National Academies Press: OpenBook

Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes (2023)

Chapter: Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis

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Page 25
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
×
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A-1   A P P E N D I X A State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis Introduction This document presents the method and results for Task 3: Survey Data Collection and Task 4: Data Collection Review and Synthesis, which lay the groundwork for Task 5: State-Specific Data Collection. Results include summary data of each state’s unification status and court structure and include a compilation of information on all 50 states regarding their court structure, data flow, and unification status. These data are collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Traffic Records Assessments (TRAs), where available, and/or are publicly available on state websites and the website of the National Center for State Courts (NCSC’s; www.ncsc.org). The collection of these data in Task 3 supports categorization of states based on their unification status, which enabled sampling in Task 4 of a select number of representative states in each category for interview in Task 5. Below, we detail the protocols used for both the categorization of states and the compilation of background information for Task 3 and integration of information for the selection of representative states in Task 4. State Categorization Background To enable the selection of representative states in Task 4 for review in Task 5, the research team developed an information gathering approach and categorization process to divide states into groups with meaningful similarities in unification status. As state court structures are highly diverse and unification is a complex concept, functional similarities, allowing selection of representative states for Task 5. Briefly, the three axes are defined as follows. 1. Unification of Legal Code: The extent to which there is a consistent set of citation definitions across municipalities within the state, which would streamline data sharing within states (and potentially across states, if universal standards such as the National Information Exchange Model [NIEM] were adopted, although this is outside the scope of this project) (National Information Exchange Model, 2016). As the definition of legal unification has some flexibility, the output of this question is dependent upon each state’s self-reporting of the degree to which it has a consistent set of citation definitions or municipal citations reference the state’s statutes. 2. Unification of Structure: The extent to which a court system is divided into multiple jurisdictional tiers, in conjunction with the centrality of these tiers’ funding. It may be more challenging to track data through court systems with many tiers and multiple sources of funding (e.g., state versus local + state). This question is informed by the website of the NCSC and several questions from the state’s TRA, when available. three axes were used to categorize states: (1) unification of legal code; (2) unification of structure; and (3) unification/digitization of records. This categorization enabled the grouping of states with structural and

A-2 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes 3. Unification/Digitization of Records: The extent to which a state has standardized the creation, storage, and transmission of court systems’ and driver’s license files into a digital format. Digital records are more easily transferred and maintained than paper copies. The response to this question is also informed by the NCSC’s website and several questions from the state’s TRA, when available. Methods The research team obtained information on the extent to which each state is unified along each construct from public records websites, TRAs, and existing resources like the NCSC’s Court Structure Charts (2020). States were divided into groups based on this categorization effort, and exemplar states were identified within these categories. Final categorization was done using the precise distribution of states along each category axis. Two levels of each construct were used for a total of eight state categories. These included: • Legal Unification (Y versus N); • Structural Unification (number of tiers [< 4 levels versus ≥ 4 levels] and/or sources of funding [state only versus multiple sources]); and • Statewide Digitization of Records (Y versus N)]. These characterizations were the basis for the final grouping of states into categories. Characterization Questions and Approach The research team used a systematic approach to apply a series of questions to determine the status of every state with regard to the unification characteristics: legal, structural, and digital. A spreadsheet was created to record the outcomes of the information gathering for each state (e.g., “Yes” or “No” legally unified, “< 4 or ≥ 4” court levels, “state” or “multiple” funding sources, “Yes” or “No” digitization of records). The outcomes were then sorted to identify exemplar states in each octant, referring to the scoring instructions below: Scoring Instructions 1. Legal Unification a. Question: Which states declare themselves as legally unified? b. Approach: i. Using the NCSC website, determine which states are legally unified and record in the characterization spreadsheet. 1. Reference: https://www.ncsc.org/Topics/Court-Management/Court- Unification/state-Links.aspx?cat=states%20Legally%20Described%20as%20Unified 2. Record a “1” for legally unified and “0” for not legally unified. 2. Unification by Structure a. Question: How structurally unified is each state? b. Approach: Using the NCSC website on Court Structure and Court Organization information gathered from the state Administrative Office of the Courts website (Court Organization spreadsheet), count the number of courts in each state that handle traffic and/or criminal

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-3   cases. In addition, note how the state court is funded. Is the state court solely funded by the state or are there multiple funding sources (e.g., local and state)? i. Court Tiers: 1. Reference: http://www.courtstatistics.org/Other- Pages/state_Court_Structure_Charts.aspx 2. Record a “1” for states that have < 4 courts that handle traffic and criminal cases and a “0” for states that have ≥ 4 courts that handle traffic and criminal cases. ii. Funding Sources: 1. Reference: http://www.courtstatistics.org/Other- Pages/state_Court_Structure_Charts.aspx 2. Record a “1” for state-only funding and “0” for multiple funding sources (e.g., state and local funding). c. For states with accessible TRA: i. Refer to each question in Table A-1. Table A-1. Structural unification TRA questions. 2018 Advisory 2012 Advisory (Mapped) 2012 Standard of Evidence TRA Score (0 = Not Met, 1 = Partially Met, 2 = Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Provide a narrative identifying the custodial agency. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Provide a narrative description of the processes by which all citation dispositions— including administrative license revocations, deferred prosecutions, and mail-ins—are captured by the statewide data system. Specify the reporting percentages for each type of citation disposition captured by the system.

A-4 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes 2018 Advisory 2012 Advisory (Mapped) 2012 Standard of Evidence TRA Score (0 = Not Met, 1 = Partially Met, 2 = Met) 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Provide the protocols demonstrating the interoperability and communications capabilities of the case management systems and a sample query. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) If both TRA and Auxiliary Information Scores are available: If either TRA Score is > 4 OR Aux Score = 2, respond YES Else respond NO If only TRA available: If 4+ points, respond YES Else respond NO If only NCSC survey available: IF 2 points, respond YES Else respond NO 3. Digital Unification a. Question: To what extent is each state digitally unified? b. Approach: Using survey data on state Court Organization posted on the NCSC website, note if each state is digitally unified. A state is considered digitally unified if at the trial and appellate levels, the (1) Case Management System (CMS) is Statewide, and (2) CMS is integrated with the Electronic Data Management System (EDMS) (2017). i. Reference:http://data.ncsc.org/QvAJAXZfc/opendoc.htm?document=Public%20App/SC O.qvw&host=QVS@qlikviewisa&anonymous=true ii. Record a “1” for digitally unified and “0” for not digitally unified. c. For states with accessible TRA: i. Refer to each question in Table A-2.

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-5   Table A-2. Digital unification TRA questions. 2018 Advisory 2012 Advisory (Mapped) 2012 Standard of Evidence TRA Score (0 = Not Met, 1 = Partially Met, 2 = Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Provide a narrative explanation of a state’s linkage protocols that demonstrates how records in the adjudication system are linked to the driver record. Include identification of the linkage portal and the organization responsible for maintaining the link and the linking fields used. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Provide a narrative explanation of a state’s linkage protocols that demonstrates how records in the citation system are linked to the driver record. Include identification of the linkage portal and the organization responsible for maintaining the link and the linking fields used. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Provide a flow diagram documenting citation life cycle process that identifies key stakeholders. Ensure that alternative flows are included (e.g., manual and electronic submission). Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) If both TRA and NCSC Scores are available: If either TRA Score is > 4 OR NCSC Score = 1, respond YES Else respond NO If only TRA available: If 4+ points, respond YES Else respond NO Else respond NO If only NCSC survey available: IF 1 point, respond YES

A-6 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes After all the scores were entered into the characterization spreadsheets, state scores were summarized using the following matrix (Table A-3): Table A-3. State scoring matrix. Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Structural Digital States were then categorized into the following eight unification categories (Table A-4): Table A-4. State unification scoring categories. Unification Categories Example State Legal (Y), Structural (Y), Digital (Y) Wisconsin Legal (Y), Structural (Y), Not Digital (N) Connecticut Legal (Y), Not Structural (N), Digital (Y) Arizona Legal (Y), Not Structural (N), Not Digital (N) Alabama Not Legal (N), Structural (Y), Digital (Y) Delaware Not Legal (N), Structural (Y), Not Digital (N) Maryland Not Legal (N), Not Structural (N), Digital (Y) Montana Not Legal (N), Not Structural (N), Not Digital (N) Ohio One consideration arising from the use of two distinct data sources, TRAs (that could be relatively recent or several years old) and NCSC categorization, is the level of agreement between these when both sources are present. This consideration is not directly applicable to the Legal and Structural categories, since the questions addressed by the data sources do not directly overlap, but drive at distinct aspects of concepts that are not consistently defined. However, the digital unification category does have some meaningful overlap, since they both deal with case management systems. For the majority of states there is agreement within the digital unification category; however, in several states there is disagreement. In cases such as Arkansas, TRA responses—which tend to be slightly older—indicate a lower level of digital unification than the NCSC information, which likely reflects the progress of digital technology in the interim. In other instances, such as California, NCSC indicates a lack of digital unification, while the TRA provides mixed information that exceeds the project threshold. In California’s case, the state completely met the criterion for the electronic linking of the adjudication system with the driver system, and partially met the remaining two TRA questions of interest. Here, this distinction reflects the slightly different operational definitions of digital unification used and reinforces the notion that “unification” is not a discrete concept with a unitary definition. These diverging findings reinforce that the state categories are heuristic, as concrete operational definitions of unification do not exist and criteria for unification may change faster than publicly available data can reflect. Because of this, they point to the importance of our questions in the Task 5 state interviews that dive more deeply into the current status of digitization, particularly since this is a core area of focus in data sharing.

Results selected as exemplars of each category as the foundation for Task 5. Selected states were chosen based on a combination of geographical diversity and state size/population; in cases where additional criteria were needed, demonstration of willingness to engage with the project process by responsiveness of state TRCC (or other TRA) contacts to emails requesting TRAs was considered. Table A-5. Summary of state categorization output. Le ga l ( Y ), St ru ct ur al (Y ), D ig ita l ( Y ) Le ga l ( Y ), St ru ct ur al (Y ), N ot D ig ita l ( N ) Le ga l ( Y ), N ot S tru ct ur al (N ), D ig ita l ( Y ) Le ga l ( Y ), N ot S tru ct ur al (N ), N ot D ig ita l ( N ) N ot L eg al (N ), St ru ct ur al (Y ), D ig ita l ( Y ) N ot L eg al (N ), St ru ct ur al (Y ), N ot D ig ita l ( N ) N ot L eg al (N ), N ot S tru ct ur al (N ), D ig ita l ( Y ) N ot L eg al (N ), N ot S tru ct ur al (N ), N ot D ig ita l ( N ) Florida Alaska Arizona* Alabama Delaware California* Arkansas Hawaii New Hampshire Connecticut* Kansas* Georgia* Iowa* Maine Colorado Louisiana North Carolina Nebraska Missouri Idaho Massachusetts Maryland* Indiana Mississippi North Dakota* New Jersey Illinois Minnesota* Montana* Nevada Wisconsin* New York Kentucky* Utah New Mexico Ohio* Pennsylvania Michigan Oregon* Tennessee* South Carolina Oklahoma Texas Vermont Rhode Island Washington Virginia* South Dakota West Virginia Wyoming *States selected for additional information gathering The distribution of states along each category axis of legal, structural, and digital unification is summarized in Table A-5, along with states that were

A-8 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes BTS-04 References 1. Court Statistics. (2020, June 2). State Court Structure Charts. http://www.courtstatistics.org/state_court_structure_charts. 2. National Information Exchange Model. (2016, July 18). NIEM | National Information Exchange Model. https://www.niem.gov/about-niem. 3. NCSC. (2017). State Court Organization. http://data.ncsc.org/QvAJAXZfc/opendoc.htm?document=Public%20App/ SCO.qvw&host=QVS@qlikviewisa&anonymous=true.

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-9   State Information Alabama Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- N/A N/A

A-10 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-11   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? N/A N/A 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A

A-12 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-13   Alaska Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No – in progress What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? CourtView Justice Solutions Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Custodial responsibility for both the driver and vehicle data systems resides with the Division of Motor Vehicles in the Department of Administration. 2

A-14 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The Alaska Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) maintains the system where all citation dispositions both within and outside the judicial branch are tracked. The citation information is transmitted to the DMV in a variety of ways. For those cases processed through the Alaska Court System, the dispositions are transmitted via web service on a daily basis. There are 12 jurisdictions referred to as “payee” cities that send some of their cases through the Alaska Court system, while others are reported either electronically or manually directly to the DMV. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state has a unified court system, with the exception of a few jurisdictions processing citations independently. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Components of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. Primarily, the Alaska Court System has adopted NIEM and GJXDM standards to facilitate data sharing. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-15   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The Alaska Court System provides publishable filing and disposition data to the National Center for State Courts according to the guidelines for traffic offenses. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Presuming that APSIN is the system providing information on individuals’ driving and criminal histories, the system is available to all law enforcement. The use of the system for probation and parole officers, however, is limited. APSIN is not available to the courts. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state’s Administrative License Revocation statistics are captured in an Access database, which is not linked to the driver file. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be The EDispo system electronically transmits appropriate court convictions to the DMV. The DMV, 1 Other aspects of the citation and adjudication system, namely those maintained by the Alaska Department of Public Safety, do not meet NIEM guidelines.

A-16 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? linked to the driver system electronically? then, manually inputs those dispositions that are for criminal offenses. There is no indication of the agency responsible for maintaining this linkage. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The driver and citation files are not directly linked. The Department of Public Safety has its own citation system, but no current linkage exists. An indirect link through the “person” ID is possible, but the linkage portal has not been identified. 1 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state has a system whereby both paper and electronic citations can be tracked from issuance to posting on the driver file. The only exception is a few jurisdictions referred to as “payee cities”. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-17   Arizona Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? SQL Server Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Infomix Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Custodial responsibility for the driver system resides in the AZ Department of Transportation Motor Vehicle Division. 2

A-18 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state currently has a statewide system that tracks citation dispositions. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state does not have one single case management system. The state utilizes nine (9) different case management systems which are not all interoperable. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state's court automation programs utilizing federal funding sources adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state indicated they utilize the NCSC Guidelines as a reference tool although do not strictly adhere to the guidelines. 1 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, Some individuals that work in law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-19   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? courts are able to obtain permission to access real-time driving and criminal history records. These individuals must apply for and be approved to access these records. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? ADOT records DUI conviction information reported from courts onto the driver history based on a nightly conviction file from the courts and matches convictions to license records based on matching name, date of birth, and license number. ADOT manages the electronic linkage portal and data fields that link to court- reported information. However, the state confirms that there is no process to ensure that all DUI citations filed by law enforcement are adjudicated and reported to the driver system. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Arizona adjudication system is electronically linked to the driver system and the state has the capability to grant authorized court users (adjudication system) access to information within the driver system. 2

A-20 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Arizona citation system is electronically linked to the driver system via a series of daily and weekly batch processes. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state can track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-21   Arkansas Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? ACS Government Systems Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? ACS Government Systems Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Arkansas driver data system resides with Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration, Office of Driver Services. 2

A-22 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Citation dispositions are reported to DFA. The courts electronically report conviction citation dispositions through the AOC-provided case management system, including suspensions, revocations, and reinstatements. Those courts not using the AOC system can report dispositions through the DFA system, electronically or manually. The state has acknowledged that deferred prosecutions without convictions are not transmitted. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? It does not appear the AOC's case management system is interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state. It does appear that some jurisdictions are utilizing the AOC's or another case management system. As a non-unified judiciary, the state was not able to determine the number of case management systems in use in the state. The state provided examples of some smaller jurisdictions using a case management software and provided a breakdown, percentages for use of the AOC's case management system, Contexte, by the supreme court, court of appeals, circuit courts, and district courts, shared within one database. It is anticipated, by the end of the year, Contexte will include 100% of at least 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-23   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) core case data for circuit courts. The state is commended for attempts to make the case management system interoperable across the state and is headed in a positive direction to fully meeting the Advisory ideal. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The AOC's court case management system does not adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. The ASP eCitation system does not adhere to NIEM Justice domain guidelines. The state should be commended on their NIEM-based exchange work with the Department of Corrections and the Arkansas Community Corrections, to identify and build data exchanges. Due to these efforts, the state partially meets the Advisory ideal. The state should also consider a collaboration with the AOC to address NIEM-based exchanges. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state uses National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for statistical reporting. Based on the evidence provided, one can surmise that the state is in compliance with NCSC guidelines. Because these reports are queried against a data system, the data system must have these components within their data structure. It would be helpful for the 2

A-24 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) state to evaluate the data dictionary of the case management system to show the exact components that pertain to NCSC guidelines. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? It appears all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state have access to the systems providing real-time information on individual driving and criminal histories through the data systems maintained by DFA, ACIC, and ASP. Online access to public court information is available at https://caseinfo.aoc.arkansas.gov. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The driver records are updated with court convictions and administrative actions by the Office of Driver Services. Upon DUI arrest, the arrest paperwork is sent to the Office of Driver Services, and administrative action is taken, even if the charge has not been adjudicated in a court. However, the state does not have a separate DUI system. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Arkansas adjudication data are linked to the driver system electronically through the system called Contexte and by using the driver license number as a linking variable. The Administrative Office of the Courts and Driver Services share the 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-25   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) responsibility for the link. Not all courts are using Contexte at this point. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The ODS receives conviction records from some of the courts through a linkage with the system maintained by the Administrative Office of the Courts. Those convictions are posted to the driver record automatically. Other courts report convictions by paper. However, the citation system is not linked with the driver system. 1 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state cannot track citations from the point of issuance to posting to a driver file for all citations; however, citation data are reported and entered into the DFA system. The AOC does not have a flow diagram of the citation life cycle, but they did provide a Suspensions, Reinstatements, and Disposition spreadsheet reflecting offender, vehicle, violation code, and conviction data for citations that are exchanged between AOC and driver services. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital Y

A-26 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes California Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? No CMS Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No CMS What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Oracle Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? The California (CA) Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the custodial agency responsible for the driver data system. The DMV's primary functions include registering vehicles, licensing non-commercial and commercial driver license, and issuing identification cards. There are approximately 25 million licensed 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-27   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers and 33 million registered vehicles in California. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state does not have a statewide data system to capture citation dispositions, both within and outside the judicial branch. California's statewide database tracks only guilty dispositions. All other dispositions are tracked through case management systems at the local geographic areas. Although there is not a central statewide system, citations are issued and tracked by each law enforcement agency that are then submitted to each court that maintains them electronically within a case management system. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? California does not have a centralized court case management system (CMS) that is interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state. Each of California's 58 superior courts’ case management systems are isolated databases with no interoperability or data sharing. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM It appears the state does not utilize the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. Although the state has attempted projects to achieve NIEM compliance and one CMS may use the NIEM standards, currently, there are no 0

A-28 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? known factual instances of using NIEM related to citation and adjudication aspects for traffic systems. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? It does not appear the state uses the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. It is suggested the state conduct an analysis of court case management systems to ascertain the use of NCSC guidelines. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Real-time access is available via the CLETS network or direct to the CA DMV. However, the feasibility of participation by these entities is dependent upon financial and/or staffing constrictions relating to having a direct connection versus requesting other agencies within their respective counties complete the electronic inquiry and providing the information. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The California DUI Management Information System (DUI-MIS) is managed by the Research Branch of the DMV. The 2015 Annual Report of the California DUI Management Information System was provided that shows the details of the program operations and results for over 20 years. The DUI data system requires linkages with the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and information from the Department of Justice (DOJ), 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-29   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Criminal Justice Statistics Center, Monthly Arrest and Citation Register (MACR) system. Linkage between MACR and the DMV uses the driver name, birth date, and arrest date of DUI offenders. In addition, data from the California Highway Patrol (CHP) on drivers in crashes, where alcohol or drugs were involved, are linked annually with the DMV driver data system by license number and crash date or by name and birth date if no license number provided. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state provided the description of updating the driver file with court information though the systems are not linked electronically. California courts update convictions electronically to the driver system database. This is done through direct updates where the court can interface with the DMV and update one record at a time or through an overnight batch process where multiple citations can be updated to the driver system database. Out-of-state driver licensing agencies also submit convictions to the department via CDLIS. If California holds the pointer for the driver, the other state will forward the convictions to California. Paper abstracts are updated manually via the Abstract Processing Unit. 1

A-30 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state’s citation system is not linked to the driver system electronically. However, the California courts update convictions electronically to the driver system. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state has no process for tracking citations throughout the adjudication process (issuance-final disposition). 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 1 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-31   Colorado Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? IBM DB2 Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? IBM DB2 Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Colorado's centralization of records ensures that all driver records reside in one single location. 2

A-32 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? There is no statewide system that tracks the dispositions of municipal citations. The Judicial Department does send its dispositions to the DMV. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state has two case management systems. The first manages the state courts and the other is operational in only two of the municipal courts. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state's citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state is currently developing a new case management system that will utilize the National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-33   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state’s law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts have a real-time system which provides the necessary parties with access to both driving and criminal histories. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Colorado has a data linkage process for tying together citations (electronic and paper) to driver records through the driver history system. Through this intermediary system, DUIs are linked to the driver system. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? After paper and electronic citations are adjudicated, they are linked to the driver system in Colorado via the driver history system. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's driver and citation systems are linked via the driver history system. 2

A-34 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state cannot track citations from point of issuance to posting to the driver file as there is not a citation system that interfaces between all ticketing agencies, judicial branch, and the DMV. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-35   Connecticut Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? SQL Server Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server/ SQL Server Enterprise Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- Connecticut's driver data system, including commercially licensed drivers, resides in a single location. The Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has centralized custodial responsibility for the driver 2

A-36 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? systems. Those systems are hosted at the Connecticut Department of Administrative Services/Bureau of Enterprise Systems and Technology (DAS/BEST), the centralized IT agency. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The court system is considered the statewide data system. All citations and dispositions are processed within one statewide court system. Dispositions of guilty are sent to the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) for inclusion on the driver file, but the statewide data system is considered to be with the Court. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The Connecticut Judicial Branch has a unified court that uses one system for all courts within the state. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Info in XML is NIEM-compliant, but there is no indication that all information is transmitted to and from the court in XML. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-37   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? National Center for State Courts guidelines are used within the court records system. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? COLLECT is available to law enforcement, parole, probation, and courts for real-time access to driving and criminal histories. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The Connecticut DMV manages DUI administrative suspensions and posts DUI criminal convictions to the driver records. The data is sent from the courts in a nightly batch file and is recorded directly into the driver history system. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Connecticut driver and adjudication systems are linked electronically for posting and reporting of convictions and administrative actions. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked DMV court records and administrative actions at the state 1

A-38 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? to the driver system electronically? level are linked electronically. However, municipal citations from vendors are not received by that system and linked accordingly. No citations issued info is provided to the DMV with the exception of those that immediately drive administration sanctions, such as DUI per se. If issuance of citations were reported to the DMV, the citation number (not the actual charge) could be placed on the driver history file to ensure that an appropriate disposition was later reported. Such links help to provide audit capabilities for ensuring that all citations issued actually get to the courts and that courts report on each. It also provides the state with a means of tracking levels of dismissals of charges, or charges never filed by prosecutors due to errors by the issuing officers or prosecutorial discretion. This type of processing could provide the state with the infrastructure for a citation tracking system, which would help to ascertain the effectiveness of its education and enforcement programs, as well as shed light on any concerns with jurisdictional bias in the state's courts. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state can track the citations from issuance to an agency through to final disposition. The documented flow diagram is incomplete as it only describes the electronic process. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-39   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

A-40 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Delaware Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House and Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes/No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? ACS Government Systems/Oracle Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in-house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system—including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers— The Delaware Department of Transportation's Division of Motor Vehicles, Driver Services Division has custodial responsibility for the driver license system. 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-41   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state reported that all citations are entered into a statewide automated database. They are entered through an electronic means by the officer at the roadway or issued on paper then entered by the court clerk at the court. This automated database tracks the citations from the roadway to the disposition, including payment of fines. The disposition is tracked, whether it has been paid through the courts, or it has been dismissed. The dismissals are tracked in the CJIS, as part of a person's profile, but are not included on the driving record. Non- payments are tracked as well, as the courts are notified to begin the suspension process of the offenders' driving privilege. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? There are two systems in use, one by the lower courts, and one by the upper court. They do share information and work together. Data flow both directions between the two case management systems. The DUC number is the identifier that is used to link the two case management systems. 2

A-42 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? NIEM is used only when required. Within the state NIEM is not used. When data are shared federally, they are mapped to NIEM. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state reported that they used the NCSC as a guideline for best practices. Additionally, a member of the courts staff has attended numerous NCSC reviews of Delaware's systems. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state's DELJIS application has a menu that provides access to citation and adjudication data based on need and authority for such access. The state reported that information such as driver history, criminal history, driver license information and vehicle registration information are accessed through this system. This information is real time and is updated as it is updated by the responsible agency. 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-43   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? DUI convictions are processed through the Delaware Criminal Justice Information System. All convictions are submitted to the Division of Motor Vehicles nightly by a batch file. Driving records are updated as necessary. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Assessor Response indicates that adjudication information is linked electronically to the driver file and that conviction information is uploaded to the driver file via a nightly batch file transfer. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state’s citation system is linked to the driver system via a batch application that sends data at night. There is currently no “real-time” updating of the driver system with the citation system. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state tracks the citation through multiple steps of the process. Paper and electronic citation data are processed into the same system for court. Conviction data are sent to the DMV for inclusion on the driver file. 2

A-44 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-45   Florida Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party) In House and Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies/Aptitude Solutions Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes- custom EDMS What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server/SQL Server Enterprise/Oracle

A-46 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles has custodial responsibility of the Florida driver data system, which resides in a single location and includes commercially licensed drivers. 2 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by the statewide data system? Florida has a statewide citation tracking system to which 100% of traffic dispositions must be submitted. This system should provide a comprehensive picture of the effectiveness of enforcement activity throughout the state; however, one missing feature is that it only captures final dispositions and does not have information regarding charges that prosecutors decline to file, or those that are deferred or dismissed. It would be beneficial to add the charges to the driver history for deferred sentencing and to the citation tracking system for deferred adjudication and sentencing. Having pending dispositions on the driver file and the citation file will help to ensure that officers and judges in all jurisdictions are aware of pending charges if and when additional charges are brought. Knowledge of the extent and effect of deferrals also provides additional information about the effectiveness of enforcement overall. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems 207. Are the courts’ case management The Florida Court Clerks' data system (CCIS) serves as the equivalent to the 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-47   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? interoperable case management system described in the Advisory as part of an ideal traffic records system, since it contains all case data from all courts within the state. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Florida has its own set of guidelines for the Traffic Citation and Accounting Transmission System (TCATS). The state generally complies with NIEM guidelines even though for the citation system, its own specific guidelines and requirements are followed. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The National Center for State Courts standards are the basis for the standards set by the Florida Courts Technology Commission, which provides technical governance for the state's courts. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? All appropriate state personnel have access to both criminal and driver histories through one or more systems. 2

A-48 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state has a data system that tracks education, enforcement, and treatment information related to DUI offenders. In addition, the state has the Traffic Citation Accounting Transmission System (TCATS). Traffic citations and DUIs are reported from TCATS to Florida Driver License Information System (FDLIS). However, the state did not provide requested evidence pertaining to linking protocols between data systems containing DUI related information and Florida's driver data system. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication system can be linked to the driver system electronically. The Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles is responsible for maintaining the link. The linking fields are name, date of birth, and driver license number. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation system can be linked to the driver system electronically. The Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles is responsible for maintaining the link. The linking fields are name, date of birth, and driver license number. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to The electronic citation system TCATS allows for tracking of each citation though its life cycle, from its inception 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-49   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) issuance to posting on the driver file? posting on the driver file? at the time of the violation through to its posting on the driver history file. The data flow is generally self-evident and straightforward. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital Y

A-50 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Georgia Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2019 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Odyssey Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or In House and Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? My SQL Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— The Georgia Department of Driver Services (DDS) has custodial responsibility for the driver data 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-51   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? system, which includes commercially licensed drivers. The driver system resides on the state's mainframe. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Because of the lack of a unified court system, there is no statewide citation tracking in Georgia. The state would benefit by determining if there is some current infrastructure that could act as the backbone for a citation tracking system and determine if development would be feasible. Centralized citation tracking provides for an overall picture of the state's enforcement efforts, which allows for effective countermeasure development. It also provides for a clear picture of the adjudication of various types of violations throughout the state to ensure that violations are not being indiscriminately dismissed and can provide an overall picture of law enforcement training and effectiveness based on disproportionate dismissal rates or high rates of determination by prosecutors not to file charges. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Local courts do not have interoperable case management systems; all are managed independently. In this situation, it is imperative that the driver history file be up-to-date and available to adjudicators. One way to address this issue would be to have a copy of all issued citations sent to the 0

A-52 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) custodian of the driver history file, so that pending citations can be posted to the history (not the public record) during the period of pendency, making them available to adjudicators and preventing repeat violations being treated as first offenses more than once. Alternatively, the state should develop an interoperable platform for record sharing. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The respondent indicates that the NIEM standards are familiar but the level of adherence to them is not known. Adherence should be documented to whatever standards are used. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? It is unknown if courts adhere to the guidelines for court records available from the National Center for State Courts. The state could benefit from a survey of the local jurisdictions’ record-keeping practices. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time The state has a Criminal Information Center according to the response, but no information was provided regarding who has access and who manages the system, nor how the information is 0 gathered or distributed.

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-53   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? DDS driver system receives DUI convictions from the courts through Georgia Electronic Conviction Processing System (GECPS). The state does not have a separate DUI tracking system that includes information as it relates to rehabilitation, detention, and probation requirements. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The courts provide conviction data to the driver file through the Georgia Electronic Citation Processing System. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Department of Driver Services maintains a secure system that provides the courts the ability to submit convictions in a standard, uniform format electronically (HB 501 & 1253). This application is GECPS (Georgia Electronic Conviction Processing System). Each court must obtain the front-end software solution to properly record, accurately format, and electronically transmit citation data to DDS. However, no information is provided to describe how or if the interfaced 1

A-54 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) information is used to help determine the applicable charges. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The response indicates that citations are managed by several entities, thus not tracked through the entire process. This is true in most states, with the citation and adjudication data being initiated by the state's department of public safety and local law enforcement agencies, sent to the courts, at both the state and local levels, and passed to the Driver Services entity. The Traffic Records Coordinating Committee is a valuable resource in coordinating efforts to collaborate and share data and integrate the various databases that contain traffic records/safety data. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-55   Hawaii Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes, but only district courts What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Adabas D Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Oracle Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- It appears that the custodial responsibility for the driver system, with the exception CDLs, rests with the City and County Department of Customer Services, Division of Motor 0

A-56 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Vehicles, Licensing and Permits since only the City and County of Honolulu was selected to respond. It was reported that commercial motor vehicle licensing custodial responsibility, likewise is not the state responsibility but resides in a separate office within the City and County Department of Information Technology mainframe. To effectively track and ensure that proper conviction and sanctioning can be tracked and taken for regular and commercial drivers it should be a single database. Dual or multiple databases lend themselves to errors and/or less than timely reporting. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state has identified the Judiciary Information Management System (JIMS) as a statewide data tracking system used to track citation dispositions. A narrative attached to an excerpt from a case tracking database reports that all citation dispositions within and outside of the judicial branch are tracked by JIMS. The narrative states that all court circuits and court locations (35) report to the same statewide data tracking system, and that traffic violations are included as entries within the Judiciary Data Center. However, the means by which citation dispositions are transmitted and posted have not 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-57   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) been described. While the state notes that no citation dispositions are accomplished outside of a judicial adjudication, there is no specific evidence confirming that citation deferrals or dismissals are posted to the JIMS. 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The narrative provided by the state reports that the JIMS is the courts’ unified case management system, and that the information is accessible and interoperable among all jurisdictions. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state has not indicated that the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? Although responded to affirmatively, the state has not provided the requisite evidence of the use of the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. 0

A-58 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The narrative provided by the state confirms that law enforcement agencies and other relevant agencies and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? While it was reported that there is not a direct link between the driver system and the Hawaii Judiciary System, it does appear that by using the AAMVA specifications, they are able to import data from the Judiciary Information Management System (JIMS) onto the driver record. Detailed information and descriptions regarding the way that the systems work, linkage responsibility, and the linking fields used were not provided. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Judiciary reported that Administrative Driver's License Revocation Office (ADLRO) submits information into the city and county driver's licensing database for every driver whose license is revoked (administratively) by that office. The judiciary has access to the city/county database system and that system is 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-59   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) linked to the NDR and PDPS nationwide. No other electronic linking was reported between the adjudication and driver system. The responses indicate that there are adequate linkages between the courts and the DLS. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The City and County of Honolulu reported that Judiciary/Court system reports convictions daily to the driver system and that those convictions are edited and applied to the driver record. A clarification question regarding if these court records were received electronically resulted in a response that the Hawaii Judiciary receives bi-monthly copies of the entire Hawaii Drivers File from the City and County. The City and County did state that yes, the citation system could be linked to the driver system electronically but that multi- agency and multi-government branches would make it extremely difficult, implying that any linkage that may exist is very limited. Specific information about linkage protocols that demonstrates how records in the citation system are linked to the driver record were not provided. The timely posting of convictions is vital when evaluating a driver record. 0

A-60 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The narrative provided by the state reports that citations can be tracked from point of issuance by law enforcement through court processes and posting on the driver file, but no supporting evidence has been provided. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-61   Idaho Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— The Idaho Transportation Department, Division of Motor Vehicles, is the custodial agency responsible for the 2

A-62 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver system including commercial license drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The Idaho Transportation Department, Division of Motor Vehicles is the custodial agency responsible for the driver system including commercial license drivers. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Although the state is working towards a centralized database, jurisdiction information is not shared within. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The Idaho court system indicates that they are not aligned with the NIEM guidelines. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state indicates they use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records; however, 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-63   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? no narrative or comparable guideline was provided. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? All the state agencies listed do share information, however, probation officers do not yet have access. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Idaho courts and the ITD DMV Driver Services Section are electronically linked for citations and relevant convictions related to the state DUI data system. Although the courts maintain the electronic link to the driver system and ensure that information is transferred to the driver database, ITD provides the layout of the database fields so that information can be imported electronically. Citation data and information about other administrative actions, such as refusal to complete or failure of a required alcohol test, is received by the agency directly from law enforcement and manually entered and retained within the driver system. 2

A-64 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Court data such as citations, suspensions, and convictions are sent to the Idaho DMV through either Odyssey or ISTARS. The interface between the two systems also allows access to the stored data when required. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state court system uses either the ISTARS case management system or the recently adopted Tyler Technologies Odyssey Integrated Justice Solution to transmit a nightly download of citation/conviction data to the driver system. Using the driver’s license number, name and DOB as the linking fields to identify a person-based record the citation or conviction is posted. The linkage portal used to electronically transfer citations or convictions from a state repository to the driver system is operated by the state court system and ITD DMV staff provide the courts with the requirements and linking fields necessary to populate the driver system with required information. The comprehensive state repository for all convictions is not directly linked to the driver system, but staff from the ITD DMV are authorized to query the state repository (lookup rights) as needed. 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-65   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state indicates the ability to track the data flow from law enforcement to disposition, but no documentation was provided. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

A-66 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Illinois Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No CMS Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No CMS What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Unknown What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the 119. Does custodial responsibility for the The Illinois secretary of state has custodial responsibility for issuing 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-67   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licenses and maintain driving records. This includes CDL license information and any sanctions and actions taken against a license. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state only receives citation dispositions from 92 of the 102 county courts. The state only tracks dispositions that are required to be tracked by statute and there is no mandatory tracking requirement for all disposition types. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state of Illinois does not maintain a unified case management system within its judicial system. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state does not currently adhere to NIEM guidelines. The state maintains multiple case management systems which are unique to each court. The state did not provide evidence that any one of those systems meet NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for The counties in the state authorized to participate in electronic filing are following standards adopted by the Illinois Supreme Court. These 1

A-68 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? State Courts guidelines for court records? standards include some guidelines from the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court reports. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state of Illinois provides access to all law enforcement partners, its statewide criminal history and driver information systems (LEADS). The state's response does not indicate if all agencies choose to participate; it does stipulate that access is allowed after standard access agreements have been submitted. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Each circuit court maintains its own DUI data system. No information was provided on how or if the DUI information is submitted to the secretary of state for posting to the driver record. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? At this time, Illinois does not have a statewide adjudication system. Courts send dispositions to the SOS. Some may be electronically transmitted while most are processed manually. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Illinois does not have a statewide citation system. SOS is not responsible for tracking citations. SOS only tracks dispositions after the citation is adjudicated. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-69   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) determine the applicable charges? 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state does not track citation data over its life cycle. Each agency in the state is responsible for tracking its own citation data. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

A-70 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Indiana Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? CourtView Justice Solutions/Gottleib & Wertz Inc./Tyler/JTS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Enterprise Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-71   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? system—including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A

A-72 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) guidelines for court records? 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? N/A N/A 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-73   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital Y

A-74 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Iowa Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Oracle Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Oracle Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the 119. Does custodial responsibility for the The Iowa Department of Transportation, Office of Driver 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-75   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Services, is the custodian of the Driver System, including commercially licensed drivers. All driver license information is collected and maintained by the Office of Driver Services. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Iowa has two statewide systems maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) and the Iowa Department of Public Safety (DPS). The Iowa DOT system maintains the driver records and the DPS maintains the Computerized Criminal History Section. Dispositions are transferred to the Iowa Department of Transportation electronically via the CJIS (Criminal and Justice Information System) data exchange. The percentage of citations transferred electronically is currently unknown. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The Iowa Court Information System (ICIS) is Iowa's unified/central case management system. Iowa has 100 county seats utilizing the system. ICIS is a unified case management system utilized by judges, clerks, and other judicial staff. Iowa has recently implemented an electronic document management system (EDMS) that is now statewide and allows attorneys and citizens to electronically file court documents with the Judicial Branch 2

A-76 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) via the internet. The EDMS integrates with the ICIS, enabling electronic access to authorized parties via the internet to the court docket and court documents 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In addition, the EDMS allows court notices to be emailed to lawyers, litigants, and other officials. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? It appears that CJIS exchanges are based on NIEM Justice domain guidelines. CJIS exchanges are based on NIEM compliance and older ones will be upgraded as changed. It is recommended the state formally document adherence of CJIS to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? It appears the state does use the National Center for State Courts through its membership in the Traffic Standards Joint Standards Development (JSD) Team Board and adherence of the Functional Requirement Standards for Traffic Court Case Management. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system It appears law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to the systems providing real-time information on individuals’ driving and criminal history. It is recommended the state 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-77   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? document the groups that have real time access to driver or criminal histories, i.e., police dispatch, direct system access, telephone help desk. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Operating while impaired (OWI) convictions and deferred judgments are submitted from the Iowa Clerk of Courts and are entered both electronically and manually in the driver system. Law enforcement and prosecutors have access to driving records. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Convictions are electronically sent from the court to the driver system. Convictions are entered on the record based on the type of convictions as determined by the infraction mapping. Convictions may also be submitted on paper and then manually added to the record. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Iowa Conviction Notification Network (ICONN) is the state citation system that is linked electronically to their Archon Registration and Title Solution (ARTS) driver license system. Conviction information is received electronically daily. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to 227. Can the state track citations from point of Citations done electronically through TraCS can be tracked from issuance, to the courts, and then to the Iowa 2

A-78 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) posting on the driver file? issuance to posting on the driver file? DOT. Convictions from the courts are sent electronically to the Iowa DOT. For paper citations, the agency is responsible for getting the paper copies to the court. However, convictions of paper citations are still sent electronically to the Iowa DOT and placed on the driver’s record automatically. Officers have the ability to check with the courts online, to see that the court has received the ticket and see the final adjudication of a particular ticket. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-79   Kansas Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Justice Systems Inc. Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Oracle Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Division of Vehicles of the Kansas Department of Revenue is the 2

A-80 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? custodial agency of the Kansas Driver License System (KDLS). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The value of a citation tracking system involves being able to ascertain at a statewide level, which citations resulted in dismissals, deferrals, or plea bargains. This allows for understanding what original charges were filed versus what the violators were actually convicted of or if they were convicted at all. It will indicate if different courts or different geographical areas of the state routinely treat some charges differently, or if dismissals or failure to file charges submitted by officers are issues in any court or jurisdiction. Thus, the system provides the potential to highlight situations where officer training or court bias might be impacting the adjudication of charges. A description of the system was not provided, nor information about the treatment of deferrals and dismissals. Later this year (2015) a new system will be completed which will collect all dispositions in the Kansas Criminal Justice Information System. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the Some case management systems are interoperable, but state courts and local courts are not interoperable. This means that a judge might not be aware 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-81   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? state (including local, municipal, and state)? of pending cases in other jurisdictions when adjudicating a serious traffic violation. Certainly this lack of information can impact any potential sentence enhancement that is related to multiple violations. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state’s newer systems are NIEM compliant while some older systems may not meet standards at this time. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The respondent indicates lack of familiarity with National Center for State Court guidelines. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? As noted in the rating for the previous question, a new addition to KCJIS will provide all users access to driving records. This system is projected to be completed by August 2015. 1

A-82 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state responded that their DUI data system and driver system are one and the same; however, DUI convictions are sent electronically from the Kansas courts and processed onto the driver record. There is not specific evidence for a separate DUI system that would track the processing of offender information and status prior to the posting of convictions on the driver record. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state does not have a citation system that is linked to the driver system electronically. Citation dispositions are submitted electronically to the state; however, there was no evidence provided of a specific citation system that links to the driver system. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state does not have a citation system that is linked to the driver system electronically. Citation dispositions are submitted electronically to the state; however, there was no evidence provided of a specific citation system that links to the driver system. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Provide a flow diagram documenting citation life cycle process that identifies key stakeholders. Ensure that alternative flows are included 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-83   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (e.g., manual and electronic submission). Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital Y

A-84 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Kentucky Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? SQL Server Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Enterprise Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including Kentucky's driver system is owned, controlled, and maintained by the Kentucky 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-85   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially- licensed drivers— reside in a single location? commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Transportation Cabinet's Division of Driver Licensing. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by the statewide data system? The Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) is reportedly the holder for all citation dispositions but no evidence was provided that all citation dispositions are tracked by a statewide system or whether deferrals or dismissals are posted. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The courts' case management systems are not interoperable among all jurisdictions within Kentucky. It does appear that there is some progress being made to accomplish this. The Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) has an upcoming interface with the Kentucky State Police that will work with AOC to retrieve conviction data on a citation by citation basis. It was also reported that this will not yet be a complete feed. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 2 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM The Kentucky State Police indicated that they have the capability of exchanging citation data through NIEM using an XML- based information exchange based on the schemas designed by NIEM but no specific systems were mentioned. No information 0

A-86 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? regarding the court data system was provided. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? According to the state Administrative Office of the Court, they recently achieved 100% reporting compliance with National Center for State Courts guidelines for criminal case categories, including traffic offenses. Without a more complete description of the systems, only a partially meets rating can be applied. 1 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Access to individuals’ driving and criminal history data is limited to certain groups. It does not appear that all agencies share one system. The State Police and courts have systems, but access is limited or may be available by special requests. It also does not appear that they have real-time access. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state does not have a DUI data system. Each night, the state's courts electronically send DUI convictions to the Division of Driver Licensing, where they are loaded to the driver license system. See www.nhtsatsis.net/MIDRIS/resources.htm 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-87   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) for more information about DUI data systems. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Division of Driver Licensing receives adjudication data from the courts electronically. The DDL shares responsibility for linking with other associated agencies, yet those agencies are not identified. No explanation of how the data are linked, or by which fields, was provided. 1 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state receives citations from the courts electronically from the circuit court clerk with the judicial ruling. However, it is also not clear if there is an actual citation system that is linked to the driver system or if it is only adjudicated citations that are sent electronically to the driver system. It is also not clear what the linking protocols are. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? No information was provided on the state’s ability to track citations. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 1 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

A-88 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Louisiana Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes (for imaging) What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? ACS Government Systems Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Unknown What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system—including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially-licensed N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-89   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 0 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have N/A N/A

A-90 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) information on individuals driving and criminal histories? access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-91   Maine Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Maine Bureau of Motor Vehicles is responsible for the driver system. 2

A-92 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers— reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? While the state does not have an integrated traffic citation system, the more serious traffic crimes are entered into the statewide court system and are electronically transmitted to the BMV driver history system. Lesser traffic citations are manually entered into the driver history system. At this time, Maine does not electronically transmit complete dispositional data to other entities (state Bureau Identification, Bureau of Motor Vehicles, etc.) Statewide data tracking system exists and some citation dispositions are transmitted and posted. Deferrals or dismissals are not posted. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state has a unified court system and all courts share the statewide adjudication systems. Currently the citation system is not connected with the general court case management system which handles all other case types. The state is in the process of evaluating RFP responses for a new statewide adjudication system to integrate all cases. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-93   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state has developed a NIEM compliant electronic citation standard and has specified NIEM compliance as a requirement in its RFP process for new court case management system. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state participated in the development of the initial Functional Requirement Standards for Traffic Court Case Management with the NCSC. The judicial branch continues to adhere to the core values even though these standards are now eleven years old. In its recently issued RFP for a new e-Filing Court Case Management System, the Judicial Branch included several requirements referencing NCSC and COSCA standards including Courtools. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state provides secure encrypted access to all criminal justice agencies in the state. While every agency does not participate, they may opt in. The METRO system provides information on driver and criminal history from both the driver history data and courts adjudication data. The courts are connected to METRO through the Administrative Office of the Courts. There are only 20 law enforcement agencies in Maine, not directly connected to METRO or 8%. The major barrier is lack of technology at the police department due to funding 2

A-94 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) needs. 92% of law enforcement agencies are directly connected to METRO. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state does not currently have a MIDRIS compliant system but has set this as a goal. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Maine criminal courts are not linked to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles at this time. The court does provide the electronic transmittal of traffic violation information via a daily FTP batch process. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's BMV and the Maine Violations Bureau are linked for the exchange of citation data. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? While the state has procedures in place for the manual collection and entry of issued citations, there is no automation to ensure all citations are valid and accounted for. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-95   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital N

A-96 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Maryland Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2019 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? HHP MPE OS with proprietary image/Image 3000 Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Tyler Technologies Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Maryland Department of Transportation, Motor Vehicle Administration is the custodian of 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-97   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver data, including information related to commercial driver licensure. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The court case management system implemented in 2016 collects and houses dispositions of all citations submitted to the judiciary. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Twenty-one of 24 courts use a single case management system. The remaining three courts will receive the new case management system by 2020. The training documentation provided demonstrates the transmission of cases/information between courts. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Although NEIM exports are possible, standards are not utilized in the data collection or storage of the citation information. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? NCSC guidelines are used in conjunction with state regulations. Retention guidelines were provided. 2

A-98 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? METERS provides real-time access to driver and criminal histories to law enforcement, court personnel, and others as needed. METERS is accessible from desktop or mobile units. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Although the state-provided narrative confirms that there are some existing interfaces that integrate state DUI tracking with the driver data system, the state acknowledges that there is no single interface utilized by all users for all DUI case-related data. The Maryland Impaired Driver Emphasis Area Team is named as part of the highway safety strategic planning process (Assessment Document Library), but a DUI tracking system has not been described, especially within the context of the driver data system. There is no sufficient evidence provided to explain how a citation on an overall DUI tracking system interfaces with a record on the driver system, the full scope of current data integration, an interface portal, or 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-99   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) the organizations responsible for maintaining a functional interface. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Dispositions are transmitted nightly from the court to MVA and then posted to the driver record, with appropriate sanctions calculated and applied by MVA staff. The electronic transmission results in reports used by MVA business units to initiate sanctions. This partially meets Advisory ideal, with the ideal being that the electronic interface include the electronic posting of the adjudication and calculation/application of the appropriate driver sanction. 1 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Although the citation and disposition information are uploaded nightly to MVA, it is not explained whether the citation system (E-TIX, for example, or the courts case management system) accesses the driver record information to help the officer or court determine the appropriate charge or sanction based on other offenses on the driver record. Law enforcement and courts have access to driver and vehicle records through a separate system. However, the citation system does not directly interface with the driver or vehicle systems. 0 204. Does the state track citations from 227. Can the state track citations from point of The state provided a flowchart and a narrative explaining the tracking of 2

A-100 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) point of issuance to posting on the driver file? issuance to posting on the driver file? citations from issuance to posting. Both the flowchart and narrative describe the MVA distributing citations. Most citations are issued electronically, and missing citations are identified through an electronic auditing process. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-101   Massachusetts Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2014 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? CourtView Justice Solutions Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Relational Semantics Inc. Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially-licensed The Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles driver system, including commercially licensed drivers, resides in a single location. 2

A-102 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by the statewide data system? All citation dispositions are tracked by the RMV; dispositions are entered into ALARS regardless of whether the citation is civil or criminal and regardless of whether it is adjudicated by the courts. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The response indicates that achieving full interoperability is in progress, but has not been completed for all courts. However, interoperability has been largely achieved except for a few courts that are in progress. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The Civil Motor Vehicle Infraction interface between the courts and the MRB does adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. A spreadsheet containing the XML path names for the CMVI inbound request is attached as evidence. The Criminal interface is not NIEM compliant. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-103   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? According to the response, the Citation and Adjudication System data definitions are standard and meet the requirements of law enforcement and court systems. The Massachusetts Trial Court continues to use metrics and goals established by the National Center for State Courts. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The response indicates that most of the requisite agencies and entities have access to the necessary components of the ALARS system. However, some courts apparently do not have access to driver history records. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state’s DUI data are linked electronically to the driver system; however response does not provide specific details explaining linking protocols (e.g., linkage portal, linking fields used). 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state’s adjudication system is linked to the driver system electronically. 2

A-104 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state citation system, the Merit Rating Board, is linked to the RMV's database and every citation entered by MRB is attached to a license or registration. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? As stated in the answer to question 204, the RMV is responsible for printing and issuing citation books to Massachusetts law enforcement agencies and for assigning unique citation numbers. As a citation book is issued by the RMV to a police department, the receiving police department and book number are entered into the RMV citation audit records. Police officers are required to complete audit sheets for each citation in each book including citations that are destroyed or voided. These audit sheets are returned to the RMV. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-105   Michigan Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server

A-106 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? The Michigan Department of State (MDOS) has custodial responsibility of the Michigan driver data system. 2 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? There is no statewide citation tracking system. Deferrals should be posted to the driver history at least until they are eventually dismissed, to ensure that the court reports the final disposition and that sentence enhancements for repeat offenses are not compromised by lack of data about the previous offense. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? In jurisdictions without unified judicial systems, it is difficult to have singular interoperable case management systems. This situation magnifies the importance of communication and collaboration through court clerk organizations, as well as participation in the Traffic Records Coordinating Committee, for developing consistency in processes. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 2 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-107   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state is not in compliance with NIEM guidelines reportedly due to cost of such upgrades to legacy systems. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? National Center for State Courts guidelines relating to court records are not used in Michigan. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? All constituent groups have access to the LEIN network, which provides real-time driver and criminal history information. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? There is no link between Michigan's DUI data system and the driver data system. However, the state is in the initial stages of a multi-year project to link these two data systems electronically. 0

A-108 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication system is linked to the driver system electronically. 96.4% of MI adjudicated convictions are reported electronically from the courts. Out of the 335 courts only 12 of them report convictions manually. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation system cannot be linked to the driver data system electronically. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Michigan does not have a centralized citation tracking system that is used to track a citation from issuance by the officer to posting on the driver history file, including original charges, and all court disposition types. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-109   Minnesota Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? JIS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? ACS Government Systems Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The custodial responsibility for the Minnesota driver system, including commercially licensed drivers, resides in a single location within the Driver 2

A-110 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? and Vehicle Services (DVS) unit of the Department of Public Safety on a legacy system. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The Judicial Branch only records the disposition information for cases that are filed with the court and entered in the courts’ statewide case management system called MNCIS. Administrative citations are not tracked by the statewide data system although it is not clear whether these are traffic citations. Assuming that administrative citations include traffic citations, the state only partially meets the Advisory ideal. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? It appears that the courts’ case management systems are fully interoperable through an enterprise- wide strategy known as “Court Integration Services.” 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The citation and adjudication systems are not NIEM compliant. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-111   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state uses the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? As noted in Question 202, the state appears to have a real-time system for accessing driver histories, as well as a system for accessing criminal histories. According to the response, this system appears to be universally accessible to law enforcement, probation and parole, and court agencies. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The Minnesota DUI data system is electronically linked to the driver system, receiving convictions and e- charging data for the implied consent arrests. The DUI system is fully integrated into the driver system. The driver license number is used to apply violations to a driving record. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Minnesota courts submit citation conviction information electronically via persistent queue, but no information was provided regarding which organization is responsible for 1

A-112 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) dispositions to the driver file? maintaining the link or what linking fields are being used. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? It was not possible to determine if the citation system is electronically linked to the driver system. However, it was reported that the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension is able to electronically submit implied consent documents which are generated at the time of arrest. This would suggest that there is some electronic linkage. All opportunities for integration, interfaces, and linkages should be investigated as the new system is developed and implemented. 1 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state cannot track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-113   Mississippi Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No CMS Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No CMS What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Unknown What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- N/A N/A

A-114 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-115   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? N/A N/A 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to 227. Can the state track citations from point of N/A N/A

A-116 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) posting on the driver file? issuance to posting on the driver file? Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-117   Missouri Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? JIS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? ACS Government Systems Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The maintenance of all driver license information, including commercial, is 2

A-118 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? the responsibility of the Driver License Bureau. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Citations with dispositions through the court are tracked. There is no indication that citations that prosecutors choose not to file, or those with deferred adjudications are also tracked, since they are not disposed until the period of deferral is complete. Also, those courts which are not part of the Judicial Information System do not appear to be centrally tracked anywhere. Citation tracking would require a centralized file of all citations written, including original charges, pleas, plea bargains, deferrals, and determinations not to file. This type of tracking allows the state to determine if charges are not filed, whether a problem exists with officer training, or if some geographic areas of the state or some courts consistently treat some violations differently. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Circuit and many municipal courts' case management systems are interoperable. Of the 610 municipal courts, only 245 of those courts' cases appear within the Judicial Information System. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-119   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state adheres to the NIEM guidelines within the JIS system. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state adheres to guidelines set forth by the National Center for State Courts. This includes the Functional Requirement Standards for Traffic Court Case Management. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Appropriate personnel have access to court information. Driver history information may include administrative sanctions and other information that would not be available through the court system, i.e., administrative withdrawal of licenses, license denial, etc., and no information is available about access to the driver history record. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The Missouri DUI data system can be electronically linked to the driver system but at this time they are two separate systems. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be The communication between the state's adjudication system and driver system appears to be only one 1

A-120 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? linked to the driver system electronically? direction (coming from the adjudication system to the driver system). 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Missouri citation and driver systems are not currently linked but the state indicated that they could be linked in the future. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The citation can only be tracked beginning at the court. Receiving the citation is the first step in the process, but there is no ability to track a citation prior to the court receiving it. Tracking from issuance to the violator through to the court is important as well. Such tracking ensures that citations are not voided by officers without approval and gives a picture of how the prosecutors treat various charges or traffic charges overall. Prosecutors have discretion as to their decision to charge, defer, or dismiss and it is important to know the extent of each of those decisions that occurs. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-121   Montana Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2014 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The state has provided a narrative identifying the custodial agency who is responsible for the driver system 2

A-122 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? including commercially licensed drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Montana does not appear to have a statewide citation tracking system, which monitors each citation from printing and issuance to a police agency to court disposition and then to the driver history file. However, citations are entered into the court case management systems (CMS) and deferrals and convictions are sent from the CMS to the driver history file for posting. While this meets the Advisory ideal, it may not account for citations that are written but either not filed with the court or that the prosecutor chooses not to accept. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Due to the structure of its court system, Montana's court case management systems may be inter- operable, but data are not shared between the various courts, even though there are only two systems in use. As such, prior courts cases statewide would be available from the driver history file, if the charges were already disposed. However, pending charges in another court would not be available. If deferrals are not posted and maintained on the driver history, it would be possible for a violator to be convicted of a first violation, even 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-123   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) in cases where he has multiple prior offenses of the same charge. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Current data exchanges from the court’s case management system are NIEM compliant. Because of the importance of integration and information sharing the vendor strives to be NIEM compliant. A core component of a future case management system refresh will include an Enterprise Services Bus which is designed specifically to support NIEM-conformant XML message formats. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? Justice Systems Incorporated, the vendor for the FullCourt case management system, is actively involved with the National Center for State Courts. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time While law enforcement has direct access, other criminal justice agencies (such as courts) may have to depend on other agencies for criminal history and driver history records. 1

A-124 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state has provided a narrative explanation of the state's linking protocols that demonstrated how a citation on the DUI data system is linked to a record on the driver system. The state has also included identification of the linkage portal and organizations responsible for maintaining the link and the linking fields used. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Assessor Response indicates that traffic conviction data is linked to the driver system 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Assessor Response indicates that the citation system is linked to the driver system electronically and processes approximately 70% of all conviction reports. The records are matched on a three-point criteria consisting of name, date of birth, and driver license number. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to 227. Can the state track citations from point of Although no documentation was provided for this question, it appears from previous responses that tracking 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-125   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) posting on the driver file? issuance to posting on the driver file? would be possible for citations in various parts of its life cycle. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital Y

A-126 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Nebraska Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Nebraska Department of Motor Vehicles is the custodian of the driver 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-127   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? license system, which includes commercially licensed drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Criminal dispositions are available through NCJIS, which receives the data from the courts through a standardized, automated information system, a court case management system, JUSTICE. These systems also link with DMV and driver history files. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Nebraska has a single statewide case management system in its courts, JUSTICE, which is a stand-alone system in each court, maintained by the Administrative Office of Courts. This allows authorized users in Nebraska to query any case in the state via the NCJIS, due to the use of standard datasets in each court. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The citation system adheres to the NEIM guidelines for interfaces between law enforcement and prosecutors, but not for data transfer to the courts. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for The state has worked with the National Center for State Courts (NCSC) and the JUSTICE court 2

A-128 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? State Courts guidelines for court records? management system includes processes and procedures that align with current NCSC guidelines. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state Driver System works in conjunction with NCJIS to provide real-time driver and criminal history information to agencies statewide, with over 8,000 statewide agencies as users. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state does not have a separate DUI system; however, the driver system does track DUI convictions. A separate DUI system would allow courts, probation, and providers to access DUI information on the defendant. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication system is linked to the driver system by license number, name, and date of birth. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Citations are sent both electronically and manually to the courts and all traffic convictions are electronically received from the courts. There is not a separate citation system that tracks 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-129   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) determine the applicable charges? citations from inventory, issuance, and disposition and that links to the driver system. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state is not currently able to track all citations from issuance through disposition and posting on the driver file, but notes that this is a possibility to explore with the implementation of the e-citation system. The state has demonstrated that it understands the basis for a citation tracking system and its value to traffic safety overall. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

A-130 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Nevada Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Courtview Justice Solutions/New Dawn Technologies/Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House/Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? LT Court Tech LLC Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The state indicated that the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles is the 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-131   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? custodial agency for the driver system including CDLs. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Citations are tracked in individual courts whether they are on the state- sponsored case management or on another case management system. It is likely that each law enforcement agency also tracks the citations issued by that agency. The state provides a state-sponsored case and citation tracking system. The state indicates that those courts participating in the state-sponsored system are able to track citations; however, participation in the system is voluntary. Citation dispositions are reported to DMV, either manually or via MCIJIS, but it is unclear whether the dispositions are available statewide from the DMV system. For the four (out of 10) counties participating in MCIJIS, citation dispositions are available for retrieval by participating agencies. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Data exchanges are available through an information broker for specific functions such as citations, DMV conviction reporting, criminal history reporting, and some warrant information. The courts' case management systems are not directly interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and 1

A-132 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) state).The state does not have a unified court system and participation in the state-sponsored system is voluntary. For the four areas participating in MCIJIS (Carson City, Lyon, Churchill, and Storey Counties) interoperability among state and local agencies is achieved through document management and the ability to retrieve and parse XML data to populate participating systems. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max Score = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? NIEM is used where applicable in the state system. However, the state did not provide documentation to support this statement. Documentation provided does indicate that XML is used within the MCIJIS exchange system but schemas were not provided to indicate which areas employed NIEM standards. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? Court records are based on NCSC recommendations and modified for Nevada-specific business needs. However, the state did not provide a narrative statement detailing the systems and their adherence to NCSC guidelines for court records. Assessors were unable to determine the extent of modification of the NCSC recommendations with a list or other description. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-133   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? There is some inconsistency in the answer to this question. One response states that while individual agencies and courts may have access to regional or state available systems, none participate in, or have access to, a statewide real-time system. There is no indication of work on building such a system or systems that are able to talk to each other. In contrast, another explanation is that in order for those agencies to have real-time access to driving and criminal histories, they would have to apply for and be approved access to the Nevada Criminal Justice Information System (NCJIS). This is under the control of the Department of Public Safety and not the DMV. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The DMV receives convictions from four automated court systems and manually from all other courts or court systems. This does not equate to a state DUI system. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The DMV has connectivity with four automated courts, but there is no apparent citation tracking (adjudication) system. The connection appears to be only the reporting of convictions to the driver database at present. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked The DMV has connectivity with the four courts that have automated 1

A-134 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? to the driver system electronically? systems and hopes for connecting with the remaining courts under the authority of the Administrative Office of the Courts. Regarding the other courts, the DMV reports that “other federal and state mandates have forced us to focus our resources to these projects for the last few years.” There is insufficient detail for the connectivity cited. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Citations sent electronically can be tracked and manual citations can be manually tracked. Flowcharts depict the life of the citation once it reaches the court, showing actions and tracking of those actions for mandatory and non- mandatory court appearances. Dispositions are electronically reported to DMV for those courts using the state-sponsored system. Manual reporting is done in courts where no automated system exists. It is unclear whether or not issuing agencies have the ability to track the citation either in local records management systems or through the courts system. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-135   New Hampshire Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? LT Court Tech LLC Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system—including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially-licensed N/A N/A

A-136 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-137   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital Y

A-138 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes New Jersey Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes- Civil and Foreclosure What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? IBM DB2 Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? IBM DB2 Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The driver system resides in a single location, and the custodial responsibility for the system is shared by the New Jersey Motor Vehicle 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-139   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Commission (MVC) and the New Jersey Office of Information Technology (OIT). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All complaints that are entered into ATS/ACS are tracked by the system. The system tracks all in-court and payable dispositions and allows for follow-up through a series of daily, weekly, and monthly reports through a PageCenter computer system. Indictable complaints are transferred electronically to the Superior Court. Note: MVC handles administrative license suspensions. There are no deferred traffic prosecutions in New Jersey. The state reported that all traffic and criminal offenses are entered into ATS/ACS. Agencies that purchase their own citation software must purchase same through a vendor approved by the AOC. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state reported that the Automated Traffic System (ATS) and the Automated Complaint System (ACS) in the municipal courts serve as the point of entry for traffic and criminal complaints. Indictable complaints are transferred electronically to Superior Court, and if downgraded and remanded, are transferred back electronically. Every municipal court in the state uses the ATS/ACS system and is identified by a unique four-digit court code. This system also allows 2

A-140 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) for transfers from one court to another should a change in venue be ordered. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state did not provide evidence that it is compliant with NIEM justice domain guidelines. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state has not provided evidence sufficient to confirm that appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? In New Jersey, the Motor Vehicle Commission provides information on an individual’s driving history to law enforcement and provides inquiry access to designated members of the judiciary. The New Jersey State Police maintains the Computerized Criminal History (CCH) and provides inquiry access to this information to various agencies, including law enforcement and probation. However, all courts within the state do not have this access. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked DUI conviction data are transmitted to the courts and linked through the 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-141   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) interface with the driver data system? electronically to the driver system? driver's license number. However, the NJ MVC does not have a separate DUI system. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? There is no interactive link between the driver system and the court system. The driver’s license number is the key in the court system data feed to the driver system for sending court actions. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? There is no interactive link for the driver system and the citation system. There is a data feed from the court system to the driver system that conveys court actions affecting drivers. Text file descriptions of the data layouts for the data feed were provided. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The narrative provided by the state reports that citations can be tracked from issuance to posting and processing on the driver file. Narrative(s) and an attachment are furnished to describe systems and stakeholders in detail. A flow diagram is provided to document the citation life cycle process, including alternative flows for both manual and electronic submission via the state’s MF-1 process. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2

A-142 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-143   New Mexico Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Tyler Technologies Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Mew Mexico Motor Vehicle Division is the steward of all driver records in New Mexico. However, the New Mexico Department of 2

A-144 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? Information Technology maintains the servers housing the data. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? There is apparently no system that collects information on every citation and tracks that citation to conviction, dismissal, or deferral. Convictions are captured by the driver history system, but that system does not contain entries for non-convictions. The court system tracks all citations that are reported to the courts, but citations that are written and voided or not filed do not appear to be tracked there either. The process described appears to be reasonable and puts information in the hands of the people who need it for transactional purposes and enforcement of sanctions, but it does not contain all elements of a full citation tracking system as specified in the Advisory. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? State courts that hear traffic cases utilize a common case management system, the Odyssey system by Tyler Technologies. Municipal courts use a variety of systems, none of which are integrated. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-145   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? No evidence was provided for NIEM compliance. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The Odyssey system was configured to meet NCSC guidelines. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Courts appear to have real-time access to criminal histories, but not to driver histories. Apparently, law enforcement has access to both systems, although this is not explicit in the response. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The response that the state's DUI system is currently integrated with the driver system does not explain the linking protocols that demonstrated how a citation on the DUI data system is linked to a record on the driver system. Further, no information identifying the linkage portal and organizations responsible for maintaining the link and the linking 0

A-146 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Digital Y Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) fields used was provided as described in the evidence requirement. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The New Mexico Magistrate Courts can report adjudication activities to the DMV through an electronic reporting system that is currently being rolled out to the courts throughout the state. 1 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? There is no central state citation system in New Mexico so there is no database to link with the driver system. It would be ideal in the future if New Mexico were to establish a centralized statewide citation system. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? There are various systems that track parts of the life cycle. If it were necessary to track a single citation, it would be possible in most cases with some difficulty. Without a system to facilitate this in a unified fashion, it would be impossible to fully meet the Advisory ideal. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-147   New York Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2012 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Advanced DB Master Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Unknown What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Oracle

A-148 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? The New York Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the custodian of the driver data system that contains the records on all drivers including commercial operators. The Driver License File is maintained by the Office of Information Technology Services (ITS). 2 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All reportable citation dispositions are reported to DMV, regardless of whether they are disposed of directly through the judicial branch or directly through a traffic adjudication office. The DMV maintains two separate citations systems, the Traffic Safety Law Enforcement and Disposition (TSLED) and the Administrative Adjudication System (ADJ), to track citation dispositions. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state of New York has a unified court system. There are four case management systems used in the NYS courts of criminal jurisdiction (criminal includes traffic). With the exception of the NYS tribal courts, all NYS Town, Village, City, County, District, Supreme, Family and Surrogates courts comprise the NYS Unified Court System (UCS) utilize a case management system that provides a high degree of interoperability throughout the state. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-149   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Although it appears the state provided several examples of information data exchange, in alignment with the NIEM methodology, there is no indication the NIEM is being implemented across data systems. Neither the TraCS nor DMV data exchanges are specifically designed to adhere with NIEM standards. The state's court systems follow these data exchanges as they exist. The Court looks to adhere to NIEM guidelines as appropriate. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state does not use the National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records. Although the state does not use NCSC guidelines and due to the fact the state has a unified court system, it is possible the state is using a comparable guideline or administrative rule that would include certain portions of the NCSC guidelines. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on Parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within New York have access to individual driving records through the New York State Police Information Network (NYSPIN). It is unknown whether criminal histories are captured by the DMV records and made accessible to these agencies. 1

A-150 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) individuals driving and criminal histories? individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? New York does not have a specific DUI system. The driver data system contains DUI citations and adjudications. The DUI citation information is entered from the state's citation and adjudication system that can be linked to the driver data system. The courts submit the DUI conviction data to the driver data system through a nightly process. However, the state did not identify the linkage portal and organizations responsible for maintaining the link and the linking fields used. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? New York indicated that in addition to the TSLED and ADJ systems, there is also linkage electronically with the UCMS of the Office of Court Administration. The details of the required evidence were not provided. An inventory of traffic safety information systems was provided, but it does not address this question. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Although New York reports a linkage of the Driver License File with the TSLED and ADJ systems, the response did not identify how records in the citation system are linked and did not include identification of the linkage portal or the organizations responsible for maintaining the link 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-151   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) and did not specify the linking fields used. An inventory of traffic safety information systems was provided, but it does not address this question. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state does track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file, through the DMV’s two ticketing systems (TSLED and ADJ). This is outlined in the 2016 Inventory Report. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

A-152 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes North Carolina Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? IBM DB2 Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Microsoft Access Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Division of Motor Vehicles of the North Carolina Department of Transportation has custodial responsibility of the North Carolina 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-153   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver data system. Driver records, including those of commercially licensed drivers, reside in the single location in the State Automation Driver License System (SADLS). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Electronic citation dispositions are tracked through ACIS for all law enforcement agencies in the state. Paper citations, however, may or may not be formally tracked by the individual law enforcement agencies to which they are issued. Gaps in accountability appear to exist for both paper and electronic citations, as there are inconsistent controls in place to account for each citation issued through to disposition. This results in some defendants presenting to court before the court receives the citation, and may also result in some citations never being disposed. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? North Carolina has a unified court system, with all courts having the same, interoperable case management system. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems The state transfers data from its Automated Criminal/Infraction System to the North Carolina Arrest 2

A-154 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Warrant Repository (NCAWARE) via NIEM-compliant transfer standards. All interfaces being developed in the North Carolina Court System are NIEM compliant. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state follows NCSC guidelines for public access to court records. Court records are open and available for public access. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The Automated Criminal/Infraction System (ACIS) is available to all law enforcement, probation, and parole and courts and contains data from all 100 counties within the state. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The DUI conviction information is transferred electronically from the Administrative Office of the Courts to the state driver data system. Driver records are updated with DUI convictions. However, the state does not maintain a separate DUI data system of the type recommended by NHTSA. 0 217. Does the adjudication system 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be The adjudication system is part of the integrated citation and adjudication 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-155   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? linked to the driver system electronically? system maintained by the AOC/ACIS that is linked with SADLS and explained in the previous question. The same supporting documents apply. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Automated Criminal Infraction System (ACIS) of the Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) is responsible for the electronic interfaced with SADLS. Among the several supporting documents were charts showing the full connectivity from the AOC/ACIS with the SADLS and other related organizations such as the Highway Safety Research Center, a user of the crash and driver data for analytic studies. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Both electronic and paper citations are tracked throughout the issuance and adjudication processes. The AOC tracks paper citations to the agency to which the ticket books have been distributed and the law enforcement agency is responsible for tracking of citations in each book. Used citations books, which contain an audit copy of each citation, are returned to the clerk. Some agencies regularly audit the use and submission of citations, which it is unclear if all local agencies perform such audits. ACIS tracks the electronic citations numbers issued. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6

A-156 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-157   North Dakota Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? mSQL Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The North Dakota Department of Transportation, Driver's License Division has custodial responsibility for the driver system for all driver 2

A-158 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? records including commercially licensed drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All citation dispositions are tracked by the judicial branch by an open access system. This includes convictions, dismissals, and deferrals. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? 100% of all district court cases are in the Odyssey Case Management System. All cases originating in 15 municipal courts are also contained within the same Odyssey system. If one of those municipal cases is appealed to district court it is electronically forwarded to the proper district court. Therefore, the Odyssey system is interoperable between jurisdictions. If one of those cases is appealed from district court to the appellate court (North Dakota Supreme Court) it is transferred electronically as well. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Some of the interfaces to the citation and adjudication systems are NIEM compliant, although not all. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-159   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state uses the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? All relevant agencies have access to the system for sharing driver and criminal histories. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The North Dakota driver system receives DUI information from the court in a nightly file. A workflow for each record is created in FileNet that is worked the following day and entered into the driver system. The DUI information is linked by a citation number, the date of the violation, and the driver identification; however, there is not a separate DUI system that captures and tracks all pertinent information related to the DUI charge. 0

A-160 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The North Dakota driver system is linked to the adjudication system. Adjudication records from the courts are processed in a nightly batch file. Records are matched based on the driver name, date of birth, and driver ID number. Unmatched records are placed in a queue to be resolved manually with further research. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? North Dakota does not have a separate citation system that links to the driver file. Citation and disposition data from the courts is received in a nightly file which is entered into the driver system and law enforcement personnel are provided driver history information. 1 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? There was no flow diagram provided but the answer seems adequate. The paper citation numbers are recorded within Driver License Division, as to which agency gets which citations. The citation number is sent to the courts, and from the courts to Driver License Division and the driver record. Electronic citation numbers are assigned to each computer, agency, and can be tracked via the TraCS system from agency to court to driver record. No electronic citation can be deleted, only voided with an explanation, and therefore, can also be tracked. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-161   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital Y

A-162 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Ohio Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- Custodial responsibility for issuing driver’s licenses and maintaining the driver data system resides with the Ohio Department of Public Safety 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-163   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? (ODPS) through the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. The driver data system and all related programs are maintained by the ODPS IT section. The Driver License System is accessible to law enforcement, courts, approved state agencies, and approved organizations. Licensing is processed in real time. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state does not have a Unified Court System, therefore, it appears citation dispositions within the judicial branch are tracked and maintained in a centralized database for those courts that upload and participate. There are areas of the state where the data are not submitted to the centralized database. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Ohio is a non-unified court state. The Ohio Judicial System is currently made up of 383 courts of record across all jurisdictions. Most courts are supported by different case management systems and they are not interoperable on a statewide level. Each court addresses interface or interoperability requirements at the local level. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Ohio's current citation and adjudication systems do not adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 0

A-164 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? There are no technical guidelines comparable to the NCSC Functional Requirement Standards for Traffic Case Management Systems that have been adopted at a state level. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Ohio does not have a system that provides real-time information on individual driving and criminal histories. 0 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? All driving convictions are recorded in the Driver License System. The Ohio courts submit convictions to the Ohio Department of Public Safety electronically through a nightly secured FTP. Information in the Driver License System is accessible to law enforcement, courts, Bureau of Motor Vehicle staff, and other approved state agencies. Information is linked to a driving record by name, driver license number, date of birth, and SSN. 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-165   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Once a citation is adjudicated, the conviction is submitted to the Driver License System through a daily secured FTP so the driver history may be updated. The linking fields are name, driver license number, DOB, SSN, and Key as depicted on the Test Official Driving Record. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The Ohio Department of Public Safety does not collect citation information. Only convictions are recorded in the Driver License System. Citation information is collected and maintained by the Ohio Supreme Court System. The Ohio Department of Public Safety has no requirement to record citations. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state is currently adopting a citation system that will track citations from issuance to posting to the driver license file, which is scheduled to go live in 2015. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

A-166 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Oklahoma Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system—including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-167   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state have access to a system participate in and have N/A N/A

A-168 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-169   Oregon Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? LT Court Tech LLC Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Oregon Driver and Motor Vehicle Services (DMV) Division in the Department of Transportation is the designated custodial agency for 2

A-170 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? maintaining the driver system, driving records and issuing licenses. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Any and all citations issued by law enforcement in Oregon by law must be filed with a court by law enforcement. No pre-court filing administrative process to dispose of citations is approved. All citations filed in circuit courts are entered into the Judicial Department’s case management system. Court staff members complete the record by entering the disposition of the case. The record will include whether the charges were dismissed or whether the defendant was convicted. In cases where a defendant is convicted of a traffic offense, the court submits an abstract of judgment to ODOT’s Driver and Motor Vehicle Services Division (DMV). DMV adds the conviction information to the person’s driver history. No information is provided about how cases are processed in justice and municipal courts. Municipal and justice courts are “local” courts outside the state- funded court system with jurisdiction limited to violations, lesser crimes, and some other less serious cases. Oregon Revised Statutes (ORS) 153.800 allows any court in Oregon including municipal and justice courts to establish a Violations Bureau. ORS 810.370 mandates all courts 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-171   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (including municipal and justice courts) to forward all convictions related to the operation of motor vehicles on streets and highways to the Department of Transportation within 24 hours of the time the defendant was sentenced by the court. The information provided does not indicate whether the state has any requirements for dismissals or other dispositions to be sent to the Department of Transportation. The answer is incomplete because it does not explain if the dismissals and deferrals are included in the definition of the required “convictions” and, therefore, reported. 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Although the state has described a system where information is accessible to authorized individuals, not all court management systems are interoperable among the Circuit, municipal, and justice courts. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state has indicated that data sent from the Judicial Department to the state police is not NIEM compliant; however, code is currently being updated contemplating the NIEM standards. The state did not provide a narrative statement detailing the other systems (local courts) and their 0

A-172 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) adherence to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The circuit courts have deployed or will deploy the eCourt system which meets the guidelines by June 2016. There is no narrative explanation about the local court record-keeping and their adherence to NCSC guidelines for court records or if a comparable guideline is being used. 1 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? All law enforcement agencies, parole and probation agencies, and courts within the state are able to access the Judicial Department's case management system as well as the Law Enforcement Data Systems (LEDS). 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? Oregon does not have a separate DUI (in Oregon this is DUII) data system. All driver information is stored in one computer system. This computer system has several files and tables to store information, but all are linked in the DMV mainframe production (LPAR). Each resource in the data system can be operated independently. Citations for DUII are stored with all other citations. Information regarding DUII citations, convictions, and sanctions can be viewed on a driving 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-173   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) record. Most of the DUII citation and conviction information is currently submitted to the DMV on paper and manually entered. Oregon is in the process of converting to electronic submission of information. Information sent electronically is done by FTP protocols and added to the computer system as batch files. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? All reportable adjudications are entered onto the customer's driving record and maintained in the DMV computer system and linked to the issued citation. Some courts submit conviction information through the state police-managed Law Enforcement Data System and others have established a direct link to the DMV to report convictions. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Chargeable citations are entered onto the driving record and maintained by the DMV. Most citation and conviction information is manually added to the driver license system. Oregon is working on a process to electronically update all the records. A limited number of agencies have the capability to electronically transfer citation information. 1 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to 227. Can the state track citations from point of The state has described a system whereby citations filed by law enforcement in the circuit courts can be traced throughout the process, 1

A-174 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) posting on the driver file? issuance to posting on the driver file? including posting on the driver file. The state is unable to track citations that are adjudicated by the local (municipal and justice) courts. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-175   Pennsylvania Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? ACS Government Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The director of the Bureau of Driver Licensing has custodial responsibility for driver license records. 2

A-176 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All disposition information is recorded in the statewide court system. These data are also provided to the DOT. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state maintains statewide case management systems for each of its three levels of court. The state operates under a unified judiciary which further enables the statewide access of its systems. Cases at all levels of court are accessible by court personnel from anywhere in the state. Cases are electronically transferred between the three levels of court. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state's citation XML submission process follows the older GJXDM standard that NIEM has since replaced. The state plans to convert to NIEM standards, but the effort will be challenging and will take time and effort. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-177   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The citation is using the National Center for State Courts traffic IEPD. It also follows the mapping for XML. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Real-time access through JNET (Justice Network) to information is available for law enforcement. Available information referred to real- time access to only PA records. Courts do not have real-time access to the driver and criminal histories and are not allowed by law. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? There is no linkage between the court’s data system and the PennDOT Driver's License Control System. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state’s adjudication systems are not directly linked to the driver system. Information is added to a driver's record via daily batch updates from the various court systems. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? There is no direct linkage of the citation and driver systems, but the driver system is updated daily via a batch update from the courts related to a citation conviction. In that process, 0

A-178 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) determine the applicable charges? the citation number, violation, violation date, and conviction date are added to the driver's record. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Only after the citation is posted to the court system does tracking occur. There is no tracking of the citation upon issuance to the violator. Local law enforcement agencies are responsible for tracking citations prior to submission to the court. There is no flow diagram to support the citation life cycle process. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 1 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-179   Rhode Island Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? No What year TRA was obtained? N/A Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? ACS Government Systems/Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? ACS Government Systems Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system—including commercially-licensed 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially-licensed N/A N/A

A-180 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) drivers—reside in a single location? drivers—reside in a single location? 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? N/A N/A 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? N/A N/A 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? N/A N/A 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system N/A N/A

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-181   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? N/A N/A 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? N/A N/A 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? N/A N/A Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) N/A Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

A-182 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes South Carolina Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? SQL Server Enterprise Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Unknown What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? LT Court Tech LLC Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The state reports that custodial responsibility for the driver system, including commercially licensed drivers, does reside in a single 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-183   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? location. The custodial agency is identified as the South Carolina Department of Motor Vehicles, Driver/Vehicle Services. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All dispositions are posted to the driver's history file once the case has a final disposition. The DMV SCUTTIES and Phoenix servers track all citation dispositions. Dispositions are also tracked by CMS for Magistrate, some Municipal, and Clerk of Court. In addition, SCJD has a CDL disposition reporting process that facilitates the automatic update of case dispositions between CMS and the SCDMV. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The Statewide Case Management System is interoperable for Magistrate, some Municipals, and the Clerk of Court. All the state's magistrate courts and some local courts are on the state's case management system. It appears that many of the local courts do not use the state's CMS. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM The citation and adjudication systems are housed within the SCDMV’s Phoenix System and SCJD’s case management system which adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. South Carolina is currently 2

A-184 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? developing a “Central Citation Database” called SCUTTIES (SC Uniform Traffic Ticket Information Exchange System) that will house “ALL” citation and adjudication data in one database managed by the SCDMV. Phoenix adheres to NIEM Justice Guidelines. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The SC Judicial Department confirms that the state case management system (CMS) uses the National Center for State Courts guideline for court records. SCDMV uses the National Center for State Courts IEPD for citations and dispositions. All courts reporting dispositions to SCDMV are required to follow this process. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The SCDMV online member services website provides law enforcement officers and those that meet DMV criteria access to driver's license and vehicle registration information. DMV files have the ability to post a driving conviction on the driver's record the same day as the case is disposed. Law enforcement agencies that have the courts using CMS have access to the county, and some municipal real-time information for driving and criminal histories by using a web-based Central Index within CMS. Parole agencies and probation agencies have access to a Public Index which displays the driving and 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-185   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) criminal histories in real time by county. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The South Carolina driver system is not linked electronically to any citation system. Convictions are currently mailed to the South Carolina Department of Motor Vehicles (SCDMV) for processing. It is unclear from the response if the state has a DUI tracking system in place. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The South Carolina adjudication system is not linked to the driver system. A system is in the process of development and deployment to process citation convictions electronically from the court system. Electronic conviction reporting is anticipated to be deployed in January 2018. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The South Carolina citation system is not linked to the driver system. A system is in the process of development and deployment to process citation conviction electronically from the court system. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The “SC Citation-SCUTTIES flow chart” and “e-Citation Life Cycle” documents give a fairly detailed explanation of the life cycle of the paper and electronic citations. It appears the state can track citations 2

A-186 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) from the point of issuance to posting on the driver file. By using the public index in each county, a person can locate where a citation is in its life cycle. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-187   South Dakota Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? No Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially licensed drivers—is the Department of Public Safety (DPS) 2

A-188 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? and specifically the Driver Licensing Program. The driver data system is supported by the South Dakota Bureau of Information and Telecommunications (BIT). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Citations submitted by law enforcement/state’s attorneys are entered into the state’s UJS case management system, although they are not tracked after that point. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state utilizes the Odyssey system, which is a unified system utilized by both state and local courts and includes all municipal and state statutes. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 1 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The Odyssey system was designed around GRA solutions including web service connections, NIEM standards, and security guidelines. Documentation was not available 1 196. Does the state use any National Center 216. Does the state use the National Center for No information detailing the state’s court systems and their specific 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-189   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? State Courts guidelines for court records? adherence to NCSC guidelines for court records was available. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state has not documented information about the Unified Judicial CMS software as it is deployed in South Dakota for the purpose of providing real-time access to an individual’s criminal and driving histories. Only the South Dakota Highway Patrol has real-time access to driver or criminal histories. 0 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The United Judicial System submits convictions in an overnight batch that is sorted for the Driver Licensing staff to process the next day. It is not clear whether there is a DUI data system. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The adjudication system is linked to the driver system electronically, but no information was available describing the linkage protocols and demonstrating how records in the adjudication system are linked to the driver record. 0

A-190 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The citation system is not linked with the driver system. The court system provides convictions electronically. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The UJS/Odyssey system criminal citation data are entered and provided to the respective agencies through an interface. It is unclear if the citation data are electronically collected upon issuance of the citation and tracked from that point until they post to the driver file. The state has not developed a flow diagram documenting citation life cycle processes that identifies key stakeholders. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-191   Tennessee Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2019 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No CMS Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No CMS What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? LT Court Tech LLC Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the 119. Does custodial responsibility for the The Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland Security—the Driver 2

A-192 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver data system— including commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? driver system— including commercially- licensed drivers—reside in a single location? License System—has the custodial responsibility for the Tennessee driver data system. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? In a non-unified court system, it is typically very difficult to track all citations issued within a state. One way to do this is to provide a copy or electronic transmission of data from every issued citation to the DMV or other central entity at the time of issuance, then match disposition data to that file. Such a system can provide statistical outcomes of enforcement efforts, review judicial handling of various violations, and address locations where certain types of offenses are most likely to be committed and by whom. It can also, if located and layered on a map, be used to determine the effect of enforcement countermeasures on crash incidence. It is often difficult to aggregate such data from the driver history file, due to the size and nature of that file and the lack of data about dismissals and perhaps initial versus convicted charges. A centralized file based on electronic citations, due to their central numbering scheme, might be a good place to start in terms of developing the infrastructure for a citation tracking system. It should be noted that the citations written by 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-193   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) THP are tracked electronically for trooper accountability. 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Autonomous local courts have various types of court case management systems that are not interoperable. However, the vast majority of county courts use state software and report electronically thereby to the Department of Safety. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? No agency responding to this question for Tennessee reported being compliant with NIEM guidelines. An alternative standard is used but it is not clear if this is comparable. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state's largest case management system, TnCIS, was initiated in 2001. Tennessee regulations establish an oversight agency, and requirements that courts use TnCIS or equivalent. NCSC guidelines were adopted after TnCIS was initially developed and the state indicates that its system is comparable. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state TIES is accessible to law enforcement, parole and probation agencies, and courts, and provides real-time driver and criminal histories 2

A-194 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? on individuals. To obtain access, users must be certified by TBI and CJIS. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The Tennessee driver system does not interface with the DUI tracking system. Records can be linked via the driver license number. DUI conviction information is received in both electronic and manual forms for inclusion on the driver history record. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Court dispositions are transmitted, as appropriate, to the driver history file and are posted if no empty fields are present. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The citation system does not interface with the driver system. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The tracking capability for citations from point of issuance varies based on which law enforcement agency is involved. Currently this is possible for Highway Patrol officers and will soon 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-195   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) be available for all users of the TITAN e-citation program. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

A-196 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Texas Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2018 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? AdabasD/Microsoft SQL Server Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Texas Department of Public Safety Driver License Division has custodial responsibility for the Texas Driver License System (DLS), which 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-197   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? resides in a single location in the License in Records Services. The DLS system maintains information on all drivers including commercially licensed drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? At the time of this assessment, no statewide system is in place for citation data, but the Office of Court Administration is planning a project that will uniquely identify every citation. Such a system is invaluable in determining the level and locations of all enforcement actions statewide and, as a result, the state will be able to use those data in its determination of the most appropriate countermeasures and use of law enforcement resources, when the data are used in conjunction with crash data. 0 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Texas’s size and the fact that the court system is decentralized both play a role in the fact that courts use a variety of case management systems, which are not interoperable. This fact makes data aggregation difficult. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0

A-198 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state does not have a single citation and adjudication system, and the state-level systems are not NIEM compliant. We have no information about whether the various local systems use NIEM guidelines. However, as the state prepares to build its statewide system, it will consider the potential for NIEM compliance. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? Although Texas does not have a unified statewide court system, its state courts use OASIS Legal XML ECF for e-filing. 1 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Law enforcement and local courts have access to criminal history and driver data through the Texas Law Enforcement Telecommunication System (TLETS) and the Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS), but appellate courts do not. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state does not have a separate DUI data system; therefore, the data cannot link electronically to the driver system. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-199   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state does not currently have an adjudication system that can be linked to the driver system. The Texas Office of Court Administration (OCA) is in the early stage of developing a new statewide court reporting system, which may lead to electronic linkage between this new adjudication system with the state's driver data system in the future. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Texas does not currently have a citation system that allows for electronic linkage to the driver system. Files for citation and failure to comply with citations are sent electronically from certain courts and vendors. However, the state is working on a project to develop such a system that will include citation data from different local jurisdictions throughout the state. This project is scheduled to be completed and implemented in the summer of 2019. In addition, it is expected that this project will allow for linking the citation system with the driver data system and other traffic records data systems in the state. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state does not track citations from issuance through posting on the driver file at this time. With the planned statewide system, it should be possible to do so in the near future. 0 posting on the driver file?

A-200 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) This methodology provides for accountability and data integrity, in terms of determining which charges were not filed by the courts, or any citations that were written but not subsequently sent to courts, and finally, which charges were adjudicated but not sent to the Department of Public Safety for posting on the driver history. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-201   Utah Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2014 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Informix Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? Informix Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- Utah Title 53 Public Safety Code, Chapter 3 Uniform Driver License Act gives the Driver License Division (DLD) the responsibility for testing 2

A-202 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? and licensing individuals applying for a Utah license. The Driver License Division is also responsible for maintaining all drivers' records including commercial driver licenses. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All dispositions are tracked on a per charge basis by the Court Records Information System (CORIS) with a flag for driver license reportable. Documentation provided indicates that CORIS provides tracking of dispositions as well as the ability to query information to obtain dispositions by type and percentage of undisposed cases. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? As mentioned in the 2009 Utah Traffic Records Assessment, the state was pursuing bringing all courts under a common case management system. This effort was completed in July 2011 as reported in the September 2011 courts report to UTRAC (attached). All justice (municipal) courts and district (state) courts use the CORIS case management system. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM The Prosecutors Information Management System (PIMS) has been e-filing criminal case initiating documents into the courts’ CMS (CORIS) for several years. The requirements document for this 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-203   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Justice domain guidelines? Justice domain guidelines? interface indicates in section 6.1.2 that the data transmissions would be NIEM compliant. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state indicated they use almost all National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The responses suggest that there is generally access to these systems, but there may be some courts that don't participate in such access, and other courts where there is no direct access, but instead the courts must rely on local law enforcement for access. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The courts report adjudicated DUI cases to the DLD. The DLD updates the driving record. The adjudicated cases are linked to the driving record by driver license number, name, and date of birth. Courts submit the information daily as a batch file and the records are updated automatically. If sanctions are required, a notification letter is automatically generated. 2 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be Courts electronically report citation adjudication daily through an overnight download. Utah is currently 2

A-204 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? linked to the driver system electronically? developing a real-time transfer of information. 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? Citations are electronically posted to the driver system by the courts each day. Data flowcharts for the posting process were provided. 2 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? It appears that once the citation is e- filed, it is available in the unified court CMS. It can be tracked more-or- less from within the court CMS, or in the driver history file. In addition, there may be additional data available in other DPS systems. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 6 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-205   Vermont Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2017 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) State Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? IBM DB2 Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? IBM DB2 Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The custodial responsibility for the driver system—including commercially licensed drivers— 2

A-206 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? resides at the Vermont Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state indicates that all citation dispositions are tracked by a statewide system operated by the judiciary. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Vermont Judiciary functions as a unified court system that is interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state). 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 2 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The eTicket exchange between Valcour RMS and Vermont Judiciary complies with NIEM 2.1 Standards but currently not the 3.0 Standards. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state indicates it uses comparable guidelines to the National Center for State Courts which are set forth by the Vermont Judiciary. 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-207   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state indicates that all Vermont law enforcement agencies have access to individual driving and criminal histories. The state’s probation and parole agencies, have access through VJISS and can run an individual's name. The state’s response indicates that law enforcement agencies have access to real-time information. If the courts, parole, and probation were also supplied the data real time, the rating could be improved. 1 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The DMV does not have a separate DUI system and therefore DUI data are not electronically linked to the driver system. DUI dispositions are manually added to the driver system when received from the courts. The court system is developing a new case management system that will provide electronic reporting of criminal convictions to the DMV, which is expected to be functional in 2020. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication data are electronically linked to the driver system via an automated interface. Match criteria is applied and convictions are added to the record and non-matches are forwarded for manual review. 2

A-208 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation system is not linked to the driver system. Paper citation data are received from the 14 individual courts and applied to an existing record, or a record is created if none exists. The DMV is working with the judiciary to design and implement a new case management system that will provide the electronic linkage by mid-2020. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state reported it can track e- Tickets from the point of issuance to DMV based on a unique identifier, i.e., the ticket number. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-209   Virginia Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) administers the driver file. The commercial and non- 2

A-210 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? commercial driver records are in the same file. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? All citations that become court cases are recorded in the courts' case management system. The courts transmit closed and deferred cases to the DMV on a daily basis. All Virginia courts participate in this interface. It is possible that a valid citation is not entered into the courts' case management system if law enforcement fails to send the summons to the court. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The Office of the Executive Secretary in Virginia maintains and supports the case management system for all Virginia courts, with each court level having their own unique case management system. Communication between the court levels does exist. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The courts' case management system does not incorporate NIEM guidelines. It is suggested that the state conduct a gap analysis, comparing the internally developed case management system components with the NIEM Justice domain guidelines. The gap analysis would produce a comparable guideline to be 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-211   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) used and referenced by all traffic records entities. 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? Although the state does not use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records, Virginia has specific guidelines for each level of court regarding the handling of court records. Courts follow the Virginia Rules of Court as well as the Code of Virginia, which addresses court records. The Virginia Rules of Court and the Code of Virginia are comparable to the NCSC guidelines. 2 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The state does have systems that capture driver and criminal histories, but those do not make real-time information available to law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and the courts within the state. Driving histories are submitted to DMV by the courts and the DMV updates the server and the driver transcript with the court case information once per week. In addition, criminal histories that are submitted through the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) are immediately placed in the Computerized Criminal History (CCH) file. While automation has expedited fingerprint placement into criminal history files, there are still occasions where manual/inked fingerprint cards are received. All VCIN and/or NCIC users have access 1

A-212 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) to driver information. Users are required to be certified in the use of the system and the laws that restrict the access of the information for privacy. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? There is no DUI data system. The DMV receives nearly 95% of court convictions electronically, and the DMV work center is able to correct many submissions that cannot be posted as received due to errors or conflicting information. DUI conviction information is housed in the Customer Service System (CSS). Convictions received electronically are sent via the Court Automated Information Systems (CAIS) which is maintained by DMV. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? Convictions are submitted to DMV’s system through the electronic CAIS system. This process allows convictions to be automatically posted to the appropriate customer record in a timely manner. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The DMV does not link with a citation system. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-213   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? In Virginia, the courts receive citation data from law enforcement and send case-related data to the DMV and the VSP. Citations and most DUI arrests are processed through magistrate offices. Magistrate offices generate electronic warrants that are sent to the courts and used to create court cases. It seems the state has varying systems within particular areas that start tracking the citation and have the ability to track citations from issuance to final posting on the driver file. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital N

A-214 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Washington Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2014 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House/Third Party Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? Tyler Technologies/IBM DB2/SQL Server Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? No What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? IBM DB2 Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The custodial responsibility of the driver system, including commercially licensed drivers, does not reside in a single location. The reason for this is 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-215   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? that Washington has two separate systems. They have a Driver Headquarters System and an external system. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The narrative and supporting documents indicate that the courts are providing statewide access to the courts’ actions in a substantial fashion. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Sample data show results from multiple court levels. While all data systems are not necessarily interoperable, each can see and query different levels of court. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The state provided a document and policy showing compliance with NIEM. 2 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The National Center for State Courts guidelines are always considered. The guidelines are not followed when 2

A-216 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? conflicting with state statute or case law or court rules. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? There are agencies that have access to driving histories and criminal histories via the Justice Information System (JIS). 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state's DUI data system cannot be linked electronically to the driver system. Multiple state agencies provide information to a record within the driver system. There are several state agencies that provide information to the system. Washington courts do not have the ability to transmit DUI data electronically, so no linkage can occur. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication system can be linked to the driver system electronically. The Department of Licensing (DOL) uses the Internet Query System portal. The DOL is responsible for the portal and the linking fields. 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-217   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation system is not linked to the driver system electronically. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The driver record does not capture all data necessary from a citation to determine where the citation was issued. Citation tracking from issuance to inclusion of data on the driver history record is not possible at a statewide level. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 2 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

A-218 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes West Virginia Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2016 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No CMS Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) No CMS Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? No CMS What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? No CMS Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) Third Party Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? SQL Server Enterprise Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The West Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the custodial agency of the state driver data system, which resides in a single 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-219   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? location and includes records of commercial and non-commercial drivers. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? The state indicates that citations issued to Magistrate Court are tracked by the UJA data system, but citations issued to municipalities are tracked by the respective municipality. No indication is given of how the state ensures that all citations issued are accounted for as they are disposed and reported to the DMV. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The court case management systems are not interoperable in West Virginia, even though the state courts are unified. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 3 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? The response to this question does not indicate whether the court system is adherent to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines, thus, the response does not address the specifics of the question. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts 216. Does the state use the National Center for The state advises that guidelines from the National Center for State Courts 2

A-220 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) (NCSC) guidelines for court records? State Courts guidelines for court records? are used for court records in West Virginia. 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? The West Virginia Police Network acts as a switch for connection of all federal, state, and local agencies, with access to NLETS and NCIC available to all law enforcement agencies, probation, and parole and courts. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state does not have an electronic DUI data system. Therefore, there is no linkage between the DUI system and the driver data systems. 0 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's adjudication system cannot be linked electronically to the driver system. The state is currently working on the interface with the state's magistrate court system. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation and the driver system are not linked electronically. 0

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-221   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state indicates that citation inventory cannot be tracked from creation to issuance to posting. 0 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 0 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

A-222 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Wisconsin Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2015 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? Yes How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? Yes Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? Yes What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? Yes Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) In House Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? Yes What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Motor Vehicles has custodial responsibility for the driver system, which includes 2

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-223   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? commercially licensed drivers and resides in a single location. 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? It appears most citation dispositions are transmitted electronically, and paper copies are submitted by the courts to the DMV data system. This system only appears to function at the ideal level for electronic citations, whereas the functionality of the system is reduced for paper copies of citations. The state provided a database layout showing the tracking of citation dispositions at DMV. The state should consider increasing the use of electronic citations to improve the overall effectiveness of the system already in place. 2 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? The state’s circuit courts use a statewide case management system. This system interfaces with other state agencies and law enforcement agencies, but does not include municipal courts. As such, the state does not have a statewide interoperable case management system. The state should consider extending the case management system to the municipal and local levels. 1 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0

A-224 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? NIEM is a collaboration of the GJXDM and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. These collaborative efforts by the justice and homeland security communities—to produce a set of common, well- defined data elements for data exchange development and harmonization—lead to the beginnings of NIEM. As such, the NIEM standard would be the most current standard and the ideal. Wisconsin currently uses the GJXDM (Global Justice XML Data Model) format in lieu of NIEM. 1 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? The state uses the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records; however, there was no documentation to support this claim. The state should consider ensuring that these guidelines do exist and are well documented. 1 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Most law enforcement agencies are able to get real-time driver and vehicle information via the TIME system. The courts are able to access the TIME system or the PARS (Public Abstract Request System) to get vehicle or driver information. Although, the state does not have a data dictionary for the TIME system to verify data elements associated with an individual's driving and criminal histories, agencies can 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-225   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) request data and access from a central system. 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system interface with the driver data system? 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked electronically to the driver system? The state's Operating While Impaired (OWI) convictions are submitted electronically from the courts. They are tracked in the citation inventory system. A model DUI system is multi- dimensional and is accessible by all who work with DUI offenders, from driver licensing and courts through probation, evaluation, and treatment providers. It would be available to all who deal with the offenders and would have enough information in it to prevent reinstatement of driving privileges prior to the offender having completed court-ordered sanctions. It would also provide statistical data about offenders, such as which treatment types had the best results in terms of prevention of recidivism. The state does not have this type of separate system. 1 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? The state's citation system also includes adjudication information for convictions that are then pushed into the driver file by comparing the driver license number in both systems. 2 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked The Bureau of Information Technology Systems, within the Department of Transportation’s Division of Business Management, is 1

A-226 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) information to help determine the applicable charges? to the driver system electronically? responsible for the program that interfaces the citation system with the driver system. The state's citation system interfaces with the driver system by comparing the driver license number in both systems, and then the citation file pushes all convictions into the driver file after DOT is notified of that adjudication. The citation system only tracks citations that have been adjudicated. 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? The state has the ability to track both paper and electronic citations from issuance to final adjudication and posting to driver history as reflected in the Citation Life Cycle. 2 Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 5 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 1 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal Y Structural Y Digital Y

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-227   Wyoming Traffic Records Assessment (TRA) Was a TRA obtained? Yes What year TRA was obtained? 2019 Unification Status Yes/No Response Is the state legally (self- declared) unified? No How are courts funded? (Response: Local, Mixed, or State) Mixed Are courts integrated Statewide? No Is the trial EDMS system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are all trial courts integrated with an electronic data management system (EDMS)? N/A What is the type or brand of the Trial Database System? N/A Are appellate courts integrated across jurisdictions? N/A Is the appellate data system in- house? (Response: In House or Third Party) N/A Are appellate courts integrated with EDMS? N/A What is the type or brand of the Appellate Database System? N/A Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) 76. Does custodial responsibility for the driver data system— including 119. Does custodial responsibility for the driver system— including commercially- Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) has custodial responsibility of the driver data, which include commercially 2

A-228 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) commercially-licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers—reside in a single location? licensed drivers. The system is known as the RIS (Revenue Information System). The RIS mainframe resides with the Department of Enterprise Technology Services (ETS). 189. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch— tracked by a statewide citation tracking system? 205. Are all citation dispositions—both within and outside the judicial branch—tracked by the statewide data system? Wyoming's individual municipal courts, which have jurisdiction over adjudicating citations, operate independently from the circuit courts and adjudication outcomes are not shared statewide. Circuit court dispositions are submitted nightly to a citation tracking system within the Supreme Court. Municipal court adjudications may be shared with DOT to be added to the driver file, but it is unclear if all do. 1 191. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including tribal, local, municipal, and state)? 207. Are the courts’ case management systems interoperable among all jurisdictions within the state (including local, municipal, and state)? Out of 24 circuit courts, 12 use a single system which nine out of 99 municipal courts use as well. Some interoperability exists through the use of the Statewide Court Information Store. The other 12 circuit courts use an older version of the court management system in use at the circuit level. The Supreme Court has another system in which data are transferred to nightly from the circuit level, but is not interoperable. Data are stored in the individual systems without any communication between the systems. Additionally, the municipal courts are on systems unknown to the rest of the court system. There is mention of a 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-229   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) Statewide Court Information Store, but there is no connectivity discussed where data would be accessible from there into any other court system. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 4 Total Court Centralization Score (sum Court Tiers + Funding Sources) (Max = 2) 0 195. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? 215. Do the appropriate portions of the citation and adjudication systems adhere to the NIEM Justice domain guidelines? Wyoming does not apply National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) guidelines for their citation and adjudication systems. Wyoming courts utilize a custom exchange protocol for limited use. No exchanges exist with outside agencies where NIEM would be leveraged. 0 196. Does the state use any National Center for State Courts (NCSC) guidelines for court records? 216. Does the state use the National Center for State Courts guidelines for court records? There is a response indicating a transition to a system where NCSC guidelines are being followed. There is no indication the current system in place is using the NCSC guidelines. 0 193. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real- time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? 203. Do all law enforcement agencies, parole agencies, probation agencies, and courts within the state participate in and have access to a system providing real-time information on individuals driving and criminal histories? Access to individual driving and criminal histories are accessed through WyCJIS for law enforcement and probation and parole agencies. This gives the agencies access to data within Wyoming with only a day latency due to the process to submit criminal records to the system. 2 99. Does the state’s DUI tracking system 120. Can the state’s DUI data system be linked The state does not have a DUI tracking system. WYDOT has the 0

A-230 Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) interface with the driver data system? electronically to the driver system? ability to receive DUI convictions through an automatic transfer from the circuit and district courts for updating to RIS. A DUI tracking system is a system that allows for all DUI linking and tracking data across existing systems to allow for timely access by all stakeholders such as judges, law enforcement, probation, and driver record personnel. 217. Does the adjudication system interface with the driver system to post dispositions to the driver file? 145. Can the state’s adjudication system be linked to the driver system electronically? There is no indication whether the citation system interfaces with the driver system for adjudications to be posted to the driver file. 0 214. Does the citation system interface with the driver system to collect driver information to help determine the applicable charges? 144. Can the state’s citation system be linked to the driver system electronically? The question is related to whether or not the driver system integrates with the citation system to determine applicable charges. This would be an interface made available to the officer while issuing a citation. The description given is the process by which a citation makes it to the driver record. 0 204. Does the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? 227. Can the state track citations from point of issuance to posting on the driver file? Response indicates that citations are tracked, post issuance, through the court's case management system and into the DOT driver file. Response to earlier questions re: citation numbering would seem to indicate that citations are tracked prior to issuance, as the numbering is under 1

State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis A-231   Relevant TRA Questions (if available) 2018 Question 2012 Question Assessor Response to Question Scoring (2 = Completely Met; 1 = Partially Met; 0 = Not Met) the authority of the courts. Similarly, earlier response (2014) reflects that the citations are tracked from issuance through adjudication to driver data bases. No evidence submitted. Total TRA Score (sum above; N/A if TRA Not Available) (Max = 6) 1 Total NCSC Score (above) (Max = 1) 0 Unification Aspect Result (Y or N) Legal N Structural N Digital N

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The ability of state agencies to track citation, adjudication, and disposition data accurately and effectively is essential for the identification and appropriate adjudication of problem drivers and habitual offenders. Efficient data tracking can provide benefits at all steps of the citation-adjudication process, from providing real-time information and safer roadside stops for law enforcement officers to reducing errors and improving transmission speed during the adjudication stage to facilitating data storage and effective analyses following disposition.

The TRB Behavorial Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program's BTSCRP Research Report 5: Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes identifies challenges and barriers to effective citation data tracking along with proven strategies and solutions to address these challenges, with the goal of developing a series of practical and meaningful steps that state highway safety officials could use to implement these strategies.

Supplemental to the report is Toolkit for Improving Citation and Adjudication Tracking, which is a PowerPoint presentation with voiceover components. Slides from the toolkit are presented in Appendix D and the script for the voiceover is included in Appendix E.

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