National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 2 Relevant Data, Analytics, and Metrics for Infrastructure and Sustainability
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

3

Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure

This session explored both key methods and theory as well as practical considerations for investing in infrastructure and public works. Presenters merged these ideas through a joint panel.

3.1 MODELING AND ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR ENERGY JUSTICE

Destenie Nock, Carnegie Mellon University, began the discussion by proposing ways to incorporate justice principles into decision-making frameworks. She provided the following key definitions for a discussion of energy justice. Inequality occurs when access to opportunity is unequal; equality occurs when tools and assistance are evenly distributed; equity is achieved when custom tools address different inequalities; and justice is achieved by fixing systems to offer equal access to tools and opportunities. One method to achieve equity and equality in terms of model inputs and parameters would be to use representative samples of community residents or to survey community leaders. Nock explained that to achieve equity and equality of objectives, multiple stakeholders’ and community representatives’ viewpoints and values should be represented in the model objective function. Realizing distributional equity and equality of outputs requires understanding how the costs and benefits are shared across society.

To illustrate how these concepts influence decision making, Nock explored how decarbonization policies impact sustainability and equality

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

across the United States with consideration for trade-offs among cost, environmental sustainability, and distributional equity.1 She presented a tool for “forward-looking energy justice analysis” to help understand which decarbonization pathway might be the most equitable. First, different decarbonization scenarios are fed into an electricity system planning model, the outputs of which include generation and system costs and transmission and power plant investments. The next step is an environmental sustainability analysis using a reduced complexity air-pollution model, which reveals equality measures of different concentrations of air-pollution emissions across demographic groups and allows for a local environmental sustainability analysis. With the results of the electricity system planning model, one could consider how different investments in large-scale infrastructure translate to community-level impacts. Nock shared a map of U.S. regional particulate matter (PM) emissions in 2050: in the base case, 57 percent of the regions in the United States have the lowest PM emissions per capita. In other scenarios such as 100 percent renewable energy by 2035, significant improvements emerge, but the locations of the emissions shift east and questions arise about what factors drive that shift (e.g., biomass and storage technologies). These results can be linked to an equality analysis: looking at the emissions distributions across median income groups, the base case does not achieve equality objectives, as the highest emissions are in the low-income neighborhoods. Equality could be achieved in scenarios with 100 percent renewable energy and low carbon emissions by 2035; however, if the emissions targets are not reached in 2035 and timelines have to be extended to 2050, the inequities will continue. Thus, she emphasized that this forward-looking analysis framework helps to better understand the trade-offs that result from changing a target.

Nock proposed that as people model energy systems, they consider the following questions: What is your goal for equality or equity, and what aspect are you trying to investigate? Under existing paradigms, how might the costs and benefits of decarbonization be unequally distributed? How might different objectives and decision-maker viewpoints lead to different electricity configurations?

3.2 ROLE AND LIMITATIONS OF BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS

Joseph Cordes, The George Washington University, discussed the strengths and weaknesses of benefit-cost analysis (BCA) as a tool for

___________________

1 T. Goforth and D. Nock, 2022, “Inequality in Energy Transitions: Air Pollution Disparities Amidst National Decarbonization Strategies,” Nature Portfolio: In Review, https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1421061/v1.

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

evaluating public infrastructure investments. He explained that economic/social BCAs are intended to help determine whether the gain to society of a program/policy (measured in dollars) justifies the cost (measured in dollars) to society. Alternatively, financial BCAs are intended to help determine whether the financial benefits of a program/policy outweigh the financial cost. BCA does not provide an “answer” about whether infrastructure spending is worthwhile, but it offers useful information to compare options and make choices.

Cordes noted that traditionally, economic/social BCA is used for project analysis (estimating social cost of inputs and economic value of outcomes, and calculating social return on investment), but it can also be used as a social accounting framework (identifying effects on all stakeholders, translating these effects to monetary measures of social benefit or cost, and aggregating to arrive at the “social bottom line”). Both uses of economic/social BCA are meant to determine whether a program contributes to economic efficiency (i.e., whether the social benefits outweigh the social costs). These BCAs value outcomes and costs of achieving those outcomes in terms of a common money metric, and they provide a unified conceptual framework for defining and measuring social benefits and costs that cut across different types of public programs. They focus on benefits received and costs borne by individuals in defining social benefits and social costs. Cordes stressed that economic/social BCAs are not intended to apply business-like reasoning to public decisions. Furthermore, the process of BCA reasoning can be as valuable as the “bottom line,” and the monetary metric facilitates comparisons across different spending priorities (e.g., investing in roads versus investing in resilience).

Cordes acknowledged that economic/social BCAs also have limitations. Especially in the case of the environmental impacts of infrastructure spending, it is difficult to include all social benefits and costs (whether or not they are manifested in the marketplace). There can also be considerable uncertainty in the estimates of benefits and costs as well as issues in how to deal with the time dimension of public investment. He pointed out that the traditional application of BCA treats $1 of benefit or cost as having the same weight regardless of what group receives the benefits or bears the costs. All of these limitations are made more challenging in the context of decision making for urban sustainability infrastructure.

Cordes mentioned that implications for the application of BCA include approaches to estimating difficult-to-measure benefits and costs (e.g., benefit and cost transfer and contingent valuation), use of the social accounting framework in estimating and displaying benefits and costs, approaches for incorporating distributional effects (e.g., distributional weighting methods, displaying benefits and costs for different groups, or embedding BCA in a collaborative process to give voice to stakeholders),

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

increased reliance within the standard BCA framework on Monte Carlo methods to explore sensitivity of results to alternative assumptions and distributional weights, and use of alternative multidimensional optimization models to incorporate different criteria. He cautioned that when one thinks specifically about sustainable infrastructure investment, economic/social and financial BCAs produce different bottom lines.

Moving from theory to practice, Cordes indicated that BCA is one of several quantitative tools that could enhance the effectiveness of investments in urban sustainability infrastructure. Incorporating the more complex dimensions of urban sustainability into the evaluation of infrastructure projects is challenging—owing in part to demands on administrative data and for widely accessible yet complex analytical models—but the development of user-friendly software could be helpful (e.g., menu-driven desktop versions of optimization models).

3.3 INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT AND DECISION MAKING

Richard Ciccarone, Merritt Research Services, indicated that infrastructure investment sustains and advances urbanization, transportation, quality of life, and commerce. He reflected on the historical context of the value of infrastructure, noting that Rome’s failure to maintain its aqueducts was one reason the city could not manage water and sanitary services, which led to an exodus of people from the city and contributed to the decline of the empire. He cautioned that if the United States is not prepared to maintain, invest in, and grow its infrastructure—its “core asset”—significant problems could arise.

Using governmental accounting measures found in annual audits, Ciccarone observed that, since 2005, the overall average age of capital stock in U.S. cities, counties, and states has been steadily increasing, indicating a failure to reinvest and creating a problem in developing infrastructure for more sustainable cities. In the municipal bond transportation sector, in particular, the average age of capital stock varies. Airports have not maintained and updated their facilities such as runways and terminals enough to prevent the category’s overall aging, but toll roads have experienced an influx of new projects that has offset the sector’s overall age. Although the average age of capital stock for municipal utilities (water, sewer, electric) was steadily increasing, it has begun to plateau, suggesting a recent rise in capital spending. Continued investment could enable this level of service to continue.

Ciccarone said that while some forms of infrastructure are long-lasting, it is important to continue to build new infrastructure, which has its own expenses and challenges to maintain. He encouraged the use of

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

BCA to determine the most beneficial infrastructure investments amid concerns about climate change, technical advances, and globalization. However, he explained that without an immediate “crisis” on the horizon, elected officials often delay infrastructure investments. This hesitancy to invest in infrastructure also relates to growing fiscal pressures in municipal finance to fund pensions and post-retirement obligations, areas that have also long been neglected. These increased pressures create problems not only for elected officials but also for taxpayers. He maintained that even within periods of low interest rates, infrastructure projects did not increase significantly.

Ciccarone encouraged collaboration to prioritize investments in maintaining and building core infrastructure over more frivolous investments. He proposed the development of better measures and metrics for the municipal bond market and for elected officials to monitor their progress on existing and new infrastructure. Ratios and methods that consider the average age of capital stock as well as the liability that results when investments to properly maintain infrastructure are not made are also critical.

3.4 PITTSBURGH WATER AND SEWER AUTHORITY’S APPROACH TO DATA-DRIVEN INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT

Will Pickering, Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA), explained that because the population of the city of Pittsburgh is less than that for which the water and sewer system was designed, now is the time to right-size, renew, and focus on water quality. He noted that in 2016, the water quality results in Pittsburgh exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) lead action level. While in this exceedance state, EPA requires that 7 percent of lead service lines be replaced per year and that the utility improve its treatment to mitigate the amount of lead to which customers are exposed. Pittsburgh is now within and in some cases has surpassed the mandated lead standards. Pickering indicated that the goal is to replace all lead lines in the system by 2026, although lead service lines are only a small component of the system.

Pickering stated that, prior to 2016, data on lead service line locations in Pittsburgh were sparse. However, as part of the Lead Service Line Replacement (LSLR) program, the city now has ample data to determine which lead lines should be replaced first. LSLR areas were prioritized with the following criteria from a model based on data from the American Community Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau, the Allegheny County Health Department, and the PWSA Inventory: highest concentration of children under age 6 and women of childbearing age (40 percent model

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

weighting), high blood lead levels (40 percent model weighting), highest concentration of lead lines (10 percent model weighting), and income level (10 percent model weighting). To select project areas, neighborhoods were then ranked 1–5 each year in terms of priority level (see Figure 3-1).

Pickering described the Small Diameter Water Main Replacement Program as another example of using data for a prioritization model. Prior to 2018, only ~1 mile was replaced per year, but the goal is to replace ~15 miles per year, with a particular focus on hospitals, schools, and fire departments, which have the highest risk. Data were plotted in PWSA’s geographic information system (GIS) and geospatially located so that the appropriate water main replacement locations and limits could be identified efficiently. Water main replacement locations were scored and ranked based on criteria of lead and unknown service lines per mile (20 percent model weighting), water main break frequency (40 percent model weighting), and low fire flow areas (40 percent model weighting). Each segment of the water main received a score, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to optimize the weighting of the criteria. Based on these scores, water mains were ranked for replacement. Pickering emphasized that coordination with other projects and other city utilities is critical alongside these prioritization model results.

3.5 FUNDING AND INVESTMENT IN PRACTICE

Mayor Samuel Parham, City of Petersburg, Virginia, illustrates the need for systematic approaches to prioritized investments. Mayor Parham explained that infrastructure has been a long-standing problem in this 23-square-mile city. Even though infrastructure is critical to maintaining water and sewer systems, for example, it has been grossly underfunded because it is often viewed as less important than schools, police and fire departments, and street paving—until a crisis occurs. Over the past few decades, only piecemeal repairs have been made for much of the water and sewer system.

Mayor Parham noted that Petersburg was on the verge of bankruptcy in 2016 when Ampac Fine Chemicals expressed interest in purchasing an old pharmaceutical plant in the city. It became clearer to city leaders at that time just how poor the infrastructure had become. AMPAC made a significant investment to purchase the plant in partnership with Phlow Corporation, a company that received a federal grant to provide the national stockpile of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These initiatives could create an opportunity for Petersburg to capitalize on manufacturing, but infrastructure remains a significant barrier to success. For example, the water and sewer infrastructure at the Poor Creek Pump Station, built in the 1970s, has not received any significant upgrades and is at its

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Image
FIGURE 3-1 Darkest shaded neighborhoods are at highest risk and thus are prioritized for lead service line replacement. Areas without shading have already replaced their lines.
SOURCE: W. Pickering, PWSA, presentation to the workshop, July 13, 2022.
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

hydraulic capacity. Each time a water main break occurs, the operations of a local hospital are significantly affected. In order for the companies to be successful in their endeavor to revitalize the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in Petersburg, which requires high-pressure lines to conduct operations, the Poor Creek Pump station would need nearly $37 million in investments for upgrades.

Mayor Parham’s first step was to reach out to the state and federal governments to pursue grants that would help fund these major improvements. He also accessed Virginia Resources Authority Bonds in case no other funding came through. Recently, Governor Youngkin awarded the city $29 million for the Poor Creek water and sewer upgrades in direct support of the expansion of the pharmaceutical manufacturing business in Petersburg. Petersburg is also a finalist for a Build Back Better grant. Mayor Parham added that one of the reasons it has been so difficult to upgrade the Poor Creek infrastructure is because it runs through the Petersburg National Battlefield. The objective is to remove the water line from the battlefield and reroute it around the area. The improvements to Poor Creek also create opportunities for development on newly open land in Petersburg. Mayor Parham emphasized that providing new jobs and new businesses to a city is impossible without upgrading its infrastructure.

3.6 A UNIQUE APPROACH TO FUTURE-READY INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT

Jen Sanders, Dallas Innovation Alliance (DIA),2 remarked that Dallas–Fort Worth has more than 300 people moving to the region each day and was ranked in 2021 as having the second highest number of technology job postings nationally. She explained that a region is “smart” when technology, community, and data intersect to solve problems and improve quality of life, foster economic growth, and enhance resource efficiencies. Smart cities work across disciplines, departments, and problem sets to solve multiple problems with a single investment. DIA supports the City of Dallas in the design and execution of a smart city strategy by engaging the public, academic, and private sectors as well as community organizations to create innovative solutions for infrastructure problems. This freestanding, independent nonprofit allows for flexibility and speed-to-market, convening the best minds and moving pilots quickly to formal procurement under the guidance of public-sector partners.

Sanders pointed out that because more than 30 percent of North Texans cross county lines each day, a regional approach is critical to

___________________

2 For more information about the Dallas Innovation Alliance, see http://www.dallasinnovationalliance.com/, accessed August 28, 2022.

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

addressing aging infrastructure, extreme weather events and health crises, workforce pipeline and upskilling issues, population inflow, and technology implementation challenges and to creating the most connected, smart, and resilient region in the nation. Therefore, the North Texas Innovation Alliance facilitates strategic identification support of regional investments, opportunistic pilot opportunities, university research partnerships, and project repository and vendor vetting.

Sanders discussed three projects that have emerged from the region via partnership in the past several years. First, because Lake Cities, Texas, did not have the critical broadband infrastructure to serve their communities, these four small towns created a four-way interlocal agreement and request for proposal to maximize resources so that every resident, business, and government building will have a fiber connection. Second, an $82 million project funded with federal, state, local, bond, philanthropic, and private investments will address issues in infrastructure, mobility, economic development, health, and equity by creating the connective Southern Gateway Park over a key Dallas highway. Third, a shared investment in the electrification infrastructure will create a next-generation resilience hub and regional network in Dallas to address issues of equity, resilience, transportation, and emergency service.

3.7 DISCUSSION

Serving as session moderator, Monica Sanders, The Undivide Project and Georgetown University, asked how to ensure equitable investment in and locations for infrastructure. Nock replied that thinking about the systematic barriers that create inequities as well as having the tools and infrastructure in place to overcome those barriers is critical. She encouraged focusing on the distributional equity. Cordes suggested process-type measures, such as meetings among stakeholders, to supplement quantitative work. He also identified the need for better ways to incorporate equity into quantitative modeling and referenced Nock’s paper on benefit maximization as an example,3 which reveals the consequences to decision makers of different assumptions and objectives in the model. Nock elaborated that two frameworks were applied in her sub-Saharan Africa energy planning analysis: a decision maker who does not have equity as a concern in building a system and a decision maker who is focused solely on equity in building a system. The paper revealed that when equity is not

___________________

3 D. Nock, T. Levin, and E. Baker, 2020, “Changing the Policy Paradigm: A Benefit Maximization Approach to Electricity Planning in Developing Countries,” Applied Energy 264:114583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114583.

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

a concern, a large, centralized system is built; when equity is a primary concern, investments are made in distributed energy technologies.

Ciccarone explained that investments should be made before infrastructure is failing, cities need an appropriate tax structure to do so, and intergovernmental assistance is required. He mentioned that Youngstown, Ohio, and Dayton, Ohio, rank high in infrastructure owing to long-standing city income taxes, a portion of which is dedicated to capital improvements. Jennifer Sanders proposed that investments be allocated to the districts most in need of equitable infrastructure, based on current investment models, and that a concerted effort be made to convince elected officials to approve these budgets. If a budget needs to be equally distributed across a city instead, it will not be possible to achieve the appropriate weighting to support those parts of the city. She championed the “while we’re at it” approach for strategic public infrastructure improvement and investment. She also highlighted the value of leveraging both qualitative and quantitative data as well as asking community members for their feedback on those data to better understand data gaps. Mayor Parham added that public trust is key to achieving equitable infrastructure improvements, and engaging community members allows them to understand the problems. Pickering noted that normalizing the concept of equity is important. Day-to-day responsibilities of city leaders include not only making plans for engineering and repairs but also evaluating how rates are structured and developing programs to help people pay for services. He stressed that equity should be an organizational core value instead of just a buzz word, and an outside advocate could help to open lines of communication and to build community trust. Nock explained that increased feedback loops allow people to see how their information is used for decision making and how decisions translate into things they care about. She underscored the significance of easier-to-access tools and related training as well as more training for designers and implementers on how the tools affect communities so that people are not thought of as an “add-on.”

Monica Sanders posed a question about navigating intergovernmental investment and support. Mayor Parham explained that the Petersburg public works and engineering departments, who understood the extent of the infrastructure problems, began the process of exploring federal grants and developing a public–private partnership with the pharmaceutical companies. Pickering described the progress in Pittsburgh as a product of establishing intergovernmental relationships, with significant funding from low-interest loans federally funded and administered by the state. He encouraged decision makers to look beyond their sphere of influence to have greater impact and mentioned that Pittsburgh pursued amendments to state law to be able to fully replace lead lines rather than the

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×

required partial replacement. Jennifer Sanders agreed that infrastructure problems cannot be solved without intergovernmental cooperation, noting that Texas has a particularly challenging barrier in that the public sector cannot invest in new infrastructure until a company is located on Texas property. Ciccarone suggested that local areas have a stake in and be held accountable for infrastructure investments, although the ability to pay is still a barrier and a question remains about funding in the near term versus leaving funding for a future generation. Cordes reflected on the Rebuild America bond program as an effective way to subsidize state and local finance.

Monica Sanders inquired about ways in which important data are (or are not) accessible and useful for city decision makers. Cordes noted that data are key to introducing more sophisticated tools of analysis, although the tools could be more user-friendly to increase usability by local governments. Jennifer Sanders commented on the value of visualization, noting that Dallas developed its climate plan with interactive dashboards for the community. Ciccarone explained that Merritt Research Services is creating an academic clearinghouse for universities to access data. Nock explained that utilities would benefit from having a tool that aggregates data on household electricity loads and that giving homeowners data on real-time electricity pricing is meaningless; they are interested in data that show how behavior changes could reduce their bill each month. She emphasized that what data are valuable depends on who is making decisions and what those decisions are about. She added that private and academic partnerships would be beneficial to help evaluate the success of different infrastructure investments and deployments as would data and tools that look at the intersection of how infrastructure affects people’s lives. Pickering said that Pittsburgh experienced challenges related to data transparency, with an initial reluctance to share data in municipalities and concerns about privacy. However, data were placed in a searchable GIS-based map and shared with the local media (instead of being buried in an unfindable PDF on a website) to inform the community about the locations of lead lines. He suggested engaging third parties who could help with effective dissemination to the community through such tools.

Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 24
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 25
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 26
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26905.
×
Page 34
Next: 4 Decision Making for Infrastructure Investments »
Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop Get This Book
×
 Enhancing Urban Sustainability Infrastructure: Mathematical Approaches for Optimizing Investments: Proceedings of a Workshop
Buy Paperback | $24.00 Buy Ebook | $19.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The National Academies Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics and Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment convened a 3-day public workshop on July 13, 20, and 27, 2022, to explore state-of-the-art analytical tools that could advance urban sustainability through improved prioritization of public works projects. Invited speakers included people working in urban sustainability, city planning, local public and private infrastructure, asset management, and infrastructure investment; city officials and utility officials; and statisticians, data scientists, mathematicians, economists, computer scientists, and artificial intelligence/machine learning experts. Presentations and workshop discussions provided insights into new research areas that have the potential to advance urban sustainability in public works planning, as well as the barriers to their adoption. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!