National Academies Press: OpenBook

Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports (2023)

Chapter: Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Page 173
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27064.
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Page 174

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170 A P P E N D I X B Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies Table B-1. Mobile User Communications Category Cellular 5G Cellular 4G AeroMACS Wi-Fi 6 WiGig LMR P25 LMR TETRA Bluetooth Spectrum band(s) 600 MHz to 6 GHz 24 to 90 GHz (mmWave) 600 MHz to 6 GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 6 GHz (Wi-Fi 6E) 60 GHz 450 MHz 800 MHz 450 MHz 800 MHz 2.4 GHz Spectrum type Licensed, unlicensed, shared Licensed, unlicensed, shared Licensed Unlicensed, shared Unlicensed Licensed Licensed Unlicensed Channel bandwidth Up to 100 MHz, 400/800 MHz (mmWave) 20 MHz, 100 MHz (LTE advanced) 5 MHz 20-160 MHz 1.76 GHz 12.5 kHz 25 kHz 1 MHz Max thruput 10+ Gbps downlink, 1 Gbps uplink 100 Mbps, 3.3 Gbps for LTE advanced 7 Mbps 9.6 Gbps 7 Gbps (802.11ad) to 176 Gbps (802.11ay) 9.6 kbps 28.8 kbps 3 Mbps Max range Km to less than 1 m, depending on the frequency Depends on frequency, from 50 m to a few km 11 km Few hundred meters outdoors A few meters indoors; outdoors 200–300 m in LOS 30 miles (+ repeaters) 58 km 100 m Radio latency Min 5 ms Min sub 1 ms 20 ms (downlink) 40 ms (uplink) Not guaranteed, typical 1–100 ms <1 ms Approx. 1 second Approx. 1 second Not guaranteed, typical 34 ms– 300 ms Spectrum efficiency 15+ (SISO, 20 MHz) bps/Hz 5 (SISO, 20 MHz) bps/Hz 1.4 bps/Hz 7.5+ (Wi-Fi 6) bps/Hz 3 bps/Hz 0.77 bps/Hz 1.15 bps/Hz 3 bps/Hz Max devices 250 per cell 250 per cell 64 per BS Theoretically 2007, typically 100–250 per AP Theoretically 2007, typically 100–250 per AP 70 per channel 550 per base station 7 per piconet Max speed Vehicular Vehicular 57.54 mph (50 knots) Static/walking Static/walking Vehicular Vehicular Static/walking Location capability 3 m (small cell) N/A N/A Several m N/A N/A N/A cm Reliability Carrier/ enterprise-grade Carrier/ enterprise-grade Carrier- grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Enterprise/consumer grade Carrier- grade Carrier- grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Max power 12 kW (macro) 7 kW (macro) 1 W 1 W 1 W 110 W 50 W 1 W Max battery Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Approx. 1 day Few days Standard 3GPP 5G 3GPP 4G IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11ax IEEE 802.11ag IEEE 802.11ay P25 ETSI EN 300 392-2 V2.3.2 IEEE 802.15.1 Year intro 2019 2008 2009 2019 2020 1995 1995 1999

Comparative Tables of Wireless Technologies 171   Table B-2. Automation and IoT Category 4G eMTC/ 5G mMTC 4G NB-IoT HaLow Bluetooth (BLE) Zigbee Sigfox LoRa RFID NFC Spectrum band(s) 600 MHz to 6 GHz 600 MHz to 6 GHz Sub 1 GHz 2.4 GHz 915 MHz 2.4 GHz 915 MHz 915 MHz 130 kHz (LF) 13.5 MHz (HF) 900 MHz 2.4 GHz (UHF) 5.8 GHz (SHF) 13.5 MHz Spectrum type Licensed Licensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Unlicensed Channel BW 5 MHz 180 kHz 20, 40, 80, and 160 MHz 2 MHz 2.4 GHz 100 Hz 250 kHz, 125 kHz 250 kHz 14 kHz Max throughput 2.6 Mbps 150 kbps 86.7 Mbps 2 Mbps 250 kbps 100 bps 50 kbps 4 kbps (LF) 26 kbps (HF) >100 kbps (UHF/SHF) 424 kbps Max range 11 km 11 km 20 km 400 m 100 m 40 km 20 km 10 cm (LF) 1 m (HF) 2 m (passive UHF) 100 m (active UHF) 20 cm Radio latency 10–100 ms Approx. 1,500– 10,000 ms 100 ms 7.5 ms–4 s 200 ms 30,000 ms 10,000 ms 70 ms 70 ms Spectrum efficiency 5 bps/Hz (downlink) 2.5 bps/Hz (uplink) N/A 1 bps/Hz <1 bps/Hz 30 bps/Hz Max devices Massive 150,000 per cell 8,191 per cell 32,000 per mesh 65,536 per cell 50,000 per cell 50,000 per cell 2 2 Max speed Static/ walking Static Static/ walking Static/walking Static Vehicular Vehicular Static/walking Static/walking Location capability Yes Yes (30~50 m) No Cm (triangulation) Yes (0.51 m) Yes (Approx. 1– 10 Km) Yes (3 m) 3 m (active UHF) N/A Reliability Carrier/ enterprise- grade Carrier/ enterprise- grade Enterprise /consumer grade Enterprise/consumer grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Enterprise/ consumer grade Max power 0.2 W 0.2 W 0.2 W 0.5 W 0.1 W 0.2 W 0.15 W 1 W 1 W Max battery 10 years 10 years 13 years 1–2 years 2 years 2.5 years Approx. 3– 10 years Few days (reader) No battery (passive tag) 5 years (active UHF) Few days (reader) No battery (tag) Standard 3GPP 3GPP IEEE 802.11ax IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.15.4 Proprietary LoRa (chipset is proprietary) ISO/IEC 18000 ISO/IEC 18092 Year intro 2017 2017 2018 2010 2006 2009 2009 1983 2002

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED ISBN 978-0-309-69833-7 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 6 9 8 3 3 7 9 0 0 0 0

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The main wireless applications at airports—passenger connectivity and airport staff communications—are imposing increasing demands on wireless capacity. Demand for passenger mobile connectivity is skyrocketing as high-speed-capable devices proliferate, and passengers require enhanced connectivity either for work or entertainment during dwell times, including location-based services for a custom travel experience.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 242: Transformation in Wireless Connectivity: Guide to Prepare Airports is intended as a resource for airports as they navigate through the existing taxonomy of wireless technologies and their use cases.

ACRP WebResource 15: Assessment Tool for Transformation in Wireless Connectivity is an assessment tool that supports the methodology outlined in the report. It provides a dynamic interface to input the current status of the wireless technology implementation at an airport and to input the intended goals regarding the development of the airport’s wireless infrastructure/use cases and generates a report that comprehensively compares the indicated current and target statuses.

Supplemental to the report is a PowerPoint presentation that can be used by airport decisionmakers on proposed solutions.

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