be measured under two pay items. Concrete material will be measured per cubic yard (cu m) and placement of the UTW pavement will be measured per square yard (sq m) which will include all tools, equipment, labor and incidentals necessary to complete this item. Payment adjustments for delay in opening the roadway travel lane to traffic because minimum flexural strength has not been achieved in the specified time frame will be in accordance with Table 3. Table 3. Delay of Opening to Traffic (Hrs.) Open To Traffic In 24 Hours Open To Traffic In 48 Hours Open To Traffic In 72 Hours Percent of Contract Unit Price 4 8 12 90 8 16 24 80 12 24 36 70 16 32 48 60 20 40 60 50 Payment will be made at the contract unit price under: Item S-, UTW Placement (____ inch (mm) Thick], per square yard (sq m). Item S-, UTW Concrete (____ inch (mm) Thick], per cubic yard (cu m).

22 MINNESOTA DOT Standard Specification (2018): http://www.dot.state.mn.us/pre-letting/spec/2018/2018-spec-book-final.pdf. Image courtesy Fillmore County, Minnesota

23 Image courtesy Fillmore County, Minnesota

24 Image courtesy of Fillmore County, MN

25 Image courtesy Fillmore County, Minnesota

26 MISSOURI DOT Standard Specification (2020): https://www.modot.org/sites/default/files/documents/2020%20Missouri%20Standard%20Specific%20-%20MHTC %20%28April%202021%29.pdf. Section 506 Concrete Overlays for Pavements. MONTANA DOT Standard Specification – concrete overlays are not included in current Standards. The following BCOA-specific contract documentation for SR-20 was provided by the Montana DOT. The following information and plan sheet was obtained from Project No. STPP 20-1(6)0 P-20, Highway 16, Thin Whitetopping Overlay Composite (2001) and is used with the permission of the Montana Department of Transportation. SHOULDER AND APPROACH WORK – EQUIPMENT HOURS Whitetop. Prior to placement of whitetopping on approaches, water flood and power broom fresh plant mix to remove as much asphalt emulsion as possible from top surface. Do not round the concrete edge of mainline shoulder at concrete or whitetopped approaches. Saw construction joints at 1.2 m both longitudinally and transverse to centerline. Ensure that the joints line up with mainline joints. Concrete. Surface concrete approaches with 150 mm PCCP over a 75 mm base of Cr. Top Surf. Stations 6+96 LT. and 7+32 LT. Remove and dispose of existing concrete to the in-place joint at 11.6 m from centerline. Do not disturb drop inlets. Saw construction joints at 1.2 m both longitudinally and transverse to centerline. Ensure that the joints line up with mainline joints. Saw and seal joint at existing concrete with silicone sealant. MATERIALS Concrete. Submit a complete mix design and plan for placing and curing PCCP to the Engineer for approval one week prior to the required pre-paving conference. Incorporate Polypropylene Fibers into the PCCP mix in accordance with the fiber supplier’s instructions with the Engineer’s approval. Add 1.78 kg of fibers per cubic meter (3 lbs. per cubic yard). Mix the fibers into fresh concrete so they are uniformly distributed throughout each batch of concrete and there is no clumping of the fibers. Provide a mix design that will satisfy Opening to Traffic-Strength Requirements of 500 psi within 3 to 5 days. High early strengths may be obtained with greater-than-normal amounts of ordinary Type I and Type II cements or a normal amount of Type III (high early strength cement) with or without water-reducing and accelerating admixtures as required. Furnish the Engineer with test results from an independent testing laboratory or certified mix design technician verifying that the mix design submitted will produce a concrete pavement meeting the requirements of the Contract prior to beginning work. Rescind item 1 of Subsection 551.02.3, admixtures; replace with: Cement content reduction will not be allowed when a water-reducing admixture is used in concrete classes “AS”, “DS”, “BD modified”, “AP” and “DP”. In all other concrete classes, cement content may be reduced a maximum of 10% when a water-reducing admixture is used. The resulting water/cement ratio must not exceed 0.49 or 20.8 liters per sack of cement. Compressive strengths must meet Table 551-01 requirements. Rescind Subsection 501.02.1(a) and replace with the following: Cement. Furnish type I or type II Portland Cement meeting ASTM C-150 and Subsection 551.02.1 requirements. Ensure type I cement meets ASTM C-150 type II requirements, modified as follows: Table 1, Standard Chemical Requirements; meet the Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) limit for type II cement. OPENING TO TRAFFIC- STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS The above Opening to Traffic – Strength Requirements for PCCP – 230 mm also apply to PCCP – 100 mm. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Surface Preparations. Remove asphalt concrete to the specified depth, full width of the roadway, using a power operated cold milling machine as specified in Standard Specification 411.03.1. Remove all thin delaminated or loose layers of existing pavement left after cold milling. The prepared surface must be damp and free of damaged asphalt, dust, standing water and substances that may interfere with the adhesion or curing of the inlay. Do not allow excess water to puddle on the prepared surface.

27 Restrictions. Do not place concrete when air temperature exceeds 90 degrees F. without approval from the Engineer. Depth Control. See PAVEMENT THICKNESS 100 mm PCCP. Thoroughly consolidate the concrete to full depth using screeds of the transverse type, equipped with surface vibrators. Supplement screed vibrators with hand held vibrators as necessary to accomplish proper consolidation. Proper consolidation is responsibility of the contractor. Use plastic or rubber-tipped vibrator heads when placing concrete near epoxy coated reinforcing steel. Surface Texture. Texture all portland cement concrete pavement by broom finish. Curing. Apply curing compound to the overlay immediately after the water sheen disappears and the surface has been finished and tined. Apply curing compound at twice the normal recommended rate. Use a membrane forming curing compound meeting AASHTO M148 Type 2 (white pigmented) requirements. Longitudinal and Transverse Joint Layout. Develop and submit to the Engineer for approval a plan for longitudinal and transverse joint layout. Submit the plan a minimum of 15 working days before paving work for Engineer approval. No work is allowed until the plan and layout meets the Engineer’s approval. Space joints 1.2 m on center both transverse and longitudinal to the centerline. Construct transverse joints at a 90-degree angle to the centerline. The direction and spacing to be such that the smallest angle of intersection between joints or between joints and a free edge is not less than 60 degrees. Keep slabs as square as possible. Skew longitudinal and transverse joints to intersect all manholes or other in-place structures. Adjust joint location at approaches for consistency. Joints. Commence with sawing as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without excessive raveling. Use “soft cut” or approved equivalent to cut contraction joints 3 mm wide into the concrete. The use of a span saw, which is supported on the new pavement, will not be permitted. Saw longitudinal and transverse joints to a depth of 25 mm. Construct each joint substantially true to line with no offsets along the joint. Discontinue sawing when a crack develops ahead of the saw. Should uncontrolled cracking occur, a joint shall be formed with a crack saw along the line of the crack and the joint shall be cleaned and sealed. Sealant. Do not seal transverse and longitudinal joints in resurfacing sections 100 mm or less in thickness unless otherwise specified the contract documents. Measurement and Payment. Measure PCCP by the square meter rounded to the nearest 0.1 square meter. Fillets for widened sections or at drainage structures and similar locations placed monolithic with the pavement are measured as pavement. Areas constructed other than as pavement are deducted from the pavement area. No deduction is made for any fixture located within the pavement limits that has a surface area of 0.8 square meters or less. Include all costs associated with surface preparation, except cold milling, in the price for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement – 100 mm. Include all costs associated with setting and maintaining wire control lines, sawing joints and accelerated paving techniques in the price for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement – 100 mm. PAVEMENT THICKNESS 100 mm PCCP. Construct concrete pavement to the specified thickness. Tolerances allowed for sub-grade construction and specifications that may affect thickness do not modify the thickness requirements. A primary unit of pavement is the pavement area placed in each day’s paving operations. Within a primary unit of pavement, there may be an area or areas that are determined to be a secondary unit or units of pavement, as specified in Subsection 501.03.20(B), Thickness Deficiency Not Exceeding (6 mm). The primary unit area will be reduced by the secondary unit area. Thickness measurements are made in each primary unit of pavement with a minimum one measurement for each 100 linear meters of traffic lane, or fraction thereof, of pavement placed. The number of thickness measurements within each primary unit, both longitudinally and transversely, is determined by the Project Manager. The contractor will measure thickness using 4” cores and present the cores to the Project Manager for measurement. Record locations and elevations of various points on the milled surface before whitetopping. Check and record elevations at the same locations after the whitetopping has been placed. If discrepancies exist, take cores to verify that whitetopping depths equal design depths. MDT must witness coring. Thickness measurement locations are determined by random sampling under MT-416. Thickness measurements will be made using MT-106 to the nearest 1 mm. Pavement thickness variation is determined by comparing the

28 actual thickness measured with the specified thickness. The variation is determined to the nearest 1 mm as deficient variation. Excess thickness variations will be disregarded. Any single measured thickness deficiency in the primary unit area that exceeds 6 mm, will be considered and treated as a secondary unit area under Subsection 501.03.20(B). Fill all remaining holes in the concrete pavement after the thickness measurements are made with concrete of the same quality as that used to construct the pavement, at Contractor expense. Thickness Deficiency Not Exceeding (6 mm). If all of the deficient thickness variations in a primary unit do not exceed 6 mm, the thickness variations in the unit will be averaged algebraically to determine the average thickness deficiency. For determining the average thickness deficiency, a thickness variation in excess of 6 mm (106 mm is maximum depth to be included in average) will not be included in the averages and will be disregarded. For each primary unit of pavement that is deficient in average thickness, the Contractor has the option to: Pay to the Department, or the Department will deduct from any monies due or that may become due the Contractor under the Contract, a sum computed by applying the adjustment from Table 501-1 to the quantity of the unit, or: At Contractor expense, remove and replace the deficient concrete pavement panels with new concrete meeting all Contract requirements. Lower the sub-grade or base if necessary to meet the full thickness requirements. Replaced pavement will be tested for thickness requirements using additional measurements and is subject to all of the contract requirements. TABLE 501-1 CONCRETE PAVEMENT THICKNESS Average Thickness Proportional Part of Contract Price Allowed 100 mm to 106 mm 100% Less than 100 mm 90% Less than 95 mm 70% Less than 94 mm Replacement required Thickness Deficiency Exceeding 6 mm. For each deficiency variation in a primary unit exceeding 6 mm, the Contractor will determine from secondary thickness measurements the dimensions of the secondary unit area where the apparent thickness deficiency exceeds 6 mm. The determination of the limits of the secondary unit area are made by making one randomly located secondary thickness measurement in each pavement panel adjacent to the panel in which the original measurement in the primary unit was made. This method will continue until the secondary unit area is bounded by panels in which the secondary measurement is deficient in thickness by 6 mm or less. The secondary unit area is made up of entire panels only. Panels are the areas bounded by longitudinal and transverse joints and pavement edges. Replace panels in secondary unit area at Contractor’s expense as outlined in option 2), Subsection 501.03.20(A) above. The cost of all secondary thickness measurements made under this Subsection will be absorbed by the Contractor. After eliminating the secondary unit area or areas and thickness measurements from consideration, the average thickness deficiency of the remainder of primary unit areas will be determined under Subsection 501.03.20(A). Secondary thickness measurements made outside of a secondary unit area will be used to determine average thickness variation in the remaining primary unit area in which the measurements are taken. The contractor is not entitled to any additional compensation or time extension due to these requirements. If the contractor believes that the number of thickness measurements made in primary unit areas are insufficient to indicate the actual pavement thickness placed, the Contractor may request to take additional thickness measurements. The additional calculated variations will be averaged with the original variations to determine the average thickness variation. The Project Manager will randomly select the location of all additional thickness measurements. The Contractor will absorb the cost of all additional measurements made.

29 Used with the permission of the Montana DOT.

30 Used with the permission of the Montana DOT.

31 Used with the permission of the Montana DOT.

32 PENNSYLVANIA DOT Standard Specification (2020): http://www.dot.state.pa.us/public/PubsForms/Publications/Pub_408/ 408_2020/408_2020_2/408_2020_2.pdf. Section 540 Bonded Concrete Overlay of Asphalt-Surfaced Pavement. SR-119 Contract Plan (2006) and Standard Plan (2019): Used with the permission of the Pennsylvania DOT.

33 Used with the permission of the Pennsylvania DOT.

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The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 329: Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements: Resources for Evaluation provides Appendices A through G of the contractor’s final report, which detail survey responses from transportation agencies on bonded concrete overlays on asphalt pavements as well as agency plans and projects.

The document is supplemental to NCHRP Research Report 1007: Evaluation of Bonded Concrete Overlays on Asphalt Pavements.

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