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Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27055.
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5-1 Chapter 5 Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5.1 Introduction There are several opportunities to integrate pollinator conservation measures into transportation projects during the planning and project development processes. Early stages of project planning provide opportunities to avoid the most sensitive habitats, project design allows for inclusion of pollinator-friendly roadside features, and project construction provides opportunities to minimize construction impacts on pollinators and to integrate pollinator habitat into projects. From relatively small roadway improvement projects to major new transportation infrastructure projects, awareness and integration of these opportunities can provide important pollinator conservation benefits. This chapter outlines the transportation planning and project development process and highlights opportunities to include pollinators and their habitat needs in the planning, design, and construction processes. This chapter provides examples to guide planners, designers, and construction personnel on when and how pollinator conservation and federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) compliance can be effectively integrated into transportation planning and transportation project development processes. Some of the steps presented focus more on the larger biology of pollinators and would be completed by the environmental team or through a larger regional science effort. For example, planners, designers, and construction personnel would not be responsible for developing detailed knowledge of pollinator species; they would be expected to reach out to biologists from their agency for that information at the points in the process that have been highlighted for them. To make this chapter more useful for planners, designers, and construction personnel, call-out boxes are included identifying specific steps and actions that apply to each of these phases and specialties, and identifying when to coordinate with local environmental and biology staff. 5.2 Transportation Planning and Project Development Transportation agencies are charged with meeting the transportation needs of their community. Meeting this goal requires utilizing a multi-step approach to ensure that a community’s needs are identified and addressed. This chapter was developed using the following general definitions of the Transportation Planning and Project Development portions of the process. Transportation planning is the process of identifying transportation needs and establishing plans for infrastructure development to meet those needs. Transportation planning occurs at the local, regional, and state levels and generally includes identifying and prioritizing projects needed to maintain and improve transportation networks and achieve specific transportation goals. Transportation planning includes identifying the modes of

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-2 transportation needed, types of projects, and locations where projects are needed to meet transportation goals. • Local and regional transportation planning agencies develop Transportation Improvement Programs (TIPs). • Regional Transportation Improvement Programs (RTIPs) identify projects to meet the identified transportation needs. • Statewide Transportation Improvement Programs (STIPs) contain projects compiled and prioritized from TIPs. STIPs contain preliminary project descriptions, overall project cost estimates (including cost of environmental studies, permits, mitigation, and construction), funding sources, and identification of lead agencies for design, construction, and environmental compliance. STIP projects are congruent with Federal Transportation Acts goals. Other transportation planning programs are associated with state highway operations, roadway maintenance, rehabilitation, and safety programs, all of which generally relate to maintenance of transportation infrastructure. The inclusion of pollinator-friendly practices in roadway maintenance is addressed in Chapter 6. Transportation planning occurs in both long-range (20+ years) and short-range planning horizons (e.g., 4-year STIP programs). Long-range transportation planning provides programmatic-level goals, standards, and prioritization strategies for transportation system development and serves as the foundations for the development of the TIPs (Figure 5-1). Transportation project development is the multi-phase process of initiating, designing, and delivering a specific transportation project. This process generally involves project initiation, environmental studies, project design, and construction (Figure 5-2). Figure 5-1. Integration of pollinators into long-range transportation planning.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-3 Figure 5-2. Integration of pollinators into transportation project development and implementation. 5.3 Integrating Pollinator Conservation into Transportation Planning and Project Development There are a variety of opportunities throughout the transportation planning and project development processes to identify, develop, and implement actions that support the conservation of pollinator habitat and pollinator species. To ensure sufficient funding and integration of pollinator conservation strategies into transportation project planning and development, it is important that planners, project managers, and designers consider and incorporate environmental data and conservation needs at the appropriate phases throughout planning and project development. Several tools have been developed to improve conservation outcomes in the transportation planning and project development processes. A well-known example is the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Eco-Logical approach, which organizes currently available methods and tools that support systematic and step-wise inclusion of natural resource considerations throughout the transportation planning and project delivery processes. Such frameworks ensure timely identification of natural resources and constraints, impact avoidance, impact minimization, and compensatory mitigation needs. They also provide opportunities to establish programmatic approaches to recurring issues that are implemented at the project level. If transportation planners are using one or more of these available tools, then consideration of pollinators can readily be integrated into those steps that address natural resources, focal species, environmental regulation, and mitigation. Important actions that support successful integration of pollinator conservation into both transportation planning and project development include the following: 1. Identification of partners and stakeholders, along with an understanding of their wants and needs (see Chapter 11, Communication Support). 2. Collaboration and coordination with partners and stakeholders early and often. 3. Development of a detailed local and regional understanding of the ecology, conservation status, and regulatory requirements for “focal pollinators” (species that

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-4 are of particular conservation concern, such as monarch butterflies or other imperiled species) potentially affected by the project. This is best done with assistance from state, federal, or other biologists that have expertise with focal species (see also Chapter 3, Imperiled Pollinator Profiles). 4. Understanding pollinator-friendly design elements and opportunities to include them in project design and construction (Chapter 2, Pollinator Biology and Roadsides, and Chapter 7, Revegetation and Pollinators: Design and Implementation). 5. Understanding how project implementation may affect focal species, pollinators generally, and conservation objectives. It is also important to recognize potential positive and negative impacts. 6. Identification and prioritization of avoidance and minimization measures for potential negative effects on pollinators generally and/or on specific pollinators of concern (focal pollinators). 7. Development of a pollinator mitigation strategy to offset negative effects of roadside construction and maintenance on pollinators, and a pollinator conservation strategy to enhance pollinator habitat value (Chapter 4, Native Pollinators and the Federal Endangered Species Act: Compliance Strategies for State Departments of Transportation, Chapter 6, and Chapter 7). 8. For federally listed species, development or use of programmatic permits and agreements when appropriate (Chapter 4). 9. Tracking environmental commitments to ensure that pollinator-friendly conservation measures are implemented and that avoidance, minimization, and mitigation measures are implemented. 10. Monitoring outcomes to document the actual benefits to pollinators, including focal pollinators, and implementing adaptive management to improve outcomes as needed (see Chapter 9, Surveys, Monitoring Strategies, and Habitat Assessments). Implementation of these actions facilitates early inter- and intra-agency collaboration, stakeholder coordination, improved regional conservation outcomes, and increased efficiencies of project development cost and schedule. Early implementation benefits include: • improved environmental planning and regulatory predictability, • streamlined permitting and environmental review processes, • lower risk to total project cost and schedule, and • improved project and environmental outcomes. How can this be implemented? Planners: Integrate pollinators through steps 1, 2, 3 (work with transportation agency biologists), and 5. Designers: Integrate pollinators through steps 2, 3 (work with the project biologist), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Construction managers: Integrate pollinators through steps 4, 5, 6, and 9.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-5 5.3.1 Federal Endangered Species Act Conservation Responsibilities It should be noted here that, as discussed in Chapter 4, the federal ESA Section 2(c) of 16 U.S.C. 1531 states as policy, that “all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of this Act.” Similarly, Section 7(a)(1) states, “[a]ll other Federal agencies shall, in consultation with and with the assistance of the Secretary, utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of this Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered species and threatened species listed pursuant to section 4 of this Act.” It should be noted that such policy only applies to those state departments of transportation (DOTs) with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Assignment (23 USC 326 & 327). In the context of transportation planning and project development, this includes responsibilities to conserve (i.e., recover) listed species, as policy, and not only in the context of regulatory requirements. 5.3.2 How to Include Pollinators in Transportation Planning This section provides additional guidance on the types of actions that can be implemented during each transportation planning phase to effectively incorporate pollinator conservation into transportation projects, and focuses on how transportation planners can incorporate pollinator considerations into short- and long-term transportation plans at the local, regional, and statewide scales. Incorporating consideration of pollinators early in planning will increase the likelihood of effective conservation. Long-Range Transportation Planning Long-range transportation planning involves developing long-term (e.g., 20+ year) transportation policy and plans. Such long-range transportation plans (LRTPs) are built upon an overarching policy framework and include guiding principles, objectives, and strategies. LRTPs do not contain details about specific projects but do address the recommended mode of transportation for a region. The long-range transportation planning process typically includes outreach and engagement with partners such as state and federal agencies, tribal governments, stakeholders, and the public. Input gathered during the outreach and engagement processes may be used to develop the guiding principles and strategies implemented to achieve objectives. Environmental stewardship is a common guiding principle in many LRTPs and each plan has the opportunity to develop objectives and strategies aimed at improving environmental outcomes and conservation, including objectives specifically targeting pollinator conservation. Pollinator conservation opportunities that exist within the long-range transportation planning phase include opportunities for stakeholder and public input on incorporating natural resource protection and conservation into the guiding principles, objectives, and strategies. Early consideration and integration of robust and inclusive environmental objectives and strategies will support pollinator conservation efforts later in the short-range transportation planning and project development processes. Incorporating pollinator conservation goals into the planning and design process can help lead to successful projects that support pollinators along roadsides, such as this roadside planting in Arizona. Photo Credit: Luis Colon/Arizona DOT

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-6 Regional and Local Long-Range Transportation Planning Regional and local long-range transportation planning may occur within regional planning efforts such as Transportation Systems Plans (TSPs) and general plans. A TSP describes the transportation system and outlines projects, programs, and policies to meet its needs now and in the future based on the goals and aspirations of the community it serves. Regional transportation planning may also be conducted as part of county and city general plans (e.g., transportation elements). A general plan is a broad planning guideline to a county or city’s future goals and provides policy statements to achieve those goals. A general plan transportation element will outline the transportation facilities and projects needed to support planning goals and objectives. Pollinator conservation opportunities that exist within the regional and local long-range transportation planning phase include opportunities for stakeholder and public input on incorporating natural resource protection and conservation into the guiding principles, objectives, and strategies. Given that, at this phase, additional details are known about potential proposed projects, more specific information may be available to foresee potential impacts and support pollinator conservation. This can include opportunities for public, stakeholder, and agency input on specific projects and environmental stewardship objectives, and identification of sensitive biological resources and constraints. Having this information available can facilitate substantiation of a project’s purpose or influence the location, extent, or cost of a project, and may also improve integration of environmental stewardship and help avoid impacts, as well as reduce unforeseen project constraints and costs. Additionally, this may be an appropriate stage to consider regional impacts of such plans and the appropriateness of proactive ESA compliance, advanced mitigation programs (e.g., California Department of Transportation [Caltrans] statewide advance mitigation program [Caltrans 2019]), or regional Habitat Conservation Plans (see Chapter 4). It should be noted, however, that such approaches may be considered and implemented at any time. Short-Range Planning Short-range transportation planning involves development of short-term (e.g., 4 years) TIPs that identify a list of specific transportation improvement projects. Projects contained in TIPs are prioritized based on transportation needs and congruent with LRTP objectives. Because TIPs include a list of specific projects, general information on the project purpose, type, location, extent, and cost are included. Community engagement and public outreach are required components for local, regional, tribal, and state TIPs, and all projects are presented to the public prior to being included in an RTIP or STIP. Pollinator conservation opportunities that exist within the short-range transportation planning phase include opportunities for public, stakeholder, and agency input on specific projects and environmental stewardship objectives, which may substantiate a project’s purpose or influence the location, extent, or cost of projects. For example, if a specific project is proposed and is likely to negatively impact a pollinator species or habitat, comments may be received from stakeholders, the public, and/or a regulatory/resource agency stating as such and providing input on avoiding and minimizing such impacts. Planners: Ask the project biologist or environmental team which considerations are important for local species. • Are there areas that are particularly beneficial or necessary? • Will there be project features to benefit pollinators that can be identified at this point?

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-7 Early consideration and integration of public, stakeholder, and agency input may improve identification of sensitive biological resources and constraints, and can improve integration of environmental stewardship, help avoid impacts on sensitive resources, and reduce unforeseen project constraints and costs. Not all areas may be suitable for the creation of pollinator habitat. Likewise, creation of pollinator habitat in some areas may have much greater value for pollinators than habitat created in other areas. For example, roadside habitat that increases habitat connectivity or connects to important natural areas may contribute to the conservation of imperiled species. Creating regional maps that identify high-, medium-, and low-priority areas for pollinator revegetation projects may streamline choices about habitat creation in later phases and help to make decisions about where to allocate limited funds. Box 5-1 gives an overview of the different factors that can help determine whether an area should be prioritized for revegetation projects supporting pollinators (see Chapter 7 for more detail). Box 5-1. Prioritizing sites for pollinator habitat The following considerations can be used to guide prioritization of sites for pollinator habitat. Planners • Roadside width: Wider sites are preferred; they support greater numbers and a higher diversity of pollinator species. • Road density: Sites should not be isolated within areas of high road density in which there are multiple barriers to pollinator movement (e.g., a cloverleaf median off an interstate interchange in an urban area). • Visibility to the public: Sites that are more visible to the public may be important for DOT goals, including public awareness and education. • Traffic density: Sites along roads with higher traffic density may be less desirable for pollinators. However, these roads often have wider rights-of-way and are more visible to the public. Biologists • Presence of focal pollinator species: Is a listed or imperiled pollinator species known to be in the vicinity or was one previously found at the site? • Landscape connectivity: Does the site improve connectivity of existing habitat within the landscape? For example, is the site near or connected to a natural area (e.g., state park, national forest, nature preserve)? Or does it connect with existing high-quality roadside vegetation? • Landscape diversity: Is the site in an area important to the focal pollinator species and in a landscape in which habitat is scarce, and therefore where roadside habitat would be particularly valuable to pollinators? For further evaluation of existing habitat or prioritization, see the Roadside Pollinator Habitat Assessment Guide in Chapter 9. 5.3.3 How to Include Pollinators in Transportation Project Development This section provides guidance on including opportunities for pollinator conservation and pollinator-friendly best practices into the project development process, as well as opportunities to implement avoidance, minimization, and mitigation measures.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-8 Incorporating pollinator considerations and identifying funding to implement project features to meet pollinator needs will increase the likelihood of effective conservation. See Table 5-1 for a summary. Project Initiation It is important to ensure that adequate estimation and identification of potential environmental resource impacts; avoidance, minimization, and mitigation strategies; environmental and regulatory constraints; schedule restrictions; and funding needs are included in the Project Initiation Document because it can be challenging to incorporate these during subsequent project development phases and not doing so may result in inadequate project funding. The project initiation phase involves development of a detailed project description that includes the project purpose and need, project limits, project alternatives, environmental constraints and permits, level of environmental document needed (e.g., NEPA Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement), project schedule, inter-agency coordination needed, and project cost, all reported in the Project Initiation Document. This phase culminates in an approved, programmed, and funded transportation project. Note: When developing the Project Initiation Document, it is important to collaborate with DOT environmental staff to ensure that inclusion of measures and project elements that benefit pollinators are considered from the outset. Because detailed project information (e.g., detailed project description and location) is being developed in this initiation phase, conservation opportunities and considerations may be more specific. Once project details emerge, potential impacts on focal pollinators or sensitive habitats can be identified. Conservation strategies may be developed and coordinated with the project development team, and funding for anticipated avoidance, minimization, and mitigation may be identified and detailed. This is the stage where it is important to incorporate conservation strategies for pollinators such as habitat avoidance and enhancements into the project description and conceptual design. It is important to coordinate with the project biologist to identify the pollinators of concern and project features needed to address the concerns for those species. During this phase, it is useful to review any maps or lists of sites that have been flagged as important for pollinator conservation (following the considerations provided in Box 5-1), to recognize where additional enhancements and mitigation measures are needed and to ensure that pollinator conservation activities take place in high-priority sites. This is a key phase for recognizing and incorporating the needs of imperiled pollinators. By accounting for pollinators in this phase, their needs will be included in the project budget and in mitigation or avoidance strategies. Environmental Studies and Review The environmental review phase involves detailed environmental research and field studies. This can include surveys documenting the pollinator community, including imperiled pollinators, and important pollinator habitat that may occur in the project area. This is also the phase where potential project-related impacts on focal pollinators and/or pollinators and their habitat generally are identified, along with strategies for avoidance, Design team: Utilize preliminary environmental analysis reports for information regarding pollinator habitat to avoid and design features to include to benefit local species. Coordinate with the project biologist or environmental team for more information.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-9 minimization, and mitigation. This phase identifies all environmental permitting and compliance needs, and includes the opportunity for public input prior to finalizing studies and reports. Federal ESA compliance is also conducted at this time and needs to be finalized before the phase is completed (see Chapter 4 for more information on ESA compliance). If the project will potentially impact a focal pollinator species, the environmental studies and review phase is the best time to initiate early and frequent coordination with state and federal resource agencies, and to begin consultations with species experts. During this phase detailed biological resource inventories and impact analyses for focal pollinators are also conducted (see Chapter 9). This is the phase to work with biologists to develop project- specific avoidance, minimization, and mitigation measures. Such measures could include guidance on avoiding habitat impacts, specifications for avoiding soil compaction during construction, and plant lists for revegetation. In creating plant lists for revegetation, it is important to include key plants used by any focal pollinators in the project area, such as important host plants or nectar plants. Even where there is no focal pollinator driving the revegetation project, using native plants will ensure that the roadside habitat is more beneficial to pollinators than revegetation using non-native plants (see Chapter 7). It is important to consider the landscape context of the revegetation project. Using information collected during an inventory or vegetation assessment to develop a landscape connectivity map of the project area and adjacent lands that locates areas of high, medium, and low pollinator habitat qualities can be a base for designing a revegetation plan that improves pollinator habitat within a larger landscape connectivity context. If pollinator resources (such as floral diversity, nectar sources, host plants, and nesting sites) are limited, it can be helpful to prioritize high floral diversity and cover and other factors that influence pollinators for projects that link or act as stepping stones between existing habitats on private, municipal, state, or federal lands (see Box 5-1 and Box 5-2 for additional guidance). Corridors with high-quality habitat support more butterfly species, including specialist species, and population persistence (Habel et al. 2020). It is also important to prioritize those projects that can increase the connectivity of existing roadside habitat. If remnant roadside habitat exists, for example, it would be very beneficial if revegetation projects with high plant diversity were installed adjacent to or nearby. The comprehensive assessment of pollinator habitat found in Chapter 9 includes a category that evaluates the roadside within the context of the larger landscape and a category that evaluates possible threats to pollinators from the adjacent road and surrounding land. The scores from those categories can help to guide choices about prioritizing projects that emphasize an objective to improve habitat for imperiled pollinators. Box 5-2. Habitat prioritization for monarchs A habitat prioritization model was developed by the Monarch Joint Venture and research partners to help DOTs assess roadsides for monarch butterfly habitat (with funding through the Transportation Research Board’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) as part of NCHRP Research Report 942). The model can help managers assess potential areas of habitat along roads in their state or identify where habitat could be developed. More information about the model can be found at: https://monarchjointventure.org/mjvprograms/science/roadsidehabitat/habitat- prioritization-model

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-10 Design (Plans, Specification, and Estimates) The design phase includes the development of detailed design plans and specifications as well as construction cost estimates. This includes, for example, structural, roadway, utility, and landscaping design details as well as any agreements and permits needed to construct the project. Before completion of the design phase the project design and specifications need to be confirmed to ensure they are consistent with environmental commitments. If measures benefiting pollinators are to be included, the design plan standard specifications need to explicitly include measures that help to avoid and/or minimize negative impacts of the project on focal pollinators. Consult environmental and maintenance DOT staff to confirm that measures are appropriate and feasible. This is also the stage where detailed revegetation (e.g., ornamental landscaping, habitat restoration) plans are incorporated into the project design (see Chapter 7 for more information on design and implementation of revegetation projects). Incorporating native plants whenever possible will benefit pollinators generally. Designers should coordinate and collaborate with maintenance teams during this planning phase. Maintenance staff can inform long-term maintenance strategies of planned vegetation and can offer advice on weed control before, during, and after construction. In addition to project design plans and specifications, construction cost estimates are included in this phase. It is important to include accurate cost estimates for construction of project components and landscaping plans to ensure adequate project funding and to reduce contract change orders during construction. During the project design phase (e.g., 60 percent design) environmental regulatory permits are applied for. Once permits are received, integration of any required compensatory mitigation is integrated into project design plans. Construction This phase involves the construction of a project including ground disturbance, vegetation removal, and grading, followed by associated erosion control and landscaping or habitat enhancement (revegetation). Construction can have a variety of negative impacts on pollinators. However, construction projects may also present opportunities to engage in revegetation projects, creating habitat to support pollinators. Construction projects can cause habitat loss and habitat fragmentation (breaking up of habitat into smaller, more isolated patches; see Box 5-3). Construction can also reduce the availability of important host plants and floral resources in an area. Additionally, soil compaction around the construction site may make the area less habitable for some species of ground nesting bees, and construction may increase the spread of invasive plants if equipment is not properly cleaned when moved between sites. Construction projects present an opportunity to engage in high quality (Box 5.x) revegetation that will support pollinators. that will support pollinators. Photo Credit: Washington DOT Design Team: Ensure that all environmental commitments, including those to benefit pollinators, are included in the final design and bid package. This is a critical step in implementing all the planning and design work to benefit pollinators.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-11 Box 5-3. Habitat loss and pollinators Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are leading causes of declines in pollinators. Habitat loss occurs when some part of the habitat is transformed into another type of habitat or land use. Larger habitat patches can support more individuals and more species than smaller habitat patches. Larger populations are less vulnerable to extinction than smaller populations. Larger populations also generally have higher amounts of genetic diversity, enabling them to adapt to environmental changes. When habitat is lost, important microhabitats may also be lost. Habitat loss can lead to reductions in the overall abundance of important host plants or floral resources that can further lead to reductions in pollinator populations. Habitat fragmentation occurs when a larger habitat patch is broken up into smaller, more isolated patches. Building roads through intact habitat leads to habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation changes the characteristics of the remaining habitat patches so that the patches contain more edge habitat than core habitat, which reduces the abundances of species that rely on core habitat. Habitat fragmentation can also increase the spread of invasive species. It is important to remember that once habitat is destroyed, it is very difficult and expensive to restore. Therefore, it is best to avoid habitat loss and habitat fragmentation whenever possible, especially for habitat used by imperiled species. Some species are very sensitive to habitat disturbance and can only be found in high-quality, undisturbed habitat. Two such species are the Poweshiek skipperling and the Dakota skipper. These federally threatened grassland butterflies require high-quality, unplowed prairie habitat. Prairie restoration efforts have had little success in creating new habitat for these species. When dealing with construction projects that occur inside the habitat of listed species, consult with biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to create a plan that will minimize impacts on the listed species (see Chapter 4 for more information about ESA compliance). Also, consult with state or federal biologists when working in habitat of non-listed imperiled species. Management focused on particular species must be tailored to the biology of those species. However, there are some general recommendations for reducing impacts of construction projects on pollinators, including imperiled species, as listed below. Note that implementation of these recommendations may not be feasible, cost effective, or warranted in some cases, and careful planning and consideration should be given prior to their implementation. • Invest in high-quality revegetation efforts along the roadside (see Chapter 7 for more information). While some imperiled species may not be able to breed in these areas, the revegetated habitat may provide foraging habitat for targeted imperiled species. • On roads with high traffic density, consider increasing the width of mown strip in the recovery area (e.g., from one to two mower swaths, or up to 20 feet) to reduce pollinator exposure to chemicals associated with roadsides, when practical (see Chapter 6 for more information). • Think long term about maintenance in revegetated areas so that the habitat continues to be valuable to pollinators. When planning a construction project, take the biology of the imperiled species into consideration. What is high-quality pollinator roadside habitat? High quality revegetation projects are those that prioritize usage of native plants and high plant diversity, including an abundance of flowering plants that provide pollen and nectar or act as host plants for butterflies.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-12 • For short-term construction, plan construction activities so that they do not occur during sensitive times for the species. • For long-term construction, plan construction phases or specific activities so that they do not occur during sensitive times for the species. • Construction practices can reduce the amount of floral resources available before revegetation is implemented. Be careful to time removal of floral resources to periods when they are not needed by the imperiled species. • Rope off sensitive areas to prevent damage during the construction process. • Salvage existing vegetation whenever possible. • Control noxious and invasive plants during the construction phase to facilitate revegetation afterward. Design-Bid-Build vs. Design-Build Design-Bid-Build and Design-Build are two methods of designing and implementing planned transportation projects. Design-Bid-Build is the more traditional method for designing and implementing a project. In this process, the design is completed to a high degree, and environmental compliance documents and permits are completed and obtained prior to putting the project out to bid and going to construction. Design-Build is intended as a more streamlined design and construction process where the project proponent solicits bids at a much lower level of project design with the intention of the contractor finishing both the design and build of the project at an accelerated pace. Design-Build is intended as a more agile method of project implementation; however, because the project goes to bid at an earlier level of design, the environmental impacts may not be fully understood at that time. Both methods of project implementation have their benefits and drawbacks. Design-Bid-Build has a higher level of detail and also has permitting completed prior to bid and construction; however, that also makes any changes to design inherently more difficult. Design-Build projects may complete environmental permitting at a lower level of design, without a detailed understanding of the environmental impacts. This allows for easier adjustments to design and for changes to the project later in project implementation; however, it also removes incentives for reducing impacts on the environment. The permits will not act as a driver for reducing already permitted effects. It is important to ensure that all environmental commitments and other requirements are included in the Design-Bid-Build or Design-Build Request for Proposal (RFP) or bid package and resulting contract. This ensures that the contractor is aware of the commitments, that there is adequate funding and resources, and that implementation is contractually required. Operations and Maintenance The operations and maintenance phase can incorporate pollinator conservation in several ways. After vegetation is established, maintaining and protecting it is important. For more information about adjusting maintenance and vegetation management for imperiled pollinators, see Chapter 6. Additionally, this phase provides an opportunity for improved internal coordination for adaptive management and applying lessons learned to new projects, as well as developing innovative approaches to avoidance and minimization through maintenance practices. Design Team: Coordinate with the project biologist and environmental team to ensure that all measures are included in the bid package and contract.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-13 Table 5-1. Transportation planning and project development phases, descriptions, timelines, and pollinator conservation opportunities within each phase. Phase Conservation Opportunity Examples Identify Environmental Constraints Avoidance and Minimization Compensatory Mitigation Voluntary Habitat Enhancement Opportunities Transportation planning Long-range planning (30-year horizon/ every 4 years) Identify priority/sensitive biological/environmental resources (including focal pollinator species), priority areas for conservation, and where these areas may overlap with transportation needs Identify major funding needs Identify regional studies needed to inform planning decisions Systems, Transportation, and Natural Resource planners should collaborate on areas of pollinator habitat to avoid, especially when planning new routes or facilities Include considerations for avoidance at this stage to avoid additional design work later System, Transportation, and Natural Resource planners may collaborate early to agree on conservation priorities and to create better opportunities to integrate avoidance and minimization Identify major mitigation needs/costs such as land acquisition, restoration, or crossing structures Identify advance mitigation or voluntary enhancement opportunities Consider if there are pollinator needs that do not fall within planned projects that could be programmed as their own project

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-14 Phase Conservation Opportunity Examples Identify Environmental Constraints Avoidance and Minimization Compensatory Mitigation Voluntary Habitat Enhancement Opportunities Short-range planning (2–4 year horizon/ yearly or every 2 years) Identify priority/sensitive biological/environmental resources (including focal pollinator species), priority areas for conservation, and where these areas may overlap with transportation needs Identify studies, permits, and mitigation needs for focal pollinator species Identify funding needs (e.g., mitigation needs) System, Transportation, and Natural Resource planners should collaborate on areas of pollinator habitat to avoid, especially when planning new routes or facilities Include considerations for avoidance at this stage to avoid additional design work later System, Transportation, and Natural Resource planners may collaborate early to agree on conservation priorities and to create better opportunities to integrate avoidance and minimization and improve conservation-informed project descriptions and alternatives (e.g., identifying an alternative project location that would meet the transportation need with less impact on target pollinator species) Identify major mitigation needs/costs for planned projects (e.g., restoring acreage of habitat for focal pollinator species) Identify advance mitigation or voluntary enhancement opportunities Identify habitat enhancement opportunities for planned projects (e.g., including host plants of focal pollinator species in revegetation mix)

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-15 Phase Conservation Opportunity Examples Identify Environmental Constraints Avoidance and Minimization Compensatory Mitigation Voluntary Habitat Enhancement Opportunities Project development Project initiation Confirm project description, scope, and conceptual design Identify Project Development Team (PDT) (1–2 years per project) Identify priority/sensitive biological/environmental resources within the project study area (including focal pollinator species) Identify funding needs Identify schedule implications (e.g., season restrictions) Work with PDT to adjust project description, scope, schedule, conceptual design to avoid species/habitat impacts (e.g., rerouting a road to avoid critical habitat of a target pollinator species if not considered during long- or short-range planning; avoiding breeding season for target species) Identify all project mitigation needs and costs (e.g., know when money is needed to implement project effectively) Work with PDT to find opportunities to integrate habitat enhancement into project description/ conceptual design to avoid species/habitat impacts (e.g., note breeding season of target pollinator for consideration of long-term maintenance and key habitat needs for target species) Identify habitat enhancement opportunities (e.g., including key native plants for target pollinator species) Environmental studies Detailed project description and preliminary design Technical studies Environmental document Federal ESA compliance (1–5+ years per project) Coordinate early and frequently with resource agencies Consult with species experts Conduct detailed resource inventories and impact analyses Develop project-specific avoidance and minimization measures (e.g., avoid habitat impacts, specify seed/plant lists, develop specification for avoiding soil compaction) Identify and detail compensatory mitigation needs and options Confirm mitigation funding needs (e.g., habitat type, mitigation ratio) Begin to detail habitat enhancement (e.g., specify locally sourced native plants)

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-16 Phase Conservation Opportunity Examples Identify Environmental Constraints Avoidance and Minimization Compensatory Mitigation Voluntary Habitat Enhancement Opportunities Design Detailed project design, specification, and estimates prepared for advertisement, bid, and contract award Environmental commitments integrated into design Permits (2–4 years per project) Ensure design and specifications are consistent with environmental analyses and commitments Apply for natural resource regulatory permits Ensure avoidance and minimization are incorporated into project design plans, specifications, environmental compliance record, and cost estimates Include detailed compensatory mitigation plan in project design and project permits Incorporate habitat enhancement into project design (e.g., check plant lists to ensure key species are there) Construction Construct project; install erosion control and landscaping Contract administration Environmental commitments implemented and tracked (1–10+ years per project or project construction phase) Track implementation of construction avoidance and minimization measures Implement construction avoidance and minimization measures (e.g., biological construction monitoring, quality control of seed/plant orders/deliveries, best management practices, weed abatement programs) Construct compensatory mitigation (if included as part of project construction) Construct habitat enhancement Revegetation/Landscape establishment Track implementation of landscaping avoidance and minimization measures Monitor success of pollinator plant establishment Implement landscaping avoidance and minimization measures (e.g., biological construction monitoring, quality control of seed/plant orders/deliveries, best management practices) Establish key plants to support listed or imperiled pollinator species

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-17 Phase Conservation Opportunity Examples Identify Environmental Constraints Avoidance and Minimization Compensatory Mitigation Voluntary Habitat Enhancement Opportunities Operations and maintenance (Ongoing) Ensure appropriate tracking of operations and maintenance protection measure implementation (e.g., opportunities for improved communications and collaboration between maintenance and environmental staff) Develop a maintenance plan that is effective in the short term for vegetation establishment and in the long term for maintaining plant diversity, and minimizing impacts on pollinators {e.g., consider mowing schedules/ frequency, avoid/minimize herbicide/pesticide usage, educate staff) Ensure transportation agency–owned mitigation site is maintained and protected in perpetuity (e.g., use appropriate vegetation management techniques and consideration of target pollinator life cycle in timing and intensity of implementation) Maintain and protect habitat enhancements (e.g., use appropriate vegetation management techniques to maintain plant diversity) denotes phases with important opportunities to incorporate the needs of imperiled pollinators.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-18 5.4 Case Study: A Wildlife Overpass for the Quino Checkerspot Butterfly In the 1990s, the County of Riverside and the City of Murrieta, California, initiated a project to extend Clinton Keith Road from Interstate 215 to State Route 79 to address the need for an additional east–west transportation corridor due to increased traffic demand. The new six-lane arterial road was constructed in multiple phases as part of the Clinton Keith Road Extension Project. As part of project ESA compliance under the Western Riverside Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP), the project was required to maintain and facilitate connectivity and movement for wildlife for a wide variety of species including the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino). Host plants of the Quino checkerspot butterfly, as well as an individual male butterfly, were observed in the project footprint in 2000 (USFWS 2007). The Quino checkerspot butterfly is endemic to Riverside and San Diego counties in California, and northern areas of Baja California Norte, Mexico. Quino checkerspot butterfly habitat is composed of costal scrublands occurring as landscapes of patchy shrubs or small trees with openings or swales between more dense patches of shrubs. Quino checkerspot butterflies require open areas with high solar exposure for breeding and movement and use vegetation or other substrates to mate and bask. Quino checkerspot butterfly populations often display metapopulation dynamics, and thus require conservation of both occupied and unoccupied habitat patches as well as connectivity between patches for population persistence and resilience. The Clinton Keith Road extension passed through an area with high-value habitat and created a barrier to movement of the butterflies (and other wildlife) between habitat patches. Consequently, a series of wildlife underpasses and an overpass option considered the needs of the MSHCP and target species in the project area, the behavior of the Quino checkerspot butterfly, and the design constraints of the new six-lane roadway. The series of wildlife underpasses, in the form of bridges and culverts, and the wildlife overpass were designed to facilitate important safe movement opportunities for a range of wildlife species in the project area. The final wildlife overpass project design was determined to be the most appropriate structure to facilitate movement of the Quino checkerspot butterfly and other species. The wildlife underpasses and overpass were completed in 2018. The overpass was vegetated with a seed mix containing the following plant species (*denotes larval host plant for Quino checkerspot; ** denotes nectar plants for the checkerspot): • Artemisia California (California Sage Brush) • Casteilleja exserta (Owl Clover)* • Colinsia concolor (Southern Chinese Houses) • Cryptantha micrantha (Redroot Cryptantha)** • Encelia farinosa (Brittle Bush) • Eriogonum fasciculatum (Buckwheat) • Eriophyllum confertiflorum (Golden Yarrow) Views of the Clinton Keith Overpass and vegetation, June 2021. Photo credit: Riverside County Transportation Department (top); Shannon Crossen, ICF (bottom)

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-19 • Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy) • Gilia tricolor (Birds Eye) • Lasthenia californica (Goldfields)** • Layia platyglossa (Yellow Tiny Tips) • Linanthus grandifloras (Mountain Phlox)** • Lotus scoparious (Deerweed) • Lupinus succulentus (Arroyo Lupine) • Nassellia cernua (Nodding Stipa) • Nassellia pulchra (Purple Needle Grass) • Plantago erecta (California Plantain)* • Penstemon speciablis (Showy Penstemon) • Salvia apiana (White Sage) • Salvia columbariae (Chia) • Trichostema lanatum (Wooly Blue Curls) Wildlife cameras were deployed in July 2019, and Quino checkerspot butterfly surveys were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine use of the wildlife crossing structures. While no Quino checkerspot butterflies were detected on the overcrossing, other butterfly species were observed using the overcrossing, including Chalcedon checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas chalcedona) nectaring in habitat on the overcrossing and painted lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui) flying across the overcrossing. 5.5 Case Study: Massachusetts GeoDOT Massachusetts DOT has an online platform, GeoDOT, which allows staff to create and share geographic information system (GIS) data across the agency. Available data includes assets like rest areas, bridges, electric vehicle charging stations, as well as boundaries, pavement conditions maps, and more. GeoDOT also includes tools, such as the Highway Project Impact Tool that screens project areas to identify environmental justice and Title VI considerations, and the MassDOT Project Intake Tool, also known as MaPIT. MaPIT analyzes many layers of data to walk users through basic project screening of a project area, to repair or improve an existing roadway or facility, or to initiate a new project. This screening tool helps to identify projects that overlap areas of environmental sensitivity or significance and to identify environmental permitting requirements early in a project’s development. In a few minutes or less, the tool analyzes layers of economic impact, connectivity, climate change resiliency, rare habitat, flood zones, and more. Projects are then scored by MassDOT to prioritize for project approval. Tools like MaPIT could add to their existing environmental layers by including a layer or layers for pollinators and pollinator habitat to help make decisions about sites of priority for revegetation and maintenance practices that support pollinators. Layers could include areas of critical habitat or the range of a particular species in need of conservation. For more information about MaPIT or GeoDOT, visit: https://massdot.maps.arcgis.com/home/index.html.

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-20 Figure 5-3. GeoDOT is Massachusetts DOT’s open data portal and includes a project screening tool that could be adapted to include information about pollinators. 5.6 Case Study: Evaluating the Effects of Construction on a Roadside Pollinator The valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) is a federally threatened insect endemic to the Central Valley of California. As this species’ name suggests, it is only found in association with the elderberry shrub (Sambucus spp.). Elderberry shrubs are an important part of riverine and riparian habitats in California, providing food and cover for a wide variety of birds and other vertebrate species, and the valley elderberry longhorn beetle is an important pollinator for elderberry. Elderberry are also a common species on roadsides, which then host the valley elderberry longhorn beetle close to roadway maintenance and construction activities. Caltrans was interested in learning more about the potential effects that road construction and overall proximity to the roadway might have on the valley elderberry longhorn beetle, and partnered with the University of California, Davis, Department of Environmental Science and Policy to conduct several experiments (Talley and Holyoak 2009). The studies looked at the physical and chemical effects of dust and particulates originating from roadways on the condition of elderberry shrubs and on the ability of the valley elderberry longhorn beetle to complete its life cycle. While the study found that elderberry shrubs closer to roadways and construction activities tended to have higher stress and lower nutritive quality, the valley elderberry longhorn beetle was still able to complete all stages of its life cycle despite the degraded host plant condition. The Caltrans study also looked at the effects of roadside habitat maintenance on the valley elderberry longhorn beetle by evaluating the effects of pruning and trimming of the elderberry shrub. The study found that trimming did not impact the numbers of valley elderberry longhorn beetle, and the only negative effect of trimming that was observed was a temporary loss of the total amount of habitat for valley elderberry longhorn beetle via the reduction of branches, leaves, and flowers. Studies like this give valuable information

Chapter 5. Considering Imperiled Pollinators in Transportation Planning, Design, and Construction 5-21 regarding potential impacts from DOT operations and can inform negotiations with the USFWS regarding appropriate mitigation for unavoidable impacts. 5.7 Additional Resources Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). No Date. Environmental Review Toolkit. Initiatives to Accelerate Project Delivery: Eco-Logical. Available: https://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/env_initiatives/eco-logical.aspx. Habel, J. C., W. Ulrich, and T. Schmitt. 2020. Butterflies in corridors: quality matters for specialists. Insect conservation and diversity / Royal Entomological Society of London 13:91–98. Monarch Joint Venture. 2022. Landscape Prioritization Model. Available: https://monarchjointventure.org/mjvprograms/science/roadsidehabitat/habitat- prioritization-model. Talley, T.S., and M. Holyoak. 2009. The Effects of Highways and Highway Construction Activities on Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Habitat. Final Report FHWA/CA09- 0925. Submitted to the California Department of Transportation. Contract Number 65A0222. Available: https://dot.ca.gov/-/media/dot-media/programs/research- innovation-system-information/documents/f0016602-construction-impacts-valley- elderberry-longhorn-beetle.pdf. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. No Date. IPaC Information, Planning, and Consultation. Available: https://www.fws.gov/ipac/. ———. 2007. Formal Section 7 Consultation for the Clinton Keith Road Extension Project, Riverside County, California (1-6-07-F-4357.3). Reference Number FWS-WRIV-4357.3. Carlsbad, California.

Next: Chapter 6: Roadside Maintenance and Vegetation Management for Pollinators »
Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska Get This Book
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 Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska
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Transportation agencies can make a difference for imperiled pollinators by managing existing roadside vegetation and designing new revegetation plantings with habitat needs in mind. This can generate public support for agencies and help to mitigate the negative ecological effects of roads.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 362: Pollinator Habitat Conservation Along Roadways, Volume 1: Alaska, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, is a 16-volume series. Each volume focuses on a specific region of the United States and is intended to provide relevant guidance to rights-of-way owners and operators for roadside vegetation management practices that support pollinators, as well as strategies that are compliant with the federal Endangered Species Act.

Supplemental to the document are a Dataset of Alaska Accessory Materials, a Communications Toolbox, a Conduct of Research Report, and a Video.

This is the first of 16 volumes. The other volumes are:

Volume 2: California

Volume 3: Florida

Volume 4: Great Basin

Volume 5: Great Lakes

Volume 6: Hawaii

Volume 7: Inland Northwest

Volume 8: Maritime Northwest

Volume 9: Mid-Atlantic

Volume 10: Midwest

Volume 11: Northeast

Volume 12: Northern Plains

Volume 13: Rocky Mountains

Volume 14: Southeast

Volume 15: Southern Plains

Volume 16: Southwest

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