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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27029.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2023 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1026 Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems Richard Miller Bahram Shahrooz Abdullah Haroon University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH Eric Steinberg Waleed Hamid Alexander Chlosta Caleb Slyh Ohio University Athens, OH Subscriber Categories Highways • Bridges and Other Structures • Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1026 Project 12-95A ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69842-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2023934295 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS e authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Rachel Chicchi, T. J. Brown, and Sam Blesi from the University of Cincinnati; and Greg Wirthlin from AG Engineering & Contracting. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1026 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Ahmad Abu-Hawash, Senior Program Ocer Sheila A. Moore, Program Associate Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Kathleen Mion, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-95A PANEL Field of Design—Area of Bridges William L. Oliva, Madison, WI (Chair) Michael J. Gettings, Delaware Department of Transportation, Dover, DE Victoria E. McCammon, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX Joseph R. Merth, Parametrix, Puyallup, WA David E. Musser, CONSOR Engineers, Rocky Hill, CT Maura Sullivan, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Boston, MA Reggie H. Holt, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1026: Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems presents design and construction guidelines for adjacent precast concrete box beam bridge systems. e report suggests important revisions for consideration by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ocials (AASHTO) in the next update of the AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specications and the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specications. e research ndings will be used by struc- tural engineers responsible for designing bridges at state departments of transportation. Bridges constructed with adjacent precast prestressed concrete box beams have been in service for many years and provide an economical solution for short and medium span bridges. A recurring problem is cracking in the longitudinal grouted joints between adjacent beams, resulting in reective cracks forming in the asphalt wearing surface or concrete deck. e cracking appears to be initiated by, but not limited to, stresses caused by tempera- ture gradients, live loads, transverse post-tensioning, or grout shrinkage. Once the cracking has occurred, chloride-laden water can penetrate the cracks and cause corrosion of the rein- forcement and prestressing strand. NCHRP Synthesis 393: Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridges: Connection Details reported a wide variety of practices used by state highway agencies for the connection details between adjacent box beams. ese practices include partial-depth or full-depth grouted keyways, keyways grouted before or aer transverse post-tensioning, prepackaged or non- prepackaged grout materials, post-tensioned or non-tensioned transverse ties, a wide range of applied transverse post-tensioning forces, and cast-in-place concrete decks or no decks. A few states reported that their practices had reduced the longitudinal cracking, whereas others had not been successful in using similar practices. In 2014, FHWA conducted an extensive evaluation of the use of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) connections for adjacent box beam bridges to address the connection per- formance. In fact, the FHWA-developed UHPC connections have been used by some states. Under NCHRP Project 12-95A, “Proposed AASHTO Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems,” the University of Cincinnati research team was asked to develop guidelines for the design and construction of various adjacent precast box beam bridge systems to enhance the performance of connections and bridge service life and to pro- pose design and construction specications. e evaluation utilized nite element computer simulations and full-scale testing to validate the results. e proposed modied connection details are designed to address past performance issues such as bond failure, cracking, and leaking joints. F O R E W O R D By Ahmad Abu-Hawash Staff Ofcer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, gures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. e electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Statement of the Problem 7 Chapter 2 Research Approach 7 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Literature Review 10 2.3 Analytical Modeling 13 2.4 Full-Scale Testing of the System 19 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 19 3.1 Introduction 19 3.2 Findings of the Analytical Work 24 3.3 Physical Test Results 30 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 30 4.1 Conclusions 31 4.2 Suggestions for Implementation 32 4.3 Suggestions for Future Research 33 Appendix A Suggested Details for Shear Keys 35 Appendix B Finite Element Analyses 59 Appendix C Experimental Program 127 Abbreviations 128 References C O N T E N T S

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Bridges constructed with adjacent precast prestressed concrete box beams have been in service for many years and provide an economical solution for short and medium span bridges. A recurring problem is cracking in the longitudinal grouted joints between adjacent beams, resulting in reflective cracks forming in the asphalt wearing surface or concrete deck.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 1026: Guidelines for Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Systems presents guidelines developed for the design and construction of various adjacent precast box beam bridge systems to enhance the performance of connections and bridge service life and to propose design and construction specifications.

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