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Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide (2023)

Chapter: Appendix C - Emerging Inspection Technology Applications

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Emerging Inspection Technology Applications." National Research Council. 2023. Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27099.
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C-1   A P P E N D I X C Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C.1 3-D/4-D/5-D Modeling What Is It? It is visualization and image modeling technology that provides a virtual representation and visualization of project components and work progress. For instance, 3D engineered models involve points, lines, and surfaces that depict a highway project and relevant associated aspects of the project environment in three dimensions. 3D modeling is recommended by FHWA’s Everyday Counts program (rounds two and three) for its potential to accelerate highway construction, improve communication of design information, and enhance constructability. 3D engineered models can also be expanded to include project schedule data (4D) or project schedule and cost data (5D). Visualization and image modeling technologies can be used to alleviate inspection risks and staffing shortages for various work and project types. Why Use It? Dependence on this technology may assist construction inspectors in completing different field and desk tasks and collecting visual inspection data electronically. 3D/4D technology can also enhance communication, constructability, and production on highway construction projects. 3D engineered models are a core building block necessary for incorporating other project-enhancing technologies such as automated machine control, clash detection, measurement, and quantity verification, which can significantly affect construction staffing requirements, including inspectors. Project inspection staff can be supported by many of these technologies, but 3D-engineered models can reduce the staff burden associated with surveying and checking grades, cross sections, and quantities or project element locations. Important benefits as relayed from an FHWA TechBrief: 3D, 4D, and 5D Engineered Models for Construction (Schneider 2013) include: • “Improved project delivery by accelerating construction progress, making construction more accurate and cost effective, and increasing safety on the job site.” • “Improved communication between key stakeholder communities (e.g., owner, public, consultants, contractor, utility companies, prefabricators, and material suppliers).” • “Enhanced clash detection and identification of possible errors and inconsistencies in design before construction.” • “Improved visualization of subgrade features and potential utility conflicts.” • “For owners: Random grade checks instead of at specified cross-section distances. Material cost savings. Ease of finding locations for quality assurance tests.”

C-2 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide • “66% savings for grade checking, up to 85% for reduction of stakes, 3% to 6% by volume for improved material yields, and 30% to 50% for uninterrupted earthmoving production. These results can equate to a savings of 4% to 6% of total project costs by using 3D models. Contractors often claim 15% to 25% increased efficiency in earthmoving alone” (Schneider 2013). What Does It Do? 3D models illustrate highway projects in X, Y, and Z dimensions and can be tilted, rotated, and manipulated as desired for improved visualization and communication. This technology can even provide data for the automation of construction activities. The enhanced communication and data provided by representing the project in three dimensions create a better translation of information between the designer, general contractor and subcontractors, and agency inspection staff. When to Use It The implementation of 3D/4D/5D will vary by type of inspected work and inspection tasks. Table C-1 summarizes project types and works where 3D/4D can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C- 1. Use of 3D and 4D modeling technology. • “For contractors: Labor cost savings (reduced need for setting string lines for paving and stakes for grading), increased productivity, increased efficiency. Fewer conflicts and changes during construction.” • “For consultants: Early identification of constructability issues, improved design accuracy, ease of visual verification for QC.” • “Once built, the model can be utilized throughout the full life cycle of a facility and by various agencies, for example, during infrastructure maintenance, operations, and asset management work.” Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-3   Additional Resources Federal Highway Administration. Website for 3D Engineered Models (multiple resources, case studies, technical briefs, webinars, and training). https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/3d/. O’Brien, W. J., B. Sankaran, F. L. Leite, N. Khwaja, P. Goodrum, K. Molenaar, G. Nevett, and J. Johnson. 2016. NCHRP Report 831: Civil Integrated Management (CIM) for Departments of Transportation, Volume 1: Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Schneider, C. 2013. FHWA TechBrief, 3D, 4D, and 5D Engineered Models for Construction. Federal Highway Administration. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/pubs/hif13048.pdf [Accessed May 11, 2019] C.2 Geographic Information System What Is It? A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based system that provides a data-rich environment for the geographic information of assets. It is also a spatial system that creates, manages, analyzes, and maps all types of data. GIS connects data to a map, integrating location data (where things are) with all types of descriptive information (what things are like there). Why Use It? This technology may help reduce the size of the inspection workforce needed on projects due to its automated mapping and monitoring capabilities, which helps when states are legally mandated to reduce the number of staff or when states have a limited number of staff or skills needed for the project. Time may be saved because of the many functionalities of GISs (e.g., utility location, detour planning, traffic control phasing). What Does It Do? Providing information for project management, data collection and analysis, surveying, and checking project is up to specification. GIS provides a foundation for mapping and analysis that is used in science and almost every industry, including construction. GIS helps users understand patterns, relationships, and geographic context. The benefits include improved communication and efficiency as well as better management and decision-making. When to Use It Table C-2 summarizes project types and works where GIS can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

C-4 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Table C-2. Use of GIS technology. Additional Resources FHWA. GIS in Transportation. (n.d.) Retrieved from Federal Highway Administration. https://www.gis.fhwa.dot.gov/default.asp. FHWA. 2012. Best Practices in Geographic Information Systems-Based Transportation Asset Management. Retrieved from Federal Highway Administration, Office of Planning. https://www.gis.fhwa.dot.gov/documents/GIS_AssetMgmt.pdf. C.3 Ground Penetrating Radar What Is It? Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive measurement technique. GPR operates by transmitting electromagnetic waves (in the range of 10 ~ 1000 Hz) into the probed or earth material and receiving the reflected pulses as they encounter discontinuities. The discontinuity could be a boundary or interface between materials with different dielectrics. The amplitudes of the received echoes and the corresponding arrival times can then be used to determine the nature and location of the discontinuity. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-5   Why Use It? Determining the thickness of pavement layers is an important consideration for construction quality assurance of new pavements and structural capacity estimation of existing pavements. This information is essential for pavement management systems to maintain the safety, serviceability, and durability of pavement networks. What Does It Do? The transmitter antenna of GPR radiates electromagnetic waves into the subsurface structure under test. The electromagnetic wave traveling velocity in the structure is determined primarily by the permittivity or dielectric constant of the subsurface material. When the electromagnetic wave hits features or objects that have electrical properties differing from the surrounding medium, it will be reflected and received by the receiver antennae. The dependence of signal traveling velocity and amplitude on the material electrical properties will result in different reflection waveforms. By performing data analysis of the reflection signals, the subsurface structural features can be effectively characterized. When to Use It GPR is typically used for detecting objects or singular elements hidden in a homogeneous medium. Table C-3 summarizes project types and works where GPR can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-3. Use of GPR technology. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-6 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Additional Resources Daniels, D. J. 2005. Ground Penetrating Radar. Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/3d/ Morcous, G., and Erdogmus, E. 2009. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Construction Quality Assurance of Concrete Pavement. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3bea/b3650d1009b87ac3b615e4cb832979eaf299.pdf Xia, T., and Huston, D. 2016. High Speed Ground Penetrating Radar for Road Pavement and Bridge Structural Inspection and Maintenance. No. SPR-RSCH017-738. University of Vermont. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1760/701c1a13be47bee80ec8f948a450a3cfd95e.pdf C.4 Sensors What Is It? A sensor is a device used to measure a property, such as pressure, position, temperature, or acceleration, and respond with feedback. It is a technology that converts heat, light, sound, and motion into electrical signals. It could be integrated with other technologies such as drones, GPR, and visualization models. Sensor and health monitoring technologies offer real-time reporting which may assist construction inspectors in checking construction performance and quality. Why Use It? Sensors provide the capability to track materials on construction sites. It can also help with equipment management by providing valuable data on the status and productivity of construction equipment. Sensors can also be used to give data on the worksite conditions that affect safety. What Does It Do? Sensor technologies collect real-time data on the condition of construction elements and send them for evaluation in real-time. Sensors also provide project staff with details of the alert, and consequently, actions may be taken to address the issue before significant downtime or catastrophic failure occurs. Sensor technologies are typically integrated with other technologies such as 3D to create models of any surface within the visual sight of the sensing unit. When to Use It With real-time data, sensors provide the capability to track materials through the supply chain, monitor site conditions, and improve worker safety and other tasks. Table C-4 summarizes project types and works where sensors can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-7   Table C-4. Use of sensor technology. Additional Resources Jeganathan, C., Pramod, K., Kshama, G., Rahul, G., Anand, S., Kirti, A., and Ramesh, H. 2017. Remote Sensing and GIS for Civil Engineering Applications and Human Development. International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography, Volume 5, No. 1, Pages 1–18. Torres, H. N., Ruiz, J. M., Chang, G. K., Anderson, J. L., and Garber, S. I. 2018. Automation in highway construction part I: Implementation challenges at state transportation departments and success stories (No. FHWA-HRT-16-030). Federal Highway Administration, Office of Infrastructure Research and Development. C.5 Mobile Technology and Laptop Applications What Is It? Mobile technology refers to both hardware and software that can be used in the field to access and gather project-related information. Portable devices, such as mobile field pads and laptops, and their applications are handheld electronic tools that are self-contained and possess the ability to run multiple software applications including, but not limited to, sharing, storing, and retrieving text graphics, and graphical data. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-8 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Why Use It? These electronic devices and their applications increase the productivity of field-generated data, decrease the cycle time of data available to other construction staff, and decrease the time required for contract administrative duties. Construction inspectors need to verify that contractors are complying with plans and specifications and are keeping records. The use of more advanced tools, such as tablet PCs, has allowed access to surface models (instead of 2D paper plans) and the creation/saving/transferring of electronic records instead of paper forms. What Does It Do? Portable devices and their applications allow inspection staff to complete their daily field reports remotely and access project information to help provide more timely and accurate responses to contractor questions. The mobile applications also help inspectors manage and report inspection processes of different construction operations in a paperless format. They are used in monitoring construction progress and safety inspections. When to Use It Mobile technology became widely available and affordable. Transportation agencies can use this technology to streamline operations involved in project inspection. Table C-5 summarizes project types and works where portable devices and their applications can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-5. Use of portable devices and applications. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-9   Additional Resources Yamaura, J., and Muench, S. T. 2018. Assessing the impacts of mobile technology on public transportation project inspection. Automation in Construction, Volume 96, Pages 55–64. Yamaura, J., White, G., Katara, S., Willoughby, K., Garcia, R., and Beer, M. 2015. Project Inspection Using Mobile Technology – Phase II: Assessing the Impacts of Mobile Technology on Project Inspection. WSDOT Research Report WA-RD 840.2. Snow, M., White, G., Katara, S., Willoughby, K., and Garcia, R. 2013. Project Inspection Using Mobile Technology – Phase I: an investigation into existing business processes and areas for improvement using mobile technology. WSDOT Research Report WA-RD 840.1. C.6 Light Detection and Ranging What Is It? Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as 3D laser scanning, is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges (variable distances). It is a relatively recent geospatial technology in the area of construction that can be used to acquire critical geometric information efficiently and with exceptional detail. Why Use It? LiDAR is a time-efficient way to collect geometric data of a highway construction site with comparable accuracy. Compared to traditional surveying, it requires fewer hours from highway agency staff, allows accelerated construction schedules, and enhances safety by reducing the amount of time surveying crews and inspectors are exposed to traffic. What Does It Do? It can be used to provide information for project management and surveying, where scanners emit pulses of light (at speeds ranging from thousands to millions of points per second) to acquire X, Y, Z (3D) positions of points within an area of interest, producing a point cloud. The powerful, high-resolution 3D point cloud provides a digital representation of the physical world that engineers and inspectors can repeatedly explore, query, and analyze to mine important information. When to Use It LiDAR can help inspection of construction and maintenance projects in different ways such as providing information for analysis and simulation, determining repair and maintenance requirements as needed for every project, and delivering precise and quick surveys right from the start of the project. Some other applications of LiDAR are the ability to measure lengths and stockpile or excavation volumes. The use of UASs and handheld or backpack LiDAR facilitates this capability. FHWA also just initiated a research effort to evaluate the mini-LiDAR capabilities built into Apple consumer products which may potentially allow this capability in a phone or tablet and make it available to every inspector as a tool. Table C-6 summarizes project types and works where LiDAR can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

C-10 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Table C-6. Use of LiDAR technology. Additional Resources Harper, C., Tran, D., and Jaselskis, E. 2019. NCHRP Synthesis 534: Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/login.php?record_id=25540&page=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nap.edu%2Fdo wnload%2F25540. Federal Highway Administration. 2017. Effective Use of Geospatial Tools in Highway Construction. https://research.transportation.org/wpcontent/plugins/AASHTO_RAC/download_file.php?fileid= 571. Florida Department of Transportation. 2013. LiDAR in Roadway Design & Construction. http://www.fdot.gov/design/Training/DesignExpo/2013/Presentations/KnaakTed- LidarInRoadwayDesignConstruction.pdf. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-11   C.7 e-Ticketing What Is It? Under the traditional ticketing process, an inspector records the quantity of materials incorporated into the work using haul tickets. The truck driver receives a haul ticket after the truck is loaded with construction materials. When the truck arrives at the construction site or operation, the street inspector takes the ticket and records the information in the record of delivery. The e-ticketing technology consists of GPS and software to track and record material delivery to the construction site automatically. Why Use It? The e-ticketing technology replaced the traditional ticketing process by automatedly using GPS and software to track and record material delivery to the construction site (Dadi et al. 2020; Harper et al. 2019). Through a paperless process, it helps inspectors track, document, and archive materials tickets and accessible in real-time via mobile devices. It enhances the safety of the inspection workforce and eliminates the need for an F/T ticket taker resulting in a significant savings in inspection labor. What Does It Do? E-ticketing simplifies ticket handling using electronic and digital exchanges. It is used to record and document the amount of construction materials that each truck delivers to the construction site or operation. The materials tracked by this technology include HMA, PCCP, and earthwork. When to Use It Table C-7 summarizes project types and works where e-ticketing can be used to support inspection, save time, and alleviate staffing shortages.

C-12 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Table C-7. Use of e-ticketing technology. Additional Resources Dadi, G. B., Sturgill Jr., R. E., Patel, D., Van Dyke, C., and Mulder, G. 2020. NCHRP Synthesis 545: Electronic Ticketing of Materials for Construction Management. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/login.php?action=guest&record_id=25839. Harper, C., Tran, D., and Jaselskis, E. 2019. NCHRP Synthesis 534: Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/login.php?record_id=25540&page=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nap.edu%2Fdo wnload%2F25540. C.8 Paver�Mounted Thermal Pro�iler What Is It? The paver-mounted thermal profiler (PMTP) technology includes two major components. The first component is infrared sensors, or a thermal camera mounted high up on a paver. The second component is a radar system for testing the entire surface area of the paved material. PMTP is often used in combination with Intelligent Compaction (IC) to improve asphalt paving quality. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation X X X X X Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-13   Why Use It? The PMTP is mounted to a paver, providing professionals with real-time two-dimensional infrared thermal maps of the mat behind it. Its noncontact surface temperature measurements can help detect thermal segregation, which can make field density difficult to achieve. If severe, segregation has been found to lead to other distresses that reduce the pavement’s service life. PMTP can be used as a quality control tool to improve uniformity, providing not only temperature information but also information to address factors such as paving speed, loading, hauling times, mechanical issues, and the number of stops. What Does It Do? Compared to the conventional methods that may consume time, PMTP detects temperature segregation problems and indicates the quality of the paving process in real-time, which facilitates inspection of HMA. It is a nondestructive testing method for QA/QC. PMTP tests the entire surface area of the asphalt pavement at the moment the HMA is laid down. This allows an inspector to detect temperature segregation problems behind the paver in real-time and adjust during construction (Dadi et al. 2020; Torres et al. 2018). When to Use It PMTP helps to improve the monitoring and quality of the asphalt mat and can be an effective on-site visual aid for training industry and agency personnel. Table C-8 summarizes project types and works where PMTP can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-8. Use of PMTP technology. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment X X X X X Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base X X X X X Pavement base X X X X X Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation X X X X X Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-14 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Additional Resources Dadi, G. B., Sturgill Jr., R. E., Patel, D., Van Dyke, C., and Mulder, G. 2020. NCHRP Synthesis 545: Electronic Ticketing of Materials for Construction Management. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. (Project 20-05, Topic 50-07). Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/login.php?action=guest&record_id=25839 Torres, H., Ruiz, J. M., Chang, G. K., Anderson, J., and Garber, S. 2018. Report No. FHWA-HRT-16-030: Automation in Highway Construction Part I: Implementation Challenges at State Transportation Departments and Success Stories. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/16030/160672 30.pdf C.9 Concrete Temperature and Maturity Meter What Is It? Concrete temperature and maturity meter (CTMM) testing is specifically defined as the relationship between concrete temperature, time, and strength gain and is represented by an index that can be measured in the field in real-time. This technology involves monitoring temperatures of concrete at early ages to improve overall QA, prevent cracking, estimate strength, and determine the optimal time for surface texturing, post-tensioning, joint sawing, opening to traffic, and form removal. Why Use It? Concrete maturity testing is a solution for the construction industry to help assess the compressive strength of the concrete. This method of inspection has been a more accurate way to estimate the in situ strength of concrete and can reduce the use of traditional, time-consuming, and less representative inspection and testing methods such as concrete cylinders. It is a nondestructive testing method for QA/QC. The maturity method of concrete testing usually does not require as much field-testing of specimens like beams and cylinders, which do not necessarily show the actual pavement strength. It can allow the pavement to be opened to traffic quickly. What Does It Do? As mentioned earlier in this section, maturity meters have been used to measure and log internal concrete temperature and time. They have been commonly used for two purposes: (1) recording of temperatures in mass concrete for the purpose of determining temperature gradients and (2) implementation of the maturity method for evaluating early-age strength. When to Use It Table C-9 summarizes project types and works where CTMM can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-15   Table C-9. Use of CTMM technology. Additional Resources Anderson, K. W., Uhlmeyer, J. S., Kinne, C., Pierce, L. M., and Muench, S. 2009. Report No. WA-RD 698.1: Use of the maturity method in accelerated PCCP construction. Washington State Department of Transportation. Olympia, WA. Torres, H., Ruiz, J. M., Chang, G. K., Anderson, J., and Garber, S. 2018. Report No. FHWA-HRT-16-030: Automation in Highway Construction Part I: Implementation Challenges at State Transportation Departments and Success Stories. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/16030/160672 30.pdf C.10 Intelligent Compaction What Is It? Intelligent Compaction (IC) has been described as an equipment-based technology for better QC that results in longer pavement lives. IC machines include vibratory rollers with accelerometers mounted on the axle of drums, a GPS device, infrared temperature sensors, and onboard computers that can display color-coded maps in real-time to track roller passes, surface temperatures, and stiffness of compacted materials. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment X X X X X Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base X X X X X Pavement base X X X X X Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-16 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Why Use It? The IC technology can be applied to all pavement layer materials from the ground up. It improves the consistency of compaction, increases productivity, and maps the record of material stiffness values. This technology may help inspectors measure surface temperatures and stiffness of compacted materials, improve the uniformity of compaction across the roadway, and can reduce the use of traditional inspection and testing methods. What Does It Do? Current procedures using conventional compaction machines may result in inadequate or nonuniform material densities, which can be one of the major factors in premature pavement failure. IC helps users overcome this issue by optimizing the compaction process. This technology determines and achieves the optimal number of roller passes to prevent under/over compaction, which translates into fuel/operation savings and improved quality. Uniformity and consistency have also been benefits of using IC. When to Use It Table C-10 summarizes project types and works where IC can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-10. Use of IC technology. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation X X X X X Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-17   Additional Resources Torres, H., Ruiz, J. M., Chang, G. K., Anderson, J., and Garber, S. 2018. Report No. FHWA-HRT-16-030: Automation in Highway Construction Part I: Implementation Challenges at State Transportation Departments and Success Stories. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/16030/160672 30.pdf Federal Highway Administration. 2011. Accelerated Implementation of Intelligent Compaction Technology for Embankment Subgrade Soils, Aggregate Base and Asphalt Pavement Material. Transportation Pooled Fund – Study Detail. http://www.pooledfund.org/details/study/359. Federal Highway Administration. 2014. Intelligent Compaction Technology for Asphalt Applications: Generic—IC Specifications for Asphalt Materials. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/ictssc/ic_specs_hma.pdf Federal Highway Administration. 2014. Intelligent Compaction Technology for Soils Applications: Generic—IC Specifications for Soils. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/ictssc/ic_specs_soils.pdf C.11 Electronic Field Books What Is It? Electronic field books refer to an array of handheld electronic devices that are self-contained and possess the ability to run multiple software applications as well as store and retrieve text and graphical data remotely. Electronic field books may be in the form of either laptop or tablet applications. The devices may either be connected to remote servers with the ability to continually access and retrieve data when needed or designed to synchronize their data when they come in a range of a hotspot, such as through a smartphone or other signal types such as a Wi-Fi signal. Why Use It? The integration and automation of information systems improve the task productivity of construction staff, thereby allowing them to work across multiple projects over larger geographical areas. The major benefits of electronic field books are an increase in the organization of field-generated data, a decrease in the cycle time of that data’s availability to other construction staff, and a decrease in the time required for contract administrative duties. What Does It Do? Electronic field books as an application included in portable devices allow construction staff to complete their daily field reports remotely and also access project information to help provide more timely and accurate responses to contractor questions. The purpose of the electronic field book is to act as a guide for the individual responsible for processing construction and inspection data.

C-18 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide When to Use It Electronic field books can help with data organization, data documentation, data exchange, and data access. Table C-11 summarizes project types and works where electronic field books can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-11. Use of electronic field books. Additional Resources Harper, C., Tran, D., and Jaselskis, E. 2019. NCHRP Synthesis 534: Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Hannon, J. J. 2007. NCHRP Synthesis 372: Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. C.12 Digital Terrain Models What Is It? Digital terrain modeling, sometimes referred to as digital elevation modeling, is the development of a digital surface representation of bare-ground topography and terrain for an area. Digital terrain models (DTMs) Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-19   should not be confused with digital surface models, which may include objects on the ground’s surface. DTMs are produced via multiple methods but often through remote sensing modes, such as photogrammetry, in lieu of traditional surveying methods. Why Use It? DTMs have a host of uses; they are an integral part of using automated machine guidance when incorporating 3D engineered models. In addition to the ability to better communicate features of the ground surface such as drainage, DTMs provide enhanced abilities to determine earthwork quantities over the traditional cross-section average-end method. When using advanced surveying equipment, the incorporation of DTMs and 3D engineered models can reduce the surveying workload substantially. Some states have eliminated the need to quantify earthwork by paying plan quantities due to the accuracy provided in DTMs. Beyond construction, DTMs provide transportation agencies improved accuracy for element location, geographic information systems, and system planning. What Does It Do? DTMs provide digital surface elevation and locations in a model produced by a number of known points connected in surfaces defined by varying geometries. The density of known points is an indication of the accuracy level of the DTM. These models provide an accurate representation of the earth’s surface in a digital environment capable of being manipulated and analyzed in many ways. Because DTMs represent the ground surface and not features on it, they typically are accurate for longer periods than other models. The digital model of the ground surface and terrain provides the transportation agency a powerful tool for purposes of planning, design, construction, and asset management. When to Use It DTMs are the cornerstone to moving into digital construction management and 3D engineered models. They have applications across sectors of transportation agencies, from planning to asset management. Many transportation agencies incorporate DTM usage as standard practice since they can provide benefits in many areas. In regard to construction and surveying, DTMs can help reduce the staffing needs for surveying and earthwork quantity verification. Table C-12 summarizes project types and works where DTMs can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

C-20 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Table C-12. Use of digital terrain models. Additional Resources Li, Z., Zhu, Q., and Gold, C. 2005. Digital Terrain Modeling: Principles and Methodology. CRC Press. https:// nguyenduyliemgis.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/digital-terrain-modeling-principles-and- methodology_ 2005.pdf. Reeder, G., and Nelson, G. 2015. 3D Engineered Models for Highway Construction: The Iowa Experience. National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, InTrans Report 14–489. http://publications.iowa.gov/20318/1/IADOT_InTrans_RB33_014_Reeder_Implementation_Man ual_3D_Engineered_Models_Highway_ Const_2015_Final.pdf. Vonderohe, A. 2009. Status and Plans for Implementing 3D Technologies for Design and Construction in the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. CFIRE Report 02–11, 2009. http://www.wistrans.org/cfire/documents/ FR_CFIRE0211.pdf. C.13 Global Navigation Satellite System What Is It? The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a satellite system that provides geospatial positioning anywhere on earth. Examples of GNSS are the United States’ GPS and the Russian Federation’s Global Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-21   Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). When connected to cloud technology, GNSS can gather and analyze important location-based data. Why Use It? Locating assets on a large construction project site can be both inconvenient and time-consuming. GNSS technology allows construction inspectors to track and locate construction equipment, materials, and others in real-time. GNSS has become a mainstream geospatial technology, enabling data to be linked together into a common coordinate system and provided in context with surroundings. What Does It Do? Significant research and development have enabled GNSS measurements to produce survey-grade results in real-time or with post-processing techniques. GNSS surveys are particularly useful for surveys over large extents (several miles), where error propagation would be significant for most traditional surveying techniques. This enables information to be presented in context with its surroundings. It also enables data to be acquired at remote sites. When to Use It Table C-13 summarizes project types and works where GNSS can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-13. Use of global navigation satellite system. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-22 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Additional Resources Daniels, D. J. 2005. Ground Penetrating Radar. Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering. Morcous, G., and Erdogmus. E. 2009. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Construction Quality Assurance of Concrete Pavement. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3bea/b3650d1009b87ac3b615e4cb832979eaf299.pdf. Xia, T., and Huston, D. 2016. High Speed Ground Penetrating Radar for Road Pavement and Bridge Structural Inspection and Maintenance. No. SPR-RSCH017-738. University of Vermont. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1760/701c1a13be47bee80ec8f948a450a3cfd95e.pdf. C.14 Robotic Total Stations What Is It? A robotic total station (RTS) is an enhanced total station allowing a single operator to conduct site layout measurements. The RTS can conduct typical horizontal and vertical measurements like most total stations, yet the RTS will automatically track the operator with the prism or can be remotely controlled by the operator. Additionally, the use of RTS supports e-Construction and paperless data collection. RTSs typically can entail surveying directly from the 2D or 3D models uploaded into the RTS. Why Use It? Using RTSs provides instantaneous field-surveying efficiency and dramatic increases in productivity for surveying activities. The ability to upload 2D/3D plans enables efficient, more accurate, and easy project layout. Projected locations provided by RTSs are according to the as-designed plans, which means fewer opportunities for mistakes. The system provides paperless access and data recording for documentation, such as producing as-built plans. RTSs are instrumental to agencies moving toward e-Construction and civil integrated management (CIM) processes. Labor requirements are drastically reduced due to single-operator capability, and the efficiencies accumulated through the automatic location of the prism can realize increases in productivity of 500% to 600%. What Does It Do? Total stations are an optical electronic instrument with onboard electronic distance measurement. They include onboard computing and data storage capabilities such that they can communicate surveying calculations to the user instantaneously or provide facility layout from input location points. The data storage allows for surveying data collection for electronic field books, development of as-built plans, and asset management, among other applications. Point measurement and layout are based on the positioning and setup of the total station instrument and its communication with a reflective prism target. Total stations are capable of distance measurement, angle measurement, coordinate measurement, and data processing. RTSs allow all of this functionality with improved efficiency and automatic location of the prism and operation by a single surveyor.

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-23   When to Use It RTSs can easily be used in any situation that would typically involve a conventional total station. The use of RTSs in place of a conventional total station provides benefits in times when resources constrain the workload needs of surveying operations. The use of RTSs should be considered as a replacement option for conventional total stations since the investment in these instruments can be large, and there is no need to replicate the functionality. The enhanced production of the RTS systems can often provide a return justifying their purchase. Table C-14 summarizes project types and works where RTS can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-14. Use of robotic total stations. Additional Resources Crumal, Z. 2019. What Is a Robotic Total Station? Here’s Everything You Need to Know. Retrieved from Connect & Construct: https://connect.bim360.autodesk.com/what-is-a-robotic-total-station. North Dakota Department of Transportation 2007. Training Manual for Robotic and Conventional Total Stations. https://www.dot.nd.gov/manuals/design/surveymanual/total-station.pdf. Parker, M., Merkel, H., and Armstrong, M. 2014. Improving Performance with the Robotic Total Station. Retrieved from NABHOLZ: https://www.nabholz.com/improving-performance-with-the-robotic- total-station/. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-24 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide C.15 Remote Video Monitoring What Is It? Remote video monitoring provides remote monitoring of construction project site conditions, work progress, security, and safety. Remote video systems use cameras based on internet protocol (IP) and video management software to remotely monitor specific locations. Why Use It? Remote video monitoring systems help to minimize the number of on-site visits by project management personnel who are located away from the construction jobsites. Remote video monitoring systems make available live or recorded video status records of the project’s progress to stakeholders such as company executives; subcontractors; local, state, and federal agencies; and the public at large. Remote video monitoring systems help reduce transportation costs and maximize response time to any events by providing real-time video surveillance of the construction sites. What Does It Do? Remote video monitoring systems can be used by project managers, engineers, executives, and security personnel to monitor jobs remotely. Remote video cameras are connected to a subscriber unit that uplinks the IP video to its corresponding access point located at the on-site offices. Real-time videos are then relayed through the internet to the clients’ devices. When to Use It Table C-15 summarizes project types and works where remote video monitoring can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages. Table C-15. Use of remote video monitoring. Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-25   Additional Resources True Look. Construction Cameras. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.truelook.com/. McCrea, A., Chamberlain, D., and Navon, R., 2002. Automated inspection and restoration of steel bridges—A critical review of methods and enabling technologies. Automation in Construction, 11(4), Pages 351–373. Jaselskis, E., Sankar, A., Yousif, A., Clark, B., and Chinta, V. 2015. Using telepresence for real-time monitoring of construction operations. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(1): A4014011. C.16 Unmanned Aerial Systems What Is It? An unmanned aerial system (UAS) consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), also referred to as a drone, its control system, ground and satellite communications, and an operator. This is a relatively new technology that has rapidly grown in popularity and has a host of uses and potential uses. UAS technology is relatively inexpensive. Only recent FAA limitations and requirements have curbed the rapid rate of their implementation into recreational and commercial use. These limitations and requirements were necessary to provide safety mechanisms for the public and aircraft. Software and applications beyond those fundamental to the operation of the UAS may provide for advanced uses of the data collected by the UAS, such as software capable of producing 3D models from aerial photography and data captured in flights. Why Use It? UAS usage has grown drastically in recent history, with a reported 33 state transportation agencies (STAs) investigating their use according to a 2016 AASHTO survey (AASHTO 2016). While multiple uses exist, aerial photography and videography tend to be the primary uses. These uses can expand into aerial mapping, surveying, and photogrammetry. UASs can also be used for remote visual inspection or inspection of areas unsafe or impractical for an in-person inspection. Their inspection use can also simply provide for reduced in-person inspection needs by highlighting the areas in most need. The mapping and photogrammetry can produce 3D models that provide for a realm of possible construction applications, from producing as-built models to calculations of earthwork or other quantities. UAS use can be extremely beneficial in fast and Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

C-26 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide efficient operations with reductions in impacts on traffic. An AASHTO report indicated savings for particular inspections could be as much as 95% (AASHTO 2016). What Does It Do? There are numerous out-of-the-box UAS solutions available as well as options for developing customized solutions. The basis for most UAS configurations is an aerial craft equipped with navigable controls, GPS capability, and photography or videography capabilities. The aerial vehicles may be rotorcraft or fixed wings, typically depending on their intended uses and desired flight times for given battery life. UASs are also capable of integrating various remote sensing technologies, such as LiDAR sensors, thermal imaging cameras, and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras, at a range of costs. These varying setups can provide a host of functions for state agencies and contractors alike. Several resources present varying applications in the highway construction sector, but the most popular are: • Aerial photography and videography, • Photogrammetry and 3D modeling, • Remote inspection (landslides, structures, confined spaces, etc.), • Surveying, quantity estimates, measurement, and calculations (volumes, areas, etc.), • Collection of as-built information (photo, video, and models), • Traffic volume and flow monitoring, and • Forensic investigation (thermal imaging, LiDAR, etc.). When to Use It The UAS technology will likely become commonplace for supporting the efficiency and production of construction field staff, much in the same way as digital cameras, mobile phones, and tablets. Currently, UAS use may be considered where construction inspection staff could benefit from alternative methods for surveying, visual data capture, and remote inspection. The most successful implementations of this technology will occur where there is an advanced technology culture within the agency and where construction staff has willingly adopted other mobile technologies to support their workload. The technology is advancing quickly and requires a significant time commitment to make full use of it during implementation. Another way to implement the technology is to hire UAS consultant contractors to capture the desired information for the agency. Table C-16 summarizes project types and works where unmanned aerial systems can be used to support inspection and alleviate staffing shortages.

Emerging Inspection Technology Applications C-27   Table C-16. Use of unmanned aerial systems. Additional Resources AASHTO. 2016. AASHTO Transportation TV Special Report. Survey Finds a Growing Number of State DOTs Are Using Drones to Improve Safety and Collect Data Faster and Better: Saving Time and Money. https://indd.adobe.com/view/78d3b1d3-13c3-42c0-8bf2-75ea8c534d1a. California Department of Transportation. 2014. Preliminary Investigation. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Steep Terrain Investigation. http://www.dot.ca.gov/newtech/researchreports/preliminary_ investigations/docs/unmanned_aerial_systems_preliminary_investigation_rev8-14-14.pdf Dadi, G. B., Sturgill Jr., R. E., and Wang, X. 2016. NCHRP Synthesis 491: Uses of Mobile Information Technology Devices in the Field for Design, Construction, and Asset Management. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Kokosing Construction Company, Inc. 2017. How Can Drones Stop My Projects from Going Late and Over-budget? Retrieved from Identified Technologies: https://www.identifiedtech.com/wp- content/uploads/2017/04/Identified-Technologies-Kokosing-Case-Study.pdf Tatum, M., and Liu, J. 2017. Unmanned Aircraft System Applications in Construction. Procedia Engineering, Volume 196, Pages 167–175, ISSN 1877-7058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.187 Wang, X., Al-Shabbani, Z., Sturgill, R., Kirk, A., and Dadi, G. B. 2017. Estimating Earthwork Volumes Through Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2630, Pages 1–8. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3141/2630-01 Project Types Road— New Construction/ Expansion Road— Rehabilitation /Resurfacing Bridge— New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation /embankment Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement base Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting ITS Notes: Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) Indirectly applicable X Not applicable

Next: Appendix D - Illustrative Case Study Application of RBI Framework to Optimize Inspection Resources »
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Due to budget cuts and reduced experience levels of inspectors and engineers, state departments of transportation (DOTs) have implemented risk-based strategies to achieve greater efficiency in construction inspection. These strategies include prioritizing inspection based on inherent risks related to construction operations, using emerging technology applications to save time, and accepting certification and contractors' test results to offset shortages of experienced inspection resources.

NCHRP Research Report 1039: Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, discusses the importance of construction inspection and aims to assist state DOTs and the U.S. Federal Highway Administration in meeting quality standards.

Supplemental to the report are NCHRP Web-Only Document 344: Risk-Based Construction Inspection: Conduct of Research Report and an Inspection Risk Assessment Questionnaire.

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