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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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2023 A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 242 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Data and Information Technology • Terminals and Facilities Transformation in Wireless Connectivity GUIDE TO PREPARE AIRPORTS Antonio Correas Uson a n d Sergio Taleisnik Skymantics, LLC Melbourne, FL Chris Fernando Raleigh, NC Chunyan Yu a n d Kiljae K. Lee Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach, FL Monica Paolini Senza Fili Consulting, LLC Seattle, WA Tricia Fantinato Astrid Aviation and Aerospace, LLC Spring Hill, FL Jonathan Lewis Black Box Network Services Miami, FL

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 242 Project 03-57 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69833-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2023932642 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Mifzaal Abdul Baari in Unsplash NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifi- cations. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which pro- vide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research project team would like to express our sincere gratitude to the following stakeholders and government entities for their valuable input and support on this project. Any errors that remain are the sole responsibility of the project team. • Airport Advisory Committee: Miami-Dade Aviation Authority, Golden Triangle Regional Airport, Sebring Airport Authority, Massport, Richmond International Airport, Daytona Beach International Airport, Jacksonville Aviation Authority. • Technology Advisory Committee: Wireless Research Center of North Carolina, Boingo Wireless, Burns Engineering, Viet Nguyen (5G Americas), the WiMAX Forum, Telecom Infra Project, Amadeus, Hoopo, Google. • Government entities: Federal Aviation Administration (NextGen Office), San Diego Police Department. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 242 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 03-57 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Timothy Mitchell, Collinear Group, Seattle, WA (Chair) Olivia Clark, Charlotte Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, NC Xue Li, FAA AAS, Washington, DC Aura Moore, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Robert D. Osborne, Burns & McDonnell, Austin, TX Stephen Saunders, Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Erlanger, KY Ricardo Sanchez, FAA Liaison Aneil Patel, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Research Report 242: Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports provides airport industry practitioners with a foundation for easily scalable solu- tions to accommodate evolving wireless technologies. This guide can be used by all types and sizes of airports and includes requirements for airport technology and spatial infra- structure to enable future ubiquitous, higher bandwidth, wireless connectivity and real-time data transfer. It also includes an understanding of co-locations, interference mitigations, and retrofit of current systems to leverage existing resources. The guide outlines an operational transition plan for incorporation of new capabilities to existing technology and an identification of the architectures, deployment models, and levels of financial investment required for differing technologies that includes a menu of options and a discussion of the cost and revenue points affecting the return on investment along with an associated technology lifecycle assessment. Also included is an all-encompassing cybersecurity plan to protect data throughout the entire lifecycle and end-state user application examples and benefits for various airport stakeholders including the passenger and tenant experience, airport operations, safety and security, asset management, and disaster preparedness and recovery. Wireless connectivity and real-time interfaces can provide a wide range of capabilities and benefits for airport operators and users. Airport staff and stakeholders, including passen- gers, pilots, and service providers, stand to benefit from advancements in wireless technolo- gies to foster a more curated passenger experience and safe and efficient airport operations. As wireless technologies advance, services are migrating from 4G to 5G networks or other platforms, calling for new improved connectivity. This research helps airport decisionmakers prepare for and evaluate the impacts of emerging wireless technologies on their operational and financial investment opportunities. The research also bridges the gap between their exist- ing wireless network infrastructure and the future requirements. ACRP Project 03-57 was led by Skymantics, LLC, in association with Embry-Riddle Aero- nautical University, Astrid Aviation and Aerospace, Senza Fili, Black Box Network Services, and consultant Chris Fernando. In addition to the guide, a decision-making tool for airport wireless investments will be avail- able at crp.trb.org/acrpwebresource15. The development of the tool involved use case mapping with technologies and technology recommendations, best return on investment as well as busi- ness models, use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), and case studies at a large international hub—Miami (MIA), a small regional airport—Golden Triangle Regional Airport (GTR), and a multimodal logistics and general aviation airport—Sebring Regional Airport (SEF). There are also two appendices, one for wireless use case requirements and enabling technologies and another for a comparative table of wireless technologies. Lastly, a presentation that could be used for informing airport decisionmakers on the viability of the proposed solutions is available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for ACRP Research Report 242: Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Introduction 1 Opportunities and Challenges for Wireless Technologies in Airports 3 Basic Concepts of Wireless Networks 4 Recommended Steps for Wireless Technology Transition in Airports 7 Chapter 1 Taxonomy of Wireless Technologies and Their Uses in Airports 7 1.1 Airport Uses of Wireless Technologies 37 1.2 Characterization of Wireless Technologies 68 1.3 Operational Concept of the Wireless-Connected Airport 80 Chapter 2 Decision-Making Tool and Methods 80 2.1 Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Wireless Technologies 89 2.2 Assessment Tool for Airport Wireless Investment Decision-Making 95 2.3 Application of the Decision-Making Tool: Case Studies 109 Chapter 3 Planning and Implementation Guidelines 109 3.1 Leadership and Organizational Structure 119 3.2 Technology Transition Planning 130 3.3 Spectrum Management 138 3.4 Telecommunications Infrastructure Management 152 3.5 Cybersecurity Planning 163 References 165 Abbreviations 168 Appendix A Wireless Use Case Requirements and Enabling Technologies 170 Appendix B Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies C O N T E N T S

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The main wireless applications at airports—passenger connectivity and airport staff communications—are imposing increasing demands on wireless capacity. Demand for passenger mobile connectivity is skyrocketing as high-speed-capable devices proliferate, and passengers require enhanced connectivity either for work or entertainment during dwell times, including location-based services for a custom travel experience.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 242: Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports is intended as a resource for airports as they navigate through the existing taxonomy of wireless technologies and their use cases.

ACRP WebResource 15: Assessment Tool for Transformation in Wireless Connectivity is an assessment tool that supports the methodology outlined in the report. It provides a dynamic interface to input the current status of the wireless technology implementation at an airport and to input the intended goals regarding the development of the airport’s wireless infrastructure/use cases and generates a report that comprehensively compares the indicated current and target statuses.

Supplemental to the report is a PowerPoint presentation that can be used by airport decisionmakers on proposed solutions.

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