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Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective (2023)

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Page 100
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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100 References Airports Council International. (2018). Airport Infrastructure Needs Study. ACI North America. https://airports council.org/intelligence/airport-infrastructure-needs-study/. Albrecht, C. (2021). Flytrex Raised $8M to Expand U.S. Drone Delivery Operations. The Spoon, March 22. https://thespoon.tech/flytrex-raised-8m-to-expand-u-s-drone-delivery-operations/. Altiscope. (2018). Managing UAS Noise Footprint. Altiscope. https://storage.googleapis.com/blueprint/TR-007_ Managing_UAS_Noise_Footprint.pdf. Association of Air Medical Services. (2017). Air Medical Services Cost Study Report. AAMS. https://cdn.ymaws. com/aams.org/resource/resmgr/air-medical-services-cost-st.pdf. Aviation Today. (2021). United Airlines Forms Partnership with Archer to Purchase 200 eVTOL Aircraft. Aviation Today, February 11. https://www.aviationtoday.com/2021/02/11/united-airlines-forms-partnership-archer- purchase-200-evtol-aircraft/. Bartley, J., and H. Ridzuan-Allen. (2019). Can Retail Drones Deliver the Goods? Lexology, December 3. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=bd318ba3-7264-454c-8448-61b136c2062c. Batchelor, R. (1994). Henry Ford, Mass Production, Modernism, and Design. Vol. 1. Manchester University Press. Bhatti, A., H. Akram, H. M. B. Basit, A. U. Khan, S. M. R. Naqvi, and M. B. Bilal. (2020). E-commerce Trends During COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, Vol. 13, No. 2:1449–1452. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342736799. Black & Veatch. (n.d.). Powered for Take Off: NIA-NASA Urban Air Mobility Electric Infrastructure Study (eVTOL Electrical Infrastructure Study for UAM Aircraft). National Institute of Aerospace, NASA (NIA- NASA). https://webassets.bv.com/2019-11/NASA_eVTOL_Electric_Infrastructure_Study.pdf. Boeing. (2017). Boeing Market Outlook - World Air Cargo Forecast. https://www.boeing.com/commercial/ market/cargo-forecast/. Bris, G. L., et al. (2021). ACRP Research Report 229: Airport Collaborative Decision Making (ACDM) to Manage Adverse Conditions. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. California Department of Transportation. (2011). 2011 California Airport Land Use Planning Handbook. Division of Aeronautics, California Department of Transportation. Cheek, W. V. (2009). ACRP Legal Research Digest 5: Responsibility for Implementation and Enforcement of Airport Land-Use Zoning Restrictions. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. City of Orlando. (2020). Urban Air Mobility Overview. https://business.orlando.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/ 3/2020/08/UrbanAirMobility_WhitePaper.pdf. Cohen, A., J. Guan, M. Beamer, R. Dittoe, and S. Mokhtarimousavi. (2020). Reimagining the Future of Trans- portation with Personal Flight: Preparing and Planning for Urban Air Mobility. Unpublished Workshop Summary, Washington, DC. doi.org/10.7922/G2TT4P6H. Congressional Research Service. (2019). Financing Airport Improvements. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43327.pdf. EHang. (2020). EHang Unveils Heavy-Lift AAV for Short-to-Medium-Haul Aerial Logistics. https://www. ehang.com/news/688.html#:~:text=Guangzhou%2C%20China%2C%20September%2030%2C,medium %2Dhaul%20air%20logistics%20in. Elias, J. (2019). Alphabet’s Wing Launches First Commercial Drone Delivery. CNBC, October 18. https://www. cnbc.com/2019/10/18/alphabets-wing-launches-first-commercial-drone-delivery.html. European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). (2021). Study on the Societal Acceptance of Urban Air Mobility in Europe. European Union Aviation Safety Agency. https://www.easa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/dfu/ uam-full-report.pdf. FAA. (1983a). Advisory Circular 150/5020-1: Noise Control and Compatibility Planning for Airports. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.

References 101 FAA. (1983b). Advisory Circular 150/5060-5: Airport Capacity and Delay. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (1983c). Advisory Circular 150/5070-7: The Airport System Planning Process. Federal Aviation Adminis- tration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (1987). Advisory Circular 150/5190-4A: A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects Around Airports. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2005a). Advisory Circular 36-1H: Noise Levels for U.S. Certificated and Foreign Aircraft. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2005b). Advisory Circular 150/5070-6B: Airport Master Plans. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2005c). Advisory Circular 150/5325-4B: Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2007). Advisory Circular 150/5200-37A: Introduction to Safety Management System (SMS) for Airport. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2010). Order 5200.11: FAA Airports (ARP) Safety Management System. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2012). Advisory Circular 150/5390-2C: Heliport Design. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2014). Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A: Airport Design. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2015a). Air Traffic Organization Policy - Order JO 7110.65W. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/atc.pdf. FAA. (2015b). Advisory Circular: 20-184. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC_20-184_Final_proof.pdf. FAA. (2016). Advisory Circular: 150/5050-4A. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Trans- portation. https://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/advisory_circular/draft-150-5050-4a.pdf. FAA. (2017a). Overview: What is AIP and What is Eligible? Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/airports/aip/overview/. FAA. (2017b). Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) program brochure. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/vale/media/VALE-brochure- 2017.pdf. FAA. (2018a). FAA History of Noise. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/policy_guidance/noise/history/. FAA. (2018b). Advisory Circular 150/5360-13A: Airport Terminal Planning. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2019a). FAA Safety Briefing: Safety Culture. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/news/safety_briefing/2019/media/JulAug2019.pdf. FAA. (2019b). LAANC for Industry. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/data_exchange/. FAA. (2019c). Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/nextgen/. FAA. (2019d). Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program (VALE). Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/vale/. FAA. (2020a). Order 8000.369C: Safety Management System. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2020b). Urban Air Mobility (UAM) Concept of Operations (v1.0). Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/UAM_ConOps_ v1.0.pdf. FAA. (2020c). Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Concept of Operations (v2.0). Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.faa.gov/sites/faa.gov/ files/2022-08/UTM_ConOps_v2.pdf. FAA. (2021). Draft Advisory Circular 150/5190-4B: Airport Land Use Compatibility Planning. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA. (2022a). Advisory Circular 150/5300-13B: Airport Design. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation. FAA. (2022b). FAA Airport Master Plan Record Data Base. Airport Data and Information Portal, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://adip.faa.gov/agis/public/#/airportData/JRB. Flirtey. (n.d.). About Flirtey. https://www.flirtey.com/about/. Frost and Sullivan. (2020). Destination Versus Demand: Is the Urban Transport Mix Ready for Air Mobility? https://www.frost.com/frost-perspectives/destination-versus-demand-is-the-urban-transport-mix-ready- for-air-mobility/.

102 Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective Goyal, R., C. Reiche, C. Fernando, and A. Cohen. (2021). Advanced Air Mobility: Demand Analysis and Market Potential of the Airport Shuttle and Air Taxi Markets. Sustainability, Volume 13:7421. doi.org/10.3390/ SU13137421. Hader, M., and S. Baur. (2020). The High-Flying Industry: Urban Air Mobility Takes Off. Roland Berger. https://www.rolandberger.com/en/Insights/Publications/The-high-flying-industry-Urban-Air-Mobility- takes-off.html. Haines, T. B. (2019). Uber Copter to Be First Test of Uber Air Concept. AOPA.org. https://www.aopa.org/news- and-media/all-news/2019/june/12/uber-copter-to-be-first-test-of-uber-air-concept. Hawkins, A. J. (2020). Flying Taxi Startup Lilium Will Build a Hub for Its Electric Aircraft in Florida. The Verge, November 11. https://www.theverge.com/2020/11/11/21558670/lilium-jet-flying-taxi-orlando-vertiport- hub-evtol. Heard, R., and E. Mannarino. (2018). ACRP Synthesis 91, TCRP Synthesis 137: Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit: A Synthesis of Airport and Transit Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Hyundai Motors. (2020). Urban Mobility for a Future City | Mobility - Hyundai Worldwide. https://www.hyundai. com/worldwide/en/brand/ces-2020. Inside Unmanned Systems. (2020). FedEx, Memphis Airport in FAA Integration Pilot Program as It Morphs to New BEYOND. Inside Unmanned Systems. Intermodal Logistics Consulting, Air Transportation Systems Laboratory (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), and D. McDonald. (2017). ACRP Web Resource 2: Airport Passenger Terminal Design Library. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. International Air Transport Association. (2019a). Air Passenger Market Analysis. IATA. https://www.icao.int/ Meetings/ican2018/Documents/Presentation%20by%20Mr.%20Kuuchi%20-%20IATA.pdf. International Air Transport Association. (2019b). Air Cargo Demand Continues Negative 2019 Trend. IATA. https://www.iata.org/en/pressroom/pr/2019-05-29-01. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (1991). Stolport Manual, Second Edition. Doc 9150. Knight, W. (2017). The Dark Secret at the Heart of AI. MIT Technology Review, April 11. https://www.technology review.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/. Kolodny, L. (2019). Zipline, Which Launched in Rwanda, Now a Unicorn. cnbcafrica.com. May 17. https://www. cnbcafrica.com/2019/zipline-which-in-rwanda-now-a-unicorn/. Kurniawan, J. S., and S. Khardi. (2011). Comparison of Methodologies Estimating Emissions of Aircraft Pollutants, Environmental Impact Assessment Around Airports. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Vol. 31, No. 3: 240–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EIAR.2010.09.001. LaGuardia Gateway Partners. (2016). LaGuardia Gateway Partners Begins Lease and Redevelopment of LaGuardia Airport’s Central Terminal B. https://5a1b183f-635f-473a-a01c-dc725d1a8c52.filesusr.com/ugd/ 77a043_65b05dc4debb46e29a57ec19ce63d30a.pdf. Landrum & Brown, et al. (2010). ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook; Volume 2: Spreadsheet Models and User’s Guide. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. Le Bris, Gaël, et al. (2022). ACRP Research Report 236: Preparing Your Airport for Electric Aircraft and Hydrogen Technologies. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Liepa-Zemeša, M., and D. B. Hess. (2016). Effects of Public Perception on Urban Planning: Evolution of an Inclusive Planning System during Crises in Latvia. Town Planning Review. Vol. 87, No. 1: 71–92. doi.org/ 10.3828/TPR.2016.5. Lohn, A. (2017). What’s the Buzz? The City-Scale Impacts of Drone Delivery. RAND Corporation. doi.org/10.7249/ rr1718. Ludwig, D. A., C. R. Andrews, N. R. Jester-ten Veen, and C. Laqui. (2007). ACRP Report 1: Safety Management Systems for Airports. (Volume 1: Overview; Volume 2: Guidebook). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. Mallela, J., S. Sadasivam, R. Giordana, H. Kassoff, and S. Lockwood. (2020). NCHRP Report 750. Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 7: Preservation, Maintenance, and Renewal of Highway Infrastructure. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. McKinsey & Company. (2020). Rough Orders of Magnitude from Takeoff, Flying Vehicles First Need Places to Land. NASA. (2017). NASA Embraces Urban Air Mobility, Calls for Market Study. NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/aero/ nasa-embraces-urban-air-mobility. NASA. (2021a). NASA Begins Air Taxi Flight Testing with Joby. NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa- begins-air-taxi-flight-testing-with-joby. NASA. (2021b). Advanced Air Mobility National Campaign. NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/aamnationalcampaign.

References 103 NASA. (2021c). High-Density Automated Vertiport Concept of Operations. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/citations/ 20210016168. National Business Aviation Association (NBAA). (2021). U.S. House Hearing Examines Advanced Air Mobility Infrastructure Needs. https://nbaa.org/aircraft-operations/emerging-technologies/advanced-air-mobility- aam/u-s-house-hearing-examines-advanced-air-mobility-infrastructure-needs/. Neubauer, K., D. Fleet, F. Grosoli, and H. Verstynen. (2015). ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Nicholas, M. (2019). Estimating Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Costs Across Major U.S. Metropolitan Areas. Working Paper. The International Council on Clean Transportation. Reiche, C., A. P. Cohen, and C. Fernando. (2021). An Initial Assessment of the Potential Weather Barriers of Urban Air Mobility. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 22, No. 9: 6018–6027. doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2020.3048364. Reiche, C., R. Goyal, A. Cohen, J. Serrao, S. Kimmel, C. Fernando, and S. Shaheen. (2018). Urban Air Mobility Market Study. NASA. doi.org/10.7922/G2ZS2TRG. Richter, F. (2021). How Has the Aviation Industry Been Impacted by Coronavirus? World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/02/covid19-coronavirus-tourism-aviation-industry-decline. RTCA, Inc. (2017). Drone Access to Airports. https://www.rtca.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/dac_tg2_final_ reccomendations_11-17_update.pdf. Sands, G. (2019). DHS Plan to Shoot Down Drones near Airports Worries 2 Key Lawmakers. CNN Politics, November 20. https://www.cnn.com/2019/11/20/politics/shoot-down-drones-homeland-security-lawmakers/ index.html. Sataloff, R. T., M. M. Johns, and K. M. Kost. (2019). The Global Urban Air Mobility Project Report. https:// www.urbanairmobilitynews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Global-Urban-Air-Mobility-Report-7- March-2019.pdf. Shicong, D. (2020). EHang Plans World’s First Airport for AAVs in Chinese Beauty Spot. Yicai Global, April 23. https://www.yicaiglobal.com/news/ehang-plans-world-first-airport-for-aavs-in-chinese-beauty-spot. Smith, C. (2015). Amazon’s Delivery Drones Could Make 30-Minute Deliveries a Reality (and for a $1 Fee). Business Insider, April 15. https://www.businessinsider.com/delivery-fee-for-amazon-prime-air-2015-4. Stonor, C. (2021). Joby Aviation Collaborates with Largest Mobility Hub Operator in North America for Infrastruc- ture Partnership. Urban Air Mobility News, June 3. http://www.urbanairmobilitynews.com/air-taxis/9432/. Subin, S. (2021). Alphabet’s Drones Delivered 10,000 Cups of Coffee and 1,200 Roast Chickens in the Last Year. CNBC, August 25. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/08/25/alphabet-wing-drones-delivered-10000-cups-of- coffee-in-the-last-year.html. Tozzi, J. (2018). Air Ambulances are Flying More Patients than Ever, and Leaving Massive Bills Behind. Bloomberg, June 11. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-06-11/private-equity-backed-air-ambulances- leave-behind-massive-bills. Transportation Security Administration (TSA). (2004). Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports. Information Publication A-001, Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Transportation Security Administration (TSA). (2012). Checkpoint Design Guide, Revision 4.0. Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Transportation Security Administration (TSA). (2017). Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airport Opera- tors and Users. Information Publication A-001, Version 2, Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Transport Topics. (2021). Alphabet’s Wing Nears 100,000th Package Delivery. Transport Topics, August 25. https://www.ttnews.com/articles/alphabets-wing-nears-100000th-package-delivery. TransportUP. (2021). eVTOL Aircraft Complete Market Overview by TransportUP. https://transportup.com/ the-hangar/. United Nations. (2018). 68% of the World Population Projected to Live in Urban Areas by 2050, Says UN. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, May 16. https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/ news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html. Vincent, J., and C. Gartenberg. (2019). Here’s Amazon’s New Transforming Prime Air delivery drone. The Verge, June 5. https://www.theverge.com/2019/6/5/18654044/amazon-prime-air-delivery-drone-new-design- safety-transforming-flight-video. Waite, J. K. (2012). ACRP Legal Research Digest 14: Achieving Airport-Compatible Land Uses and Minimizing Hazardous Obstructions in Navigable Airspace. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). (2020). Washington Electric Aircraft Feasibility Study. Aviation Division, Washington State Department of Transportation.

104 Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective Williams, C. (2007). ACRP Synthesis 3: General Aviation Safety and Security Practices: A Synthesis of Airport Practice. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Winkenbach, M. (2019). Commentary: Drone-Delivery Projects Must Look beyond the Hype. The Wall Street Journal, November 27. https://www.wsj.com/articles/commentary-drone-delivery-projects-must-look- beyond-the-hype-11574875675. Winslow, R. (2007). Heart-Attack Survival Plan: Airlifting Patients to Surgery. The Wall Street Journal, August 3. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB118610452377986914. Wyman, O. (2018). Why the Use of Drones Still Faces Big Regulatory Hurdles. Forbes, September 10. https:// www.forbes.com/sites/oliverwyman/2018/09/10/why-the-use-of-drones-still-faces-big-regulatory-hurdles/ #68a083371c0d.

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Urban Air Mobility (UAM), or its generalized version, Advanced Air Mobility (AAM), is an emerging aerial transportation approach that involves the operation of highly automated aircraft for a safe and efficient system to transport passengers or cargo at lower altitudes of airspace within urban, suburban, and exurban areas. UAM initiatives are advancing in many communities and will likely bring many societal changes.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 243: Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective provides a comprehensive examination of the emerging UAM industry, with a particular focus on its impacts and opportunities for airports.

Supplemental to the report are an Airport AAM Preparation Checklist and a UAM Airport Assessment Toolkit.

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