National Academies Press: OpenBook

Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements (2016)

Chapter: Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport-Specific T&E Programs

« Previous: Appendix D: Airport Training and Education Program Information
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport-Specific T&E Programs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport-Specific T&E Programs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport-Specific T&E Programs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Page 178
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport-Specific T&E Programs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Page 179

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ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements 173 Appendix E: Education Pipeline Information for MCOs Without Airport- Specific T&E Programs The largest gaps in coverage of airport mission critical occupations and competencies among airport-focused T&E programs occur in the electrical, engineering, and IT professions. As a result, airports cannot rely on airport oriented programs to fill these roles. The fact that a larger number of non-airport T&E programs support these occupations makes it difficult to evaluate their ability to support the workforce needs of airports. Essentially, airports are competing with a wide range of organization in the local, regional, and even national or international marketplaces for talent in these fields. The tables below are designed to help airports better understand how both demand in the broader economy and the educational and training pipeline for these occupations may impact availability of electrical, engineering, and IT talent. Each table includes information on a) the typical educational pathway for that career, b) recent trend data on the number of degrees or apprenticeships awarded annually, and c) the projected outlook for this segment of the industry. Electrician EDUCATIONAL PATHWAY Electricians typically need to be licensed; however, the level of required license varies by airport and position, and licensing requirements vary from state to state. While some electricians begin their training with a formal technical training program, others may immediately begin gaining experience in the field as an assistant. To become an Apprentice Electrician, a licensing exam may be required, and then an apprenticeship will typically last about four years. Following successful completion of an apprenticeship, a Journeyman Electrician licensing exam can be taken. For many airport electrician jobs, a Journeyman Electrician license is required; however, some jobs require a Master Electrician license. Airport electricians typically learn airport-specific requirements on the job rather than through formal education. Because airports have large, high voltage electrical systems, experience working with high voltage systems is often preferred. CURRENT PIPELINE The number of active electrician apprenticeships has fluctuated over the past five years from a low of approximately 33,000 in 2014 to a high of more than 37,000 in 2015 (DOL, 2015). Note that these numbers reflect total active apprenticeships (rather than annual completions or new enrollments), and that the average electrician apprenticeship lasts four years. Technical Training Program Electrician’s Assistant Apprentice Electrician License Journeyman Electrician License Master Electrician License 30,000 32,000 34,000 36,000 38,000 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 N um be r o f  Ap pr en tic es hi ps Active Electrician Apprenticeships

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements 174 Electrician PROJECTED OUTLOOK Approximately 85,900 new jobs are projected for Electricians through 2024 across industries. This represents growth of 14 percent, which is much faster than average (BLS, 2015). Additionally, the electrician workforce is aging, with more than 60 percent of the workforce over the age of 45 as of 2013 (Wright, 2013). Between industry growth and replacement needs, the Construction Labor Research Council (2013) estimated that nearly 170,000 new electricians would be needed over the ten-year period between 2012 and 2021. Overall, a shortage of electricians is anticipated across industries, including airports.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements 175 Engineer EDUCATIONAL PATHWAY Most engineering jobs require completing a four-year college degree (e.g., civil engineering, mechanical engineering) from an accredited engineering program. The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam can be taken after graduation to obtain an entry-level job. After at least four years of experience, it is possible to take the Professional Engineer (PE) exam to earn a PE license. Engineers may also choose to obtain additional certifications (e.g., Building Security Certified Professional (BSCP); Envision Sustainability Professional (ENV SP)) or graduate degrees (e.g., Master’s in Engineering) to further distinguish themselves. Airport-specific knowledge and skills are typically gained through experience rather than formal education. CURRENT PIPELINE The number of both Civil and Mechanical Engineering Bachelor’s degrees has been steadily increasing in recent years, from less than 8,000 Civil Engineering degrees in 2000-01 to nearly 13,000 in 2011-12 and less than 13,000 Mechanical Engineering degrees in 2000-01 to nearly 21,000 in 2011-12 (NCES, 2013). PROJECTED OUTLOOK Civil Engineering jobs are expected to see 8% growth through 2024 with 23,600 projected new jobs, while Mechanical Engineers are expected to see 5% growth with 14,600 new jobs projected. These growth rates are considered to be average. Engineering opportunities in airports are expected to grow as well, as the nation’s infrastructure and airports continue to age (BLS, 2015). With the growth in Engineering Bachelor’s degrees, there appears to be enough supply for the engineering pipeline in general; however, the availability of Airport Engineers specifically is difficult to ascertain from available data. Bachelor’s in Engineering Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam 4+ years Engineering Experience Professional Engineer (PE) License Further education/ certifications 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 N um be r o f D eg re es Engineering Bachelor's Degrees by Type Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements 176 Information Technology EDUCATIONAL PATHWAY Information technology (IT) encompasses a broad range of occupations, which vary in their educational requirements. While some IT jobs do not require a college degree (e.g., Support Specialists), a Bachelor’s degree in Computer or Information Sciences is required or preferred for many IT occupations (e.g., Computer Programmer, Computer Systems Analyst, Database Administrator, Software Developer, Information Security Analyst). Although much less common, some specialized IT jobs may require a graduate degree (e.g., Computer and Information Research Scientists). Airport-specific knowledge and skills are typically learned on the job rather than through formal education. CURRENT PIPELINE The number of Bachelor’s degrees in Computer and Information Sciences has fluctuated in recent years from a low of about 38,000 in 2008-2009 to a high of over 59,000 in 2003-2004. The number of degrees has been trending upward over the past few years (NCES, 2013). PROJECTED OUTLOOK The role of IT in airports is continuing to increase. For example, global airport spending on IT climbed to 5.82% of revenues in 2014, with projections of 6.25% for 2015 – a global amount of $8.7 billion (SITA, 2015). Growth is expected in most IT occupations through 2026, with the fastest growing jobs including Web Developers (27%), Computer Systems Analysts (21%), Software Applications Developers (19%), and Information Security Analysts (18%). Overall, IT jobs are projected to have 12% growth, which is faster than average. With strong competition for IT professionals across industries, airports may need to make a targeted effort to retain a capable IT workforce. Bachelor’s in Computer/ Information Science Graduate degree in Computer/ Information Science 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 N um be r o f D eg re es Bachelor's Degrees in Computer & Information Sciences

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements gathers information that will help identify and evaluate the current and future airport job requirements and associated workforce capacity needs; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and provide a practical guidebook that presents effective workforce planning and development strategies. The Web-Only document summarizes the information gathered in the first phase of the project.

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