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2023 A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 249 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Passenger Transportation â¢ Security and Emergencies Developing an Airport Program to Address Human Trafcking A GUIDE Damon Fordham High Street Consulting Denver, CO Mia Stephens Elise Emil Juliana Urrego The Cadmus Group LLC Arlington, VA Andrea Brandt Boyd, TX Jeri J. Cawelti Grapevine, TX Mark Crosby St. Louis, MO Meredith Dank New York, NY Mohamed Mattar Centerville, VA Sherry Saehlenou Seattle, WA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 249 Project 04-24 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69827-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2023931047 Â© 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifi- cations. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which pro- vide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 249 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell-Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 04-24 PANEL Field of Safety Mindy J. Price, Direct Effect Solutions, Pickerington, OH (Chair) Earlyne Alexander, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Chappelle Broome-Stevenson, Elevation! Services, LLC, Columbia, SC Vanessa D. Guyton, Consulting Experts & Associates, Blythwood, SC Donna Hubbard, Airline Ambassadors International, Union City, GA Hanni Stoklosa, HEAL Trafficking, Arlington, MA Elliott Black, FAA Liaison Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Lisa Caselli, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the staff at airports who piloted the guide and provided valuable review and input: Paine Field/Snohomish County Airport and San Antonio International Airport. Additionally, the authors are very grateful for the staff of Businesses Ending Slavery and Trafficking and The Avery Center, who reviewed the preliminary guide in order to âground truthâ the materials through a victim and survivor lens. The authors also thank the following individuals for providing input during phone interviews and focus groups: â¢ Mi Yung Park, Government Relations Director, A21 Campaign â¢ Caitlin Jenkins Watson, Global Victim Identification Coordinator, A21 Campaign â¢ Kailey Kelley, Survivor Services, A21 Campaign â¢ Nancy Rivard, President, Board of Directors, Airline Ambassadors International â¢ David Rivard, Member, Board of Directors, Airline Ambassadors International â¢ Kevin Murphy, Executive Director, Airport Law Enforcement Agencies Network â¢ Mar Brettmann, Chief Executive Officer and Executive Director, Businesses Ending Slavery and Trafficking â¢ Brandi Bynum, Interim Program Manager, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Blue Campaign â¢ John Kochan, Special Agent, U.S. Department of Homeland SecurityâHomeland Security Investigations, Human Trafficking DivisionâDallas â¢ Dave Klimek, Behavioral Analysis Unit Field Coordinator, Federal Bureau of InvestigationâDallas Division, Squad CR-8, Human Trafficking Investigations â¢ Hanni Stoklosa, Executive Director, HEAL Trafficking (continued on page vi)
ACRP Research Report 249: Developing an Airport Program to Address Human Trafficking: A Guide provides a comprehensive, yet scalable, process to help airports identify and respond to possible human trafficking activity at their facilities. The guide includes a primer and how-to guide, and a toolkit offers a series of resources and references that airports can use to develop a tailored program. The guide and companion resources will help airports respond to possible human trafficking activity in a sensitive, victim-centered manner. Human trafficking is defined as the recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services through force, fraud, or coercion for the pur- pose of involuntary servitude, debt bondage, or slavery. Human traffickers often use local, state, and national infrastructure and transportation systems, including all types of airports, to undertake these activities. By its very nature, trafficking is often difficult to detect, and responding to potential instances of trafficking in an airport setting remains challenging. Research was needed to help airports develop a cohesive approach to addressing human trafficking activities that could be occurring at their facilities. The research, led by the Cadmus Group, began with a review of current practices. Since airport staff must work with others within their organization as well as with numerous stake- holders to address trafficking, the research team conducted one-on-one interviews, focus groups, and other outreach with airports, nonprofit and advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industry organizations. The research team combined the results of these outreach efforts with their own expertise to identify effective practices that airports could consider imple- menting at their facilities; these are presented in the guide. The guide provides a primer that defines the nature and scope of human trafficking, communicates survivorsâ perspectives, identifies potential indicators of trafficking activity, and provides an overview of how airports can begin to address the issue. The guide then pro- vides a three-phased approach to help airports develop their own airport-specific programs. Phase 1 is geared toward establishing a new program, Phase 2 helps airports expand an exist ing program, and Phase 3 identifies comprehensive activities focused on data analysis, informa- tion sharing, program evaluation, and providing enhanced victim care. The toolkit and appendices provide numerous resources that airports can tailor and refer to as they establish and expand their human trafficking programs, and can be found on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for ACRP Research Report 249: Developing an Airport Program to Address Human Trafficking: A Guide. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
â¢ Ima Matul, Program Manager, National Survivor Network/Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking â¢ Elaine McCartin, Associate Director of Corporate Partnerships, Polaris Project â¢ Monica Krebs, Case Response Specialist, Polaris Project â¢ Megan Lundstrom, Director of Research, The Avery Center â¢ Nicole Bambas, Policy Advisor for International Trade and Human Trafficking, U.S. Department of Transportation â¢ Maha Alkhateeb, Transportation Research Analyst, U.S. Department of TransportationâOffice of International Transportation and Trade, Office of the Secretary â¢ Bridgette Carr, Clinical Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law Clinic â¢ Tracy Gilbert, Community Affairs Manager, HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport Department of Aviation â¢ Chad Aldridge, Operational Readiness, Activation, and Transition Manager, SeattleâTacoma Inter- national Airport â¢ Kristen Easterday, Director of Communications and Public Affairs, John Glenn Columbus International Airport â¢ Kara Underwood, Superintendent of Airport Operations, Paine Field/Snohomish County Airport â¢ Karina Tarnowska, Manager, General Aviation Airports, North Las Vegas Airport â¢ Daniel Kobeissi, Director of Security, Signature Aviation â¢ Robert Olislagers, Airport Director, Centennial Airport â¢ Sharlene Glover, Terrorism Liaison Officer, Centennial Airport â¢ Jeanne Olivier, Assistant Director, Security Operations and Programs Department, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey â¢ Maria Sheridan, Airport Manager, Teterboro Airport, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey â¢ Rick Thorne, Assistant Manager, Office of Airport Security, Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport â¢ Chris Cole, Airport Security Manager, San Antonio International Airport â¢ Desiree Curtis, Airport Security Project Manager, San Antonio International Airport â¢ Lieutenant David Bowman, Snohomish County Sheriff âs OfficeâAirport Unit, Paine Field/Snohomish County Airport â¢ Romona Fisher, Manager of Airport Security, RenoâTahoe International Airport â¢ Wassim Takriti, Vice President of Operations, Dining Division, Paradies LagardÃ¨re, HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport â¢ Steve Milburn, Property Manager, San Antonio International Airport â¢ Katherine Stone, Manager, General Aviation and Cargo Security Policy and Programs, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey â¢ Michael Spears, Advertising Project Planner, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport â¢ Beth Gehri, Facilitation Manager, United Airlines â¢ Eric McPherson, Security Supervisor, JetBlue Airways â¢ Darlyn Meador, Director of Flight Service Training, Recruitment, and Program Development, American Airlines â¢ Rory Copley, Senior Manager of Flight Service Program, American Airlines â¢ Glenn Gelfranda, Policies and Procedures Analyst, American Airlines â¢ Ana Hoover, Manager of Customs and Facilitation, Delta Air Lines â¢ Bob Morales, Manager of Corporate Safety, Security, and Compliance, Delta Air Lines â¢ Cari Smith Allen, Manager of Cabin Safety, Alaska Airlines Lastly, this publication would not have been possible without considerable contributions from the fol- lowing individuals, who worked on the project during their tenure with the prime contractor: Helen Chang, Oana Leahu-Aluas, and Pierce Schwalb. AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)
1 Summary P A R T I Primer 7 Introduction 8 Defining the Nature and Scope of Human Trafficking 11 Human Trafficking Regulations 12 Human Trafficking in an Airport Setting 13 Survivor Perspectives 16 Indicators of Human Trafficking at Airports 18 Important Considerations for Airport Staff 20 Roles and Responsibilities of Airport Personnel and Other Stakeholders 22 Developing an Airport Program to Address Human Trafficking 24 Example Practices at Airports 26 For More Information P A R T I I How-to Guide 29 Introduction 31 Phase 1 Foundational Program 31 Action Step: Determine Program Staffing 34 Action Step: Identify Partnerships and Victim Resources 37 Action Step: Select Indicators for Victim Identification 41 Action Step: Ensure Clear Reporting Protocols 47 Action Step: Develop Connections to Victim Support and Aftercare 50 Action Step: Implement Basic Awareness Program 54 Action Step: Provide Training for Key Staff 66 Action Step: Identify Funding and Resources 70 Phase 2 Expanded Program 70 Action Step: Undertake Needs Assessment 72 Action Step: Develop Organizational Plan/Strategy 78 Action Step: Issue Airport Policy 80 Action Step: Formalize Roles and Responsibilities 82 Action Step: Implement Advanced Awareness Program C O N T E N T S
89 Action Step: Expand Training to Secondary Staff 95 Action Step: Develop Interdiction Protocol and Formalize Jurisdictional Coordination 101 Action Step: Begin Data Collection Efforts 104 Phase 3 Comprehensive Program 104 Action Step: Provide Enhanced Victim Support and Aftercare 108 Action Step: Support Recovery Opportunities 110 Action Step: Undertake Data Analysis and Information Sharing 114 Action Step: Develop Mechanisms for Program Evaluation 117 References Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.