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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27131.
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N AT I O N A L C O O P E R AT I V E H I G H W AY R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1068 Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis PRACTITIONER’S GUIDE Christopher M. Day John Shaw Arya Haghighat Anuj Sharma Institute for Transportation Iowa State University Ames, IA A. M. Tahsin Emtenan Center for Advanced Transportation Technology (CATT) Laboratory University of Maryland College Park, MD Pat Hawley R. A. Smith, Inc. Brookfield, WI Mark Shields Quality Counts Herndon, VA Subscriber Categories Design • Operations and Traffic Management • Policy Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration 2023

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1068 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most Project 03-136 effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by ISBN 978-0-309-69915-0 state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities Library of Congress Control Number 2023945785 and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern COPYRIGHT INFORMATION scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the published or copyrighted material used herein. full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the ment No. 693JJ31950003. understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation NOTICE subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation directly to those in a position to use them. Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- FHWA; or the program sponsors. tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- procedures, or specifications. tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1068 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Arefeh Nasri, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell-Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 03-136 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control Vicki Sue Haskell, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI (Chair) Julius A. Codjoe, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge, LA Eric Alan Hathaway, City of Ithaca, Ithaca, NY Marcus H. Januario, Shive-Hattery, Cedar Rapids, IA Donald Raymond Sweezy, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY Xianfeng Yang, University of Maryland, College Park, MD Hong Zhang, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge, LA James P. Sturrock, FHWA Liaison Douglas E. Noble, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research team wishes to thank the members of the technical advisory panel for suggestions during the execution of this NCHRP project. They also wish to thank several individuals for their consideration, time, and effort in assisting with video data collection: Mark Taylor and colleagues with the Utah Depart- ment of Transportation (UDOT); Shawn Gotfredson with the City of Overland Park, Kansas; Gang Xie with the Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada; Tony Geara with the City of Detroit, Michigan; Brian Guy with the City of Omaha, Nebraska; and April Wire with the Maricopa County DOT (MCDOT) in Arizona.

FOREWORD By Arefeh Nasri Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Research Report 1068 presents quantitative models for estimating right-turn- on-red (RTOR) volume and capacity. The developed tools will be of interest to state departments of transportation (DOTs) seeking a consistent approach to analyzing RTOR volume, individuals analyzing traffic control devices and/or maintain highway design manuals, and those who need to estimate RTOR volume and capacity for various traffic analyses purposes. RTOR is permitted as an effective approach to reduce delay at signalized intersections, especially where there is a high volume of right-turn movements. The conflicting inter­ section movements of motorized and nonmotorized users constitute a critical issue that affects signal operation and safety. A method is needed to estimate the RTOR flow volume and its effect on delays because current RTOR estimates are not reliable for planning- or operational-level applications. Gaps in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) method include (1) the lack of guidelines on whether RTOR should be implemented or not; (2) the current signal timing model that does not adequately reflect the true operational effects of RTOR; (3) no volume estimation model for right-turn delay; and (4) the pedestrian method that does not consider RTOR flow rate as an input nor does the existing RTOR guidance adequately consider nonmotorized users. As a result, agencies throughout the country have applied different RTOR techniques, which may lead to confusion. The development of an HCM method, therefore, will provide guidance on RTOR implementation and will assist agencies and practitioners by providing a consolidated body of knowledge on RTOR analysis. Under NCHRP Project 03-136, “Evaluating the Performance of Right-Turn-On-Red Operation at Signalized Intersections (with Single and Dual Right-Turn Lanes),” Iowa State University was asked to (1) evaluate methods for evaluating RTOR at signalized intersections (right-turn configurations including shared, single, and dual right-turn lanes); (2) develop methods and tools that consider all modes and inform planning and operational decisions; and (3) provide potential modifications to standard references in the HCM, NCHRP Report 812: Traffic Signal Manual, and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). The developed volume and capacity models enhance the state of the practice on RTOR design, support the HCM on RTOR volume estimation and site selection, and provide a better estimation of the delay due to RTOR movements. The output of volume estimation models developed in this study can be directly integrated into existing HCM analysis tools. In addition to NCHRP Research Report 1068, several deliverables that support its implemen- tation are available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org)

by searching on NCHRP Research Report 1068: Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner’s Guide • NCHRP Web-Only Document 368: Right-Turn-on-Red Operation at Signalized Intersections with Single and Dual Right-Turn Lanes: Evaluating Performance, summarizing the project’s scope, objectives, steps, and research findings, as well as implementation guidelines; • Two spreadsheet tools for practitioners’ use: one applies the RTOR model to a limited set of intersection configurations and allows for volume estimation based on various input scenarios, and the other provides an integration of the RTOR volume calculations into the HCM Computational Engine; and • A PowerPoint presentation summarizing NCHRP Research Report 1068.

CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1  Research Overview 1 1.1  Background and Introduction 2 1.2  Overview of the Spreadsheet Tool 2 1.3  Organization of this Guide 3 Chapter 2  RTOR and No Turn on Red Site Selection 3 2.1 Introduction 3 2.2  A Survey of RTOR Implementation Guidance 6 2.3  Discussion of Site Considerations 14 2.4  Summary of Considerations for RTOR Site Selection 16 Chapter 3  Spreadsheet Tool 16 3.1 Introduction 16 3.2  Limitations of the Spreadsheet Tool and Methodologies 17 3.3  Overview of the Spreadsheet Tool 18 3.4  Instructions for Use of the Spreadsheet Tool 26 3.5  Example Application and Comparison of Results 28 3.6  Calculation Sheets 28 3.7  Implementation of RTOR Models in the HCM Computational Engine 32 Chapter 4  Model Details 32 4.1 Introduction 32 4.2  Volume Estimation Methodology 35 4.3  Capacity Estimation Methodology 38 4.4  Estimation of Delay 39 4.5  Suggested Signal Timing 39 4.6 Conclusion 40 References Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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There is a need for improved techniques for estimating the performance of right-turn-on-red (RTOR) movements at signalized intersections.

NCHRP Research Report 1068: Right-Turn-on-Red Site Considerations and Capacity Analysis: Practitioner's Guide, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, presents two methods for estimating RTOR volume and capacity, and a spreadsheet tool to facilitate the use of these methods. The report also presents guidance on when to prohibit RTOR at a given intersection.

Supplemental to the report is NCHRP Web-Only Document 368: Right-Turn-on-Red Operation at Signalized Intersections with Single and Dual Right-Turn Lanes: Evaluating Performance, a presentation, a spreadsheet tool, and a Computational Engine with RTOR.

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