National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings (2023)

Chapter: Appendix A - Case Example/Interview Questionnaire

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Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Case Example/Interview Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26913.
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Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Case Example/Interview Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26913.
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Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Case Example/Interview Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26913.
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Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Case Example/Interview Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26913.
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Page 73

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70 Case Example/Interview Questionnaire A P P E N D I X A The following questions were used for the case examples completed as part of the synthesis. All case example participants were asked the questions in Category #1. Subsequent questions were asked on the basis of the marking category(ies) that were the focus of the case example. Category #1 - General Questions This category included general questions about apron/ramp markings at the airport. Questions/Discussion Topics • What unique apron/ramp marking practices do you utilize at your airport? • Have the apron/ramp markings at your airport ever caused confusion because they differ from apron/ramp markings at other airports? • In general, what are your biggest apron/ramp marking challenges? • What operational challenges have you tried to solve with the application of new apron/ramp markings? What was the result? Category #2 - Terminal Gate Area Markings This category focused on apron/ramp markings commonly found at terminal apron gates at commercial service airports. These markings include but are not limited to: • Gate designation markings • Lead-in lines • Pedestrian walkways • No parking areas • Designated GSE parking areas • Passenger boarding bridge markings • Engine/propeller hazard zones • Aircraft safety zone/envelope • Fuel hydrants/pits • Fire lanes/evacuation routes

Case Example/Interview Questionnaire 71 • What improvements would you like to make to your terminal gate apron markings? Why? • Have you modeled any of your existing terminal gate apron markings after marking practices identified at other airports? • How have you collaborated with the airlines and ground handlers on your terminal gate markings? • Is there an education program that conveys the meaning of terminal gate apron markings to new personnel? • Do you have any common-use gates at your airport? If so, are they marked differently than preferential-use or exclusive-use gates? • Do you have any specific markings on your terminal gate apron related to emergency response, fire protection/code, evacuation, security, etc.? Category #3 - Taxilane/Apron Markings This category focused on taxilane/apron markings used to direct aircraft to/from the movement area (runway, taxiways, etc.) and to/from aircraft parking positions (terminal gate, cargo apron, GA apron, etc.). These markings include but are not limited to: • Apron control markings • Surface-painted apron entrance point • Taxilane centerlines (sometimes in differing colors or patterns) • Max wingspan markings • Aircraft parking location or directional markings Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the taxilane/apron markings used at your airport to direct aircraft to/from the movement area and to/from aircraft parking areas? What are the common dimensions of these markings? • Were there any historic events or challenges that led to the taxilane/apron marking scheme that you use at your airport? • Do the markings follow the marking standards set forth in FAA AC 150/5340-1M: Standards for Airport Markings? If you have made any deviations from that standard, please describe why. • What type of collaboration/outreach has been completed related to your current taxilane/apron markings? Did you collaborate with the airlines or other users? FAA? Was a specific process utilized to establish the markings you have? • What challenges and benefits has your current taxilane/apron marking scheme presented? • What improvements would you like to make to your taxilane/apron markings? Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the common terminal apron markings utilized at your airport including their typical dimensions. • Describe the standards/processes utilized to establish your apron/ramp markings in the terminal gate area. • Do you have different markings between different gates? If so, why? • What specific challenges have you identified on your terminal gate apron that you have tried to address with markings? • What challenges and benefits has your current terminal gate apron marking scheme presented?

72 Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings • Lead-in line markings • Aircraft safety zone/envelope • Equipment and GSE parking areas • Power out, turn bar, and alignment line Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the hardstand markings used at your airport at these locations: Air carrier apron? GA apron? RON apron? Cargo apron? Other aprons? • What are the common dimensions of these markings? • Were there any historic events or challenges that led to the hardstand marking scheme that you use on each of these aprons at your airport? • What type of collaboration/outreach has been completed related to your current hardstand markings? Did you collaborate with the entities that utilize the hardstands? FAA? Was a specific process utilized to establish the markings you have? • What challenges and benefits has your current hardstand marking scheme presented? • What improvements would you like to make to your current hardstand apron markings? Category #5 - Deicing Apron Markings This category focused on apron markings associated with deicing aprons. These markings include but are not limited to: • Taxilane centerlines • Deicing pad identification markings • Vehicle safety zone markings Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the deicing apron markings used at your airport. • What are the common dimensions of these markings? • Do the markings follow the marking standards set forth in FAA AC 150/5300-14D: Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities? If you have made any deviations from that standard, please describe why. • What type of collaboration/outreach has been completed related to your current deicing markings? Did you collaborate with the entities that utilize the deicing pad? Was a specific process utilized to establish the markings you have? • What challenges and benefits has your current deicing apron marking scheme presented? • What improvements would you like to make to your current deicing apron markings? Category #4 - Aircraft Hardstand Markings This category focused on apron markings associated with aircraft hardstands (e.g., aircraft parking positions away from a passenger boarding bridge). This may include general aviation, cargo, Remain Overnight (RON) aprons, and air carrier parking areas. These markings include but are not limited to:

Case Example/Interview Questionnaire 73 Category #6 - Airside Roadway Markings This category focused on apron markings at airports associated with vehicle traffic. Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the airside roadway markings used at your airport. • What are the common dimensions of these markings? • Do the markings follow the marking standards set forth in FAA AC 150/5340-1M: Standards for Airport Markings? If you have made any deviations from that standard, please describe why. • What type of collaboration/outreach has been completed related to your current airside roadway markings? Was a specific process utilized to establish the markings you have? • What type of education program do you have in place to educate new drivers on your markings? Especially any unique markings. • What challenges and benefits has your current airside roadway marking scheme presented? • What improvements would you like to make to your current airside roadway markings? Category #7 - Helicopter/eVTOL/Electric Aircraft Markings This category focused on apron markings associated with helicopters and electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft. This may include but is not limited to: • Heliport/helipad identification markings • Touchdown/positioning circle (TDPC) marking • Touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF) marking • Final approach and takeoff area (FATO) marking • Taxiway centerline Questions/Discussion Topics • Briefly describe the heliport/helipad or eVTOL markings used at your airport. • What are the common dimensions of these markings? • Do the markings follow the marking standards set forth in FAA AC 150/5390-2C, Heliport Design? If you have made any deviations from that standard, please describe why. • What type of collaboration/outreach has been completed related to your current helicopter/eVTOL markings? Was a specific process utilized to establish the markings you have? • What challenges and benefits has your current helicopter/eVTOL marking scheme presented? • What improvements would you like to make to your current helicopter/eVTOL markings?

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In the absence of comprehensive guidelines related to standards for surface apron and ramp markings, airports have worked with their specific stakeholder groups (such as airlines and ground crews) to develop unique apron and ramp marking practices that meet their operational needs. Consequently, variations are seen in apron and ramp markings at airports across the United States.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 122: Airfield Apron and Ramp Surface Markings documents airport apron and ramp marking variations at U.S. airports.

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