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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Consensus Study Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Administration for Children and Families, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (#75N98021C00032) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (#78561). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-69695-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-69695-X
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26809.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
×

COMMITTEE ON ADDRESSING THE LONG-TERM IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON CHILDREN AND FAMILIES

TUMAINI RUCKER COKER (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle Children’s

TINA L. CHENG, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, University of Cincinnati

JOSHUA GOODMAN, Boston University

NIA JENEE HEARD-GARRIS, Northwestern University

STEPHANIE M. JONES, Harvard University

VELMA MCBRIDE MURRY, Vanderbilt University

CYRIL “KENT” MCGUIRE, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

ROBERT S. PYNOOS, University of California, Los Angeles

MICHELLE SARCHE, University of Colorado

FLORENCIA TORCHE, Stanford University

JOSEPH L. WRIGHT, University of Maryland Medical System

MARCI YBARRA, University of Wisconsin

Staff

JENNIFER APPLETON GOOTMAN, Study Director (from March 2022)

SUZANNE LEMENESTREL, Study Director (until January 2022)

ADAM JONES, Research Associate

SUNIA YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant (from July 2022)

MARISSA GLOVER, Senior Program Assistant (until July 2022)

EMILY P. BACKES, Deputy Board Director

ALEJANDRA CASILLAS, National Academy of Medicine Emerging Leader in Health and Medicine Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
×

BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES

DAVID V. BRITT (Chair), Sesame Workshop (retired)

HAROLYN M. BELCHER, Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

RICHARD F. CATALANO, JR., University of Washington School of Social Work

TAMMY CHANG, University of Michigan

DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington

GREG J. DUNCAN, University of California, Irvine

NANCY E. HILL, Harvard University

STEPHANIE J. MONROE, Wrenwood Group

JAMES M. PERRIN, Harvard Medical School and MassGeneral Hospital for Children

NISHA SACHDEV, Premnas Partners

MARTIN TEICHER, Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital

JONATHAN TODRES, Georgia State University College of Law

JOANNA L. WILLIAMS, Rutgers University

Staff

NATACHA BLAIN, Director

EMILY P. BACKES, Deputy Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
×

Acknowledgments

An ad hoc committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was convened to study the consequences of and solutions to the long-term effects of COVID-19 on children living in high-risk communities. The committee was asked to focus specifically on the physical and mental health of children and their caregivers by collecting information and data from a broad set of sources, including, but not limited to, public information-gathering sessions, input from those collecting real-time data on the health and mental health effects of the virus, and reviews of the national responses of other countries that have been effective in their responses to COVID-19 for children and families.

The committee thanks the sponsors of this study for their support: the Administration for Children and Families, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

This report would not have been possible without the contributions of many people. Special thanks go to the members of the committee, who dedicated extensive time, expertise, and energy to the drafting of the report. The committee also thanks the members of the staff of the National Academies for their significant contributions to the report: Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Emily Backes, Adam Jones, and Sunia Young, as well as Suzanne LeMenestrel and Marissa Glover, who both contributed to the early stages of working with the committee.

The committee is also grateful to Javed Kahn, Pamella Atayi, and Lisa Alston for their administrative and financial assistance on this project. From the Office of Reports and Communication of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE), Kirsten Sampson

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Snyder, Viola Horek, Douglas Sprunger, and Meredith Fender shepherded the report through the review and the production process and assisted with its communication and dissemination. Hannah Fuller and Megan Lowry, of the Office of News and Public Information and Sandra McDermin and Julie Eubank of the Office of Congressional and Government Affairs were instrumental in the release and promotion of the report. The committee also thanks Clair Woolley of the National Academies Press and Bea Porter of DBASSE for their assistance with the production of the final report; Rebecca Morgan, in the National Academies research library, for her assistance with fact checking and literature searches; consultant Erin Hammers Forstag for her writing and editing contributions; and consultants Eugenia Grohman and Allie Boman for their skillful and thoughtful editing.

Throughout the project, Natacha Blain, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Carlotta Arthur and Patti Simon, executive director and associate executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Mary Ellen O’Connell and Monica Feit, the then executive director and deputy executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, provided valuable oversight and guidance.

Many individuals volunteered significant time and effort to address and educate the committee during our information gathering sessions. Their willingness to share their perspectives, research, and personal experiences was essential to the committee’s work. We thank: David Alexander, Jenny Arwade, Raul Botello, Melissa Brymer, Emmanuel L. Chandler, Mykela Collins, Dominique Davis, Paolo DeMaria, Isra Elshafei, Mary Greiner, Jacki Haight, Leslie Helmcamp, Ebonie Hubbard, Angela Hudson, Tamara Hunter, Wendelyn Julien, Jamilah Jor’dan, Charles Macias, Eunice Minero, Gladys Moran, Micker “Mike” Richardson, Alicia Mousseau, Marquinta Thomas, Ashley Vasquez, Delia Vicente, Melissa Walls, and Keesha Woods, as well as adolescents, Jermal, Martha, Mylon, Nathaniel, Nyeja, and Zanab.

We also thank the researchers who prepared commissioned papers for the committee: Amit Cohen, Sarena Goodman, Julia Greenberg, Simona Hannon, Misty L. Heggeness, Adam Isen, Alvaro Mezza, and Timothy Thomas.

This consensus study report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Georges C. Benjamin, American Public Health Association, and Douglas S. Massey, Princeton University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AIR American Institutes for Research
ARP American Rescue Plan
CAA Consolidated Appropriations Act
CARES the 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
CCDBG the Child Care and Development Block Grant
CDC Centers of Disease Control and Prevention
CHIP the Children’s Health Insurance Program
CPRSAA Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act
CPSP Center on Poverty and Social Policy
CRRSA 2020 Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations
CSRP Chicago School Readiness Project
CTC child tax credit
EITC Earned Income Tax Credit
ESSA Every Student Succeeds Act
ESSER Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief Fund
FFCRA Families First Coronavirus Response Act
GAO Government Accountability Office
GDP gross domestic product
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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HUD U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
MIHOPE Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation
NCTSN National Child Traumatic Stress Network
P-EBT SNAP Pandemic EBT
PBIS Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder
SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
SERV Project School Emergency Response to Violence
SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
SPR Skills for Psychological Recovery
TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
VOYCE Voices of Youth in Chicago Education
WIC the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26809.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of children and their families, who have faced innumerable challenges such as illness and death; school closures; social isolation; financial hardship; food insecurity; deleterious mental health effects; and difficulties accessing health care. In almost every outcome related to social, emotional, behavioral, educational, mental, physical, and economic health and well-being, families identifying as Black, Latino, and Native American, and those with low incomes, have disproportionately borne the brunt of the negative effects of the pandemic.

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and families will be felt for years to come. While these long-term effects are unknown, they are likely to have particularly significant implications for children and families from racially and ethnically minoritized communities and with low incomes.

Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families identifies social, emotional, behavioral, educational, mental, physical, and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and looks at strategies for addressing the challenges and obstacles that the pandemic introduced for children and families in marginalized communities. This report provides recommendations for programs, supports, and interventions to counteract the negative effects of the pandemic on child and family well-being and offers a path forward to recover from the harms of the pandemic, address inequities, and prepare for the future.

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