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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26812.
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BTSCRP Web-Only Document 3: Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace Eva M. Shipp Dennis Perkinson Amber B. Trueblood Stephanie C. Payne Winfred Arthur Jr. Laura Higgins Nolan J. Miller Julia Hong Casey Greger Jennifer Miller Katie Womack Texas A&M Transportation Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX Conduct of Research Report for BTSCRP Project BTS-01 Submitted April 2022 © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) and funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It was conducted through the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB), part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR BTSCRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 3 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Richard Retting, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor Jennifer J. Weeks, Publishing Projects Manager BTSCRP PROJECT BTS-01 PANEL Carol P. Gould, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO (Chair) Dortha Cummins, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, Baton Rouge, LA Darrin Thomas Grondel, Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility, Hurricane, UT Lora Hollingsworth, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL Jessica M. Hutton, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Pamela Langve-Davis, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT Chanyoung Lee, USF Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, FL Shannon C. Roberts, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA Richard Y. Woo, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD Mary T. Byrd, NHTSA Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under BTSCRP Project BTS-01 by the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), a member of The Texas A&M University System. Dr. Eva M. Shipp was the project director and principal investigator. She is the program manager for TTI’s Crash Analytics Team within the Center for Transportation Safety. The project team wishes to recognize and thank the employers and safety practitioners who generously shared their experience and thoughts regarding employer-based driver safety programs. Their state-of-the-practice innovations and industry-specific insights were critical to the success of the project and the quality of the resulting recommendations, as well as to the efficacy and effectiveness of the web-based tool (BTSCRP WebResource 1).

iv CONTENTS List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables ............................................................................................................................... vii Acknowledgments ...................................................................................................................... viii Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 1 State-of-the-Practice Overview ................................................................................................... 1 Behavioral Change Theory ......................................................................................................... 3 Measures of Effectiveness .......................................................................................................... 4 Web-Based Tool ......................................................................................................................... 4 Section 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6 Section 2: State-of-the-Practice Literature Review ................................................................... 7 Background of Employer Programs ........................................................................................... 7 Background of Theories ............................................................................................................ 11 Program Effectiveness Background .......................................................................................... 17 Literature Review Findings ...................................................................................................... 18 Safety Culture and Safety Climate ............................................................................................ 28 Literature Review Summary ..................................................................................................... 35 Section 3: State-of-the-Practice Employer Interviews............................................................. 37 Employer Interview Methodology ............................................................................................ 37 Summary of Transit Interviews ................................................................................................ 38 Summary of Corporate Trucking Interviews ............................................................................ 41 Summary of Safety Organization Interviews ............................................................................ 44 Summary of Other Organization Category Interviews ............................................................. 47 Employer Interview Summary .................................................................................................. 53 Section 4: Behavioral Change Theory Application to Practice .............................................. 59 Behavioral Change Theories ..................................................................................................... 59 Candidate Employer-Based Traffic Safety Programs ............................................................... 61 Summary of Interview-Identified Programs ............................................................................. 74 Additional Employer-Based Behavioral Safety Traffic Programs Located ............................. 74 Driver Training Taxonomy ....................................................................................................... 75 Researchers with Professional Driver Safety-Related Research Programs .............................. 80 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 87

v Section 5: Measures of Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Program Effectiveness .................................................................................................................... 88 Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 88 Measures of Effectiveness (Phase 1) ........................................................................................ 90 Measures of Effectiveness (Phase 2) ...................................................................................... 103 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 110 Section 6: Development of BTSCTP WebResource 1 and Guide ........................................... 112 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 112 Methodology ........................................................................................................................... 112 Description of BTSCRP WebResource 1 ................................................................................ 113 Discussion/User Guide ........................................................................................................... 114 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 123 Section 7: Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 125 References .................................................................................................................................. 127 List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................ 137 Glossary of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 138 Appendix A: Methods ............................................................................................................... 141 Literature Review ................................................................................................................... 141 Employer Interviews ............................................................................................................... 163 Appendix B: Annotated Bibliography .................................................................................... 171 BTSCRP Web-Only Document 3 contains the conduct of research report for BTSCRP Project B-01 and accompanies BTSCRP WebResource 1: Employer-Based Driver Safety Programs. Readers can read BTSCRP WebResource 1 at www.trb.org.

vi LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. NETS 10 Steps for Employers to Address Traffic Safety. .............................................. 8 Figure 2. Diffusion of Innovation Theory..................................................................................... 12 Figure 3. Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Model. .............................................................................. 12 Figure 4. Lewin’s Three-Step Change Theory. ............................................................................ 13 Figure 5. Nudge Theory. ............................................................................................................... 13 Figure 6. Social Cognitive Theory. ............................................................................................... 14 Figure 7. The Health Belief Model. .............................................................................................. 14 Figure 8. The Social-Ecological Model. ....................................................................................... 15 Figure 9. The Transtheoretical Model of Change. ........................................................................ 15 Figure 10. The Workplace Health Model. .................................................................................... 16 Figure 11. Theory of Planned Behavior. ....................................................................................... 17 Figure 12. The Health Belief Model. ............................................................................................ 59 Figure 13. Social Cognitive Theory. ............................................................................................. 60 Figure 14. Theory of Planned Behavior. ....................................................................................... 61 Figure 15. The Transtheoretical Model of Change. ...................................................................... 61 Figure 16. Basic Components of a Logic Model Framework. ...................................................... 89 Figure 17. Landing Page. ............................................................................................................ 115 Figure 18. About Page. ............................................................................................................... 115 Figure 19. Employ Safety Menu. ................................................................................................ 116 Figure 20. What Are Other People Doing and What Is Available? ............................................ 117 Figure 21. How Do We Change Behavior? ................................................................................ 118 Figure 22. Theories at Work. ...................................................................................................... 119 Figure 23. How Do I Know My Program Is Working? .............................................................. 120 Figure 24. Evaluation Design Overview. .................................................................................... 121 Figure 25. What Can Help Me Plan My Safety Program? ......................................................... 122 Figure 26. Building Logic Models. ............................................................................................. 123

vii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Measures Used in Training Program Evaluations. ......................................................... 25 Table 2. Description of Participating Transit Agencies, 2017. ..................................................... 39 Table 3. Description of Participating Trucking Companies. ........................................................ 42 Table 4. Mission Statements of Participating Safety Organizations............................................. 45 Table 5. Descriptions of Participating Other Organizations. ........................................................ 49 Table 6. Interview Summaries by Topic. ...................................................................................... 56 Table 7. Candidate Programs Identified in the Employer Interviews. .......................................... 62 Table 8. Key Features of Safety Programs by Industry Group. .................................................... 71 Table 9. Initial Categories Used in the Driver Training Program Taxonomy. ............................. 76 Table 10. An Abbreviated Taxonomy of 10 Employer-Based Driver Training Programs. .......... 77 Table 11. Authors Identified in the Literature Review as Having Programs of Research on Professional Driver Safety. .......................................................................................... 80 Table 12. Summary of Studies of Safety Program Effectiveness from the Research Literature. ..................................................................................................................... 91 Table 13. Summary of Measures of Effectiveness by Research Program. ................................... 99 Table 14. Summary of Program Context and Evaluation Measures by Interview/Industry Group. ........................................................................................................................ 102 Table 15. Program Evaluation Designs. ..................................................................................... 104 Table 16. Driver Knowledge. ...................................................................................................... 107 Table 17. Driver Attitudes and Beliefs/Cognitions. .................................................................... 107 Table 18. Driver Health. ............................................................................................................. 107 Table 19. Driver Behavior. ......................................................................................................... 108 Table 20. Driving Outcomes. ...................................................................................................... 109 Table 21. Driving Supervisor Outcomes. ................................................................................... 109 Table 22. Operational Efficiency of Vehicle. ............................................................................. 109 Table 23. Organizational Outcomes. .......................................................................................... 110

viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under BTSCRP Project BTS-01 by the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), a member of The Texas A&M University System. Dr. Eva M. Shipp was the project director and principal investigator. She is the program manager for TTI’s Crash Analytics Team within the Center for Transportation Safety. The project team wishes to recognize and thank the employers and safety practitioners who generously shared their experience and thoughts regarding employer-based driver safety programs. Their state-of-the-practice innovations and industry-specific insights were critical to the success of the project and the quality of the resulting recommendations, as well as to the efficacy and effectiveness of the web-based tool (BTSCRP WebResource 1).

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Work-related traffic crashes remain particularly challenging to address. However, recent research and practice have shown that instilling an awareness of safety and fostering a corporate safety culture supportive of safety may prevent traffic crashes, reduce their frequency, and reduce their severity.

The TRB Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program’s BTSCRP Web-Only Document 3: Developing Employer-Based Behavioral Traffic Safety Programs for Drivers in the Workplace reports on a study that reviewed the research literature on employer-based behavioral traffic safety programs, gathered information on existing employer-based behavioral traffic safety programs, identified the relevant behavioral change theories and critical components of existing safety programs, and summarized and analyzed measures of safety program effectiveness.

Associated with the document is a summary of measures of effectiveness and a website, BTSCRP WebResource 1: Employer-Based Driver Safety Programs, which provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating employer-based behavioral traffic safety programs.

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