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D-1 Appendix D Butterfly and Butterfly Group Recognition D.1 RecognizingÂ Butterflies Butterflies can be distinguished from moths by the way they hold their wings at rest and by their antennae. Butterflies hold their wings open or vertically closed over their bodies, while moths tend to hold their wings flat. Butterfly antennae are club-shaped at the tips, while moth antennae either taper to a point or have a feathery appearance. D.2 RecognizingÂ ButterflyÂ Groups With practice, butterflies can be identified to family by observing characteristics such as size, color, wing patterns, and flight patterns. The following sections describe common characteristics of common butterfly families. D.2.1 Skippers Key Characteristics (Figure D-1): ï· Short wings ï· Must flap rapidly to gain flight ï· Bodies are compact and broad ï· Antennae are often short, with hooked bulb at the end ï· Fairly small, usually brown or orange ï· Fly in speedy, skipping, stop-and-go manner ï· Often hold their wings separated partially making two Vâs Figure D-1. Skippers are smaller butterflies with brown and orange coloring.
AppendixÂ D.Â ButterflyÂ andÂ ButterflyÂ GroupÂ Recognition D-2 D.2.2 Swallowtails Key Characteristics (Figure D-2): ï· Large butterflies ï· Swift, sailing flight pattern ï· Unhooked antenna ï· Less wing loading, allowing them to soar ï· Can possess hind wing extensions (tails) Figure D-2. Swallowtails are large butterflies that are usually black, yellow, and/or white. D.2.3 Whites and Sulphurs Key Characteristics (Figure D-3): ï· Predominantly yellow or white in most species ï· Bright orange wingtips and striking black marginal patterns are common Figure D-3. Whites and sulphurs are often white or yellow.
AppendixÂ D.Â ButterflyÂ andÂ ButterflyÂ GroupÂ Recognition D-3 D.2.4 Gossamer-Winged Key Characteristics (Figure D-4): ï· Many of the smallest and brightest butterflies ï· Brightly colored (can shimmer in sunshine) in blues, greens, or coppers ï· May be dotted with bold spots or checkers ï· Glittering, silky wings Figure D-4. Gossamer-winged butterflies are often smaller and have striking colors on the upper sides of their wings. D.2.5 Brush-Footed Key Characteristics (Figure D-5): ï· Various shades of orange, red, brown, and black are common among brush-footed butterflies ï· The front pair of legs is reduced to tiny, brush like appendages held tightly beneath the thorax, so they appear to have only four legs Figure D-5. Brush-footed butterflies are commonly colored orange, red, and black, with only four clearly visible legs.