National Academies Press: OpenBook

Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - Implementation Strategies

« Previous: Chapter 4 - Determine Project-Level Resource Optimization
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Implementation Strategies." National Research Council. 2023. Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27099.
×
Page 39
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Implementation Strategies." National Research Council. 2023. Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27099.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Implementation Strategies." National Research Council. 2023. Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27099.
×
Page 41

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

39   Implementing new programs is always somewhat challenging. Agencies and the industry usu- ally find it easier to implement changes in business practices such as RBI in steps or increments. Typical implementation strategies include involving users and stakeholders in the discussion and validation of the RBI guidelines to ensure all parties have the same level of understanding and the same desired outcome. Establishing the need, understanding the process, and commu- nicating the benefits to the organization through education and training are essential steps for all that are involved in implementing and executing the changes. 5.1 Establishing the Need and Communicating the Benefits A strong endorsement from internal DOT senior management can help garner internal sup- port for the changes needed to fully deploy RBI on a programmatic level. To gain such support, best practice suggests first establishing the specific rationale as to why RBI represents a necessary addition to a DOT’s approach to construction inspection. For example, the literature suggests that implementing RBI has the potential to prioritize and leverage limited inspection resources, improve the efficiency of inspections, promote the adoption of new technology, and modernize documentation efforts. If the use of RBI suggests that it would provide a better means of achiev- ing a DOT’s strategic goals than traditional construction inspection, a greater sense of urgency can be created regarding the implementation effort. In the absence of a compelling reason to change, construction staff will retain the standard inspection processes that are familiar to them. Once the need for RBI is established, it is impor- tant to communicate this need through a clear and concise vision statement. The vision statement should serve to both motivate individuals and ensure everyone is working toward a common goal. A DOT with fewer resources to devote to construction inspection may wish to communi- cate that RBI will allow the DOT to achieve greater efficiency with existing available inspection resources by prioritizing higher-risk work items. Similarly, DOTs that are more interested in innovation may wish to focus on emerging technologies applied to construction inspection. Emerging technologies are often difficult for a DOT to absorb into daily practice. To ensure an adequate return on investment, DOTs can develop an implementation and rollout plan to shep- herd new technology into routine use. Depending on the technology, this may require managing large quantities of electronic data, and there is often a learning curve before the full potential of the new technology can be realized. To avoid discouragement, it is also important to acknowledge that successful implementation of RBI will not occur overnight. A DOT may have to devote considerable time and resources to collect the historical data needed to establish reasonable estimates of RBI resources. Investment C H A P T E R 5 Implementation Strategies

40 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide in new technologies and information systems may also be necessary to support all the tools that the agency wishes to implement. A powerful way to communicate this message is through the successes and lessons learned from pilot or demonstration projects. In relating this information, it is important to make a conscious attempt to convey exactly how the use of the new RBI process helped to improve performance. If people are left to draw their own conclusions, they may not make the right associations. People could associate a project’s success with the fact that it was performed by the DOT’s “A” team, including the DOT’s most seasoned inspectors, and not realize that it was the project’s RBI plan that helped promote improved performance. 5.2 Piloting the RBI Methodology with a Selected Number of Stakeholder DOTs Piloting RBI methodology on a selected number and variety of construction activities with a stakeholder DOT (or DOTs) needs to be part of field trials on several projects to test the impact over a period of time. This is a first step or proof of concept. The DOT can then evaluate the effec- tiveness of RBI and make adjustments as necessary. After the cycle of field trials and adjustments stabilizes the process, the piloting agency can move toward a more robust implementation on a project or programmatic basis. 5.3 Demonstrating Savings with RBI and Emerging Technology Pilot projects are a proven tool for verifying and fine-tuning new procedures, specifications, and construction inspection practices resulting from research. The verification process typically involves benchmarking by comparing the outcomes of projects using traditional inspection pro- cedures with the performance of projects using the new RBI practices to determine the relative success. Appendix D includes an illustrative case study demonstrating the application of the RBI framework to optimize inspection resources. Additional case studies and demonstrations will further support the implementation of an RBI framework. The lessons learned during the field trials should be communicated to stakeholders, and any changes to the approach can be made. Evaluation and communication with all stakeholders dur- ing implementation are important. A system should be set up to track efficiencies and resulting inspection resource savings on field trials and following a project or regional implementation phase. 5.4 Training and Outreach As part of a short-term implementation strategy, the products of this research effort can be effectively broadcast to stakeholders through a series of webinars, supplemented by articles and presentations at highway industry forums. A potential topic area for project managers may include “Optimizing Inspection Resources using RBI.” This could address risk assessment of core construction items for specific project types or elements, estimating inspection resource needs, and other management considerations related to the use of RBI. A potential webinar could also address the use of emerging technology and tools to enhance inspection and stream- line documentation. Longer-term outreach activities could entail developing materials for 1-day or 2-day work- shop, or more formalized training programs sponsored by the National Highway Institute, the

Implementation Strategies 41   FHWA Resource Center, state highway agencies, university-affiliated transportation institutes, or other forums. The National Highway Institute presents a construction course addressing inspection best practices. A training module could be created to include the instruction for developing and implementing RBI. Once the training module is developed, a training workshop can be conducted with a partici- pating DOT as a part of the rollout of the guide. The module can introduce the guide to DOT staff and stakeholders and present the steps involved in developing and implementing a risk- based construction inspection program. The workshop will present a project case study example in detail and lead a discussion about effective RBI implementation planning. 5.5 Demonstrations Working with one or two selected DOTs that are in the process of implementing or have not implemented RBI, two case studies will be developed as part of implementation activities. The first will demonstrate how a programmatic approach to risk-based construction inspection can optimize inspection resources by prioritizing inspection and testing activities for more critical work items. The second case study will demonstrate how implementing a project-level risk- based construction inspection methodology can save or leverage limited inspection resources and documentation efforts based on risks, the project profile, staff experience, industry capa- bilities, and advanced technology applications. The demonstrations will benchmark risk-based methods against current state practices to illustrate how RBI can optimize inspection based on risks and other considerations. As a starting point for implementing RBI, a DOT can refer to Appendix A of this guide. Sec- tion A.3 includes expert ratings compiled for field inspection activities from 15 DOTs, includ- ing average risk scores, inspection frequencies, documentation levels, and inspector experience levels. This data can be used as a starting point for a DOT to compile its own ratings or as an independent check for a DOT after conducting an internal risk rating exercise.

Next: References and Other Resources »
Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide Get This Book
×
 Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Due to budget cuts and reduced experience levels of inspectors and engineers, state departments of transportation (DOTs) have implemented risk-based strategies to achieve greater efficiency in construction inspection. These strategies include prioritizing inspection based on inherent risks related to construction operations, using emerging technology applications to save time, and accepting certification and contractors' test results to offset shortages of experienced inspection resources.

NCHRP Research Report 1039: Risk-Based Construction Inspection: A Guide, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, discusses the importance of construction inspection and aims to assist state DOTs and the U.S. Federal Highway Administration in meeting quality standards.

Supplemental to the report are NCHRP Web-Only Document 344: Risk-Based Construction Inspection: Conduct of Research Report and an Inspection Risk Assessment Questionnaire.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!