National Academies Press: OpenBook

Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements (2016)

Chapter: Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations

« Previous: Chapter 2: Industry Trends & Challenges
Page 22
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 22
Page 23
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 23
Page 24
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 24
Page 25
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 25
Page 26
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 26
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 27
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 28
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 29
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 30
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 31
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 32
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 34
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 35
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 36
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 37
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 38
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 39
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 41
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 42
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 43
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 44
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 45
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 46
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 47
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 50
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 51
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 52
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 53
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 54
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 55
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 56
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 57
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 58
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 59
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 60
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 61
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 70
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 73
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 74
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 75
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 76
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 78
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 80
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 81
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 82
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3: Mission Critical Occupations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 83

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

November 2 Major Sec 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Value of C    Key Summ      How Lead    016 tions of Chapte Definition of Mis and the process u Identification of Information for E the future numbe development, and Demand for Miss Determining Mis the future scenari Identification of educational progr hapter to Airpo Airport MCOs are where workforce labor market that aware of opportun can continue to m Airport MCOs for  Airpor  Airpor  Airpor  Electri  Engine  Financ  Inform  Projec Information on ea understanding of ary Points from All MCOs are exp decrease – Trans The three MCOs Information Techn Across all MCOs, to the need for a airports and to ha Demand for MCO challenges when Challenges with f ers Can Make U Focus their workf Anticipate hiring c Identify potential s Government, as w 3. r  sion Critical Occ sed in this study MCOs - Describe ach Mission Cri r of employees, an performance cha ion Critical Occ sion Critical Exe os described in C Sources of Talen ams to ensure su rt Industry  the occupations development shou has a small labor ities within the ai eet community an the next 5-10 yea t Development t Operations t Security cian ering ial Analysis and P ation Technology t Planning ch of the MCOs, i upcoming needs  Chapter  ected to increase portation Security with the greatest p ology, and Finan airports have diff highly specialized ve high competitio s varies by state; considering local illing workforce ga se of Chapter  orce development hallenges associa ources of talent t ell as relevant ed AC Missio Chapter 3 upations (MCOs to select airport M s criteria used to s tical Occupation d identifies occup llenges. National upations - Provid cutive-Level Pos hapter 2. t to Fill MCOs - fficient talent is av that will be in high ld be prioritized. pool of qualified w rport industry. Th d customer dema rs were identified lanning (IT) ncluding job requ in airports and how in employment ov Screeners and C rojected increase cial Analysis and iculty providing su skillset. All MCOs n across industri airports may be a demands. ps with skilled tal efforts on MCOs ted with MCOs to o fill the MCOs, s ucational program RP 06-04: Ident n Critical Executive Overv ) - Provides an ov COs. elect the MCOs a - Includes a profi ation-specific info trend data on occ es an overview of itions - Explains Describes ways to ailable within the demand, make a Sustaining and re orkers, is highly us, it is important nds while adoptin and include: irements, challeng to best address er the next 10 ye omputer Program in employment ( Planning. fficient developm except Airport S es for employees. ble to better unde ent had led to the to maximize impa fill openings mor uch as downsizing s. ifying and Evalu Occupati iew erview of what an s well as the data le of each MCO th rmation relevant upational employ data on concentr perceived impact bring in new em MCOs. significant impac cruiting talent for competitive, or wh that airports focus g new advances es, and expected them. ars; only two job t mers. 2014-2024) acros ental opportunities ecurity were found rstand and overc use of contractor ct on organizatio e quickly with qua industries like M ating Airport W ons MCO is, the valu gathered from p at describes the to recruitment, tur ment are also pre ation of MCOs ac of executive-leve ployees from othe t on operations an these MCOs can ere potential emp HR strategies on to their business demand can give ypes within the M s all industries inc and recruiting qu to lack a solid ca ome their recruitm s; particularly for nal performance. lified applicants. anufacturing or th orkforce Require e in identifying M articipants. occupation, foreca nover, training an sented. ross the U.S. l airport positions r industries or d business, and be challenging in loyees may not b MCOs to ensure and operations. leaders a better COs are expecte lude: Electrician, alified employees reer track within ent and retention IT professionals. e Federal ments 19 COs, sts d on a e they d to due

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 20 All of the jobs that individuals fill in airports are important and needed for the successful function of the organization. However, there are some jobs that are more directly related to the mission of airports and the ability to achieve strategic and performance goals. A key objective of this project was to identify occupations that will be mission critical in the next 5-1CIP0 years so that airport leaders can develop targeted recruitment strategies and prioritize their investments in workforce development. Defining Mission Critical Occupations (MCOs) Mission critical occupations (MCOs) for airports are those that are essential to executing the airport’s mission including supporting daily operations and executing on the airport long-term strategic goals. While all current occupations within airports are valued and contribute to mission success, there are some occupations that will be more critical for airport longevity, effective operations, and innovative business successes in the next 5-10 years.1 “Mission critical” does not simply imply a job that is needed for continuity of operations; it also refers to jobs for which there is a current or anticipated shortage of staff or knowledge required for the position despite its importance. Thus, for these occupations it is especially critical that airports develop creative strategies to minimize the potential for extended vacancies. The MCOs identified in this research should be broadly applicable to most commercial service airports, but that does not mean they will be the most critical positions for every airport. For example, snowplow drivers could be particularly challenging to hire for some airports that operate in harsh winter conditions. While the MCOs identified in this chapter may be most deserving of industry-wide attention, airport leaders must consider their own airport’s needs and challenges when contemplating investments in workforce capacity. Value in Identifying MCOs. There are several ways in which knowledge of the occupations most critical to an airport’s success can help airport leaders prepare for the future. Examples include:  Employee and leader development: Roll out a development strategy for employees currently in the MCOs and for the internal talent with high potential for leadership positions within the MCOs. This includes identifying how the jobs will change over the next few years, investing in assessment of proficiency levels in the required skills, and providing developmental opportunities such as training, experiential learning (e.g., coaching, job shadowing), and on-the-job experiences to those personnel.  Retention and recruitment strategy: Articulate how existing talent will be supported and encouraged to remain within the organization; this includes providing necessary resources and learning opportunities to address shifts in their roles. Simultaneously, airports need to outline a recruitment strategy for finding new talent in the labor market (within and outside the industry), attracting that talent to airport jobs, and preparing them with the airport-specific knowledge required.  Succession planning: Prepare a succession pipeline of workers capable of promotion into positions with increasing levels of responsibility. This includes growing a talent pipeline up to 2-3 levels deep of talent for each MCO. The first level of talent should be “ready immediately” whereas the next two levels should be grown to assume roles of their predecessors. Thus, development of MCO skills should expand beyond current employees within the MCOs to prepare the next level of workers. Beyond identifying those occupations that will be mission critical in airports, it is important to understand job competencies that are mission critical for the airport workforce. Competencies can be generally understood as related elements of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that enable successful job performance. By determining which competencies are needed to perform MCOs and the best sources for that talent, airports can begin to map out 1 Information regarding the job responsibilities and required knowledge, skills, and abilities for all covered airport occupations is provided in Appendix B. This includes both occupations that were identified as mission critical as well as other occupations included in the organizational chart that were not selected as the most mission critical.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 21 how to best attract the new talent. The competencies can also be used to develop new position descriptions, update existing positions, create new positions, select airport staff, or procure contractors with the necessary expertise. Criteria for Selecting Airport MCOs. Expert practitioners in workforce development that identify MCOs use multiple criteria to assess criticality (U.S. OPM, 2005; GNB, 2010). Three commonly accepted criteria were used to identify MCOs in this study:  Strategic alignment to the airport’s future plans: The occupation is integral to executing the strategic vision of airport leadership and implementing the initiatives that move the airport forward. The occupation could impact internally focused aspects of airport strategy (e.g., maintaining strong customer relations with passengers and airlines) or external aspect of strategy (e.g., addressing new safety regulations) that further the airport’s long-term growth and sustainability.  Required to achieve key performance measures: The occupation ensures the airport is able to achieve its goals around key performance criteria such as financial requirements, on-time departures, customer expectations, and safety and security standards.  High impact of vacancy: The occupation requires specialized skill sets that are difficult to find in applicants, is expecting a large number of retirements, or will have an insufficient pipeline of future talent (i.e., hard to fill vacancies). Should vacancies occur within this occupation, continuity of operations could be seriously threatened. Process for Identification of Mission Critical Occupations The process depicted in Exhibit 3-1 was used to analyze airport occupations based on the above stated criteria and identify those that will be essential for airports in the next 5-10 years. Both qualitative (Steps 1 and 2) and quantitative data (Steps 3-5) were collected to support this analysis. Exhibit 3-1. Steps in the Identification of Mission Critical Airport Occupations Step Explanation and Potential Qualification(s) for Inclusion 1. Occupations Identified as Important in Existing Publications  During the literature review, the research team noted if specific occupations were called out as being important to airports, likely to become more important due to expected changes, or closely tied to the achievement of airport strategic goals.  Because literature on airport professions was sparse, this did not serve as a disqualification for occupations but rather a first step in identification of MCOs. 2. Identification of MCOs by Mid- Level Airport Leaders  Focus groups with mid-level leaders from a variety of airports of different sizes and in different regions included a focus on identifying mission critical occupations.  Example questions asked of the leaders included: o Which occupations in airports, if not performed, would compromise the safety of passengers and/or aviation personnel? o Which jobs, if not performed, would halt or significantly delay delivery of service? o Which positions are instrumental in delivering on commitments and meeting airport strategic goals? o What occupations are most necessary to support safety management?  Input from leaders was considered in the final identification of MCOs and job requirements; however, omission of an occupation from the focus group discussion was not grounds for elimination of the occupation from consideration.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 22 Exhibit 3-1. Steps in the Identification of Mission Critical Airport Occupations Step Explanation and Potential Qualification(s) for Inclusion 3. Input on Occupation Criticality from Industry Stakeholders  On the Mission Critical Survey, members of AAAE were asked to select the top five airport occupations that would be the most mission critical in the next 5-10 years based on strategic alignment of the job, impact if vacant, and relationship to key airport performance measures.  Analyses were conducted to examine the percentage of participants who rated each occupation as being among the top 5 most mission critical.  Occupations that were indicated as being in the top 5 by at least 20% of respondents were included in the list of MCOs (Note: All occupations that met this criteria were retained, but this criteria did not eliminate occupations, specifically if the occupations met other criteria noted below.) 4. Linkage to Airport Performance Criteria  Survey respondents were asked about the impact of occupations on airport performance criteria including: o On-time flight departures o Airport finances o Improved passenger experience and meeting passenger expectations o Improved customer service with other stakeholders, such as airlines/tenants, concessionaires, contractors, TSA, and the FAA o Ensuring proper safety and security o Environmental sustainability, water, and air quality  Results were aggregated into a mission critical index that factored in the above performance criteria as well as vacancy risk, difficulty filling open positions, impact on airport strategic goals, involvement in key decisions, and expected negative consequences if the job is not performed properly.  Analyses were conducted for each occupation, with those receiving the highest ratings for impact on performance criteria being included in the final list of MCOs. 5. Confirmation of MCOs Through BLS Projections  BLS data for identified occupations were examined to ensure that the occupations would continue to be in high demand in the next 10 years.  Occupations could be excluded if a large decrease was expected in the number of jobs from 2014 to 2024. In summary, occupations identified in Steps 1 and 2 were deemed mission critical if at least 20% of the survey participants included the occupation in their list of top 5 MCOs and/or the occupation ranked in the top 10 of the airport occupations on the mission critical index. The mission critical index is a composite of factors that each occupation was rated on including its relationship to these performance criteria:  On-time flight departures   Strong finances of overall airport  Improved passenger experience and meeting of passenger expectations  Improved customer service with other stakeholders, such as airlines/tenants, concessionaires, contractors, TSA, and the FAA  Ensuring proper safety and security  Environmental sustainability, water, and air quality The mission critical index also factors in vacancy risk, meeting airport strategic goals, impact on key decision making and the high consequence of error for the airport if the job is not performed properly. Any occupation that fell below the 20% threshold of being rated in the top 5 airport MCOs and yet was retained as an MCO had a particularly high mission critical index (i.e., 3.80 or greater out of 5). No mission critical occupations were excluded as a result of Step 5 as the projections confirmed continued high demand for these occupations in the economy.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 23 Results of the Mission Critical Occupation Survey Using these criteria, 13 MCOs were identified. Some of these occupations were grouped into categories based on similarity in the work requirements performed as well as how the occupations fit within the organizational and operational structure of airports, resulting in a total of eight occupations/occupational clusters. Ratings for the selected MCOs and the major factors that contributed to their selection are provided in Exhibit 3-2. Exhibit 3-2. Survey Ratings for Mission Critical Occupations Mission Critical Occupation % Participants Rating Occupation in Top 5 Mission Critical Mission Critical Index Top 3 Index Factors (for MCOs below 20%) Airport Development Airport Terminal Development 13.3% 4.08  Improved passenger experience and meeting of passenger expectations (4.57)  Improved customer service with other stakeholders (4.37)  Key to Decision Making (4.33) Airport Property Development 24.2% 3.55 (Top 5, met 20%) Airside Development 14.0% 3.95  Ensuring proper safety and security (4.42)  Key to Decision Making (4.30)  On-time flight departures (4.19) Airport Operations Airfield Operations 35.8% 3.90 (Top 5, met 20%) Airside Operations 34.9% 3.88 (Top 5, met 20%) Airport Security 36.1% 3.74 (Top 5, met 20%) Electrician 5.8% 3.89  High Consequence of Error (4.68)  Ensuring proper safety and security (4.58)  Vacancy Risk (4.42) Engineering Civil Engineer 5.6% 3.91  High Consequence of Error (4.67)  Meets Strategic Goals (4.47)  Key to Decision Making (4.47) Electrical Engineer 2.4% 4.03  Ensuring proper safety and security (4.67)  On-time flight departures (4.33)  Strong finances of overall airport (4.33)  High Consequence of Error (4.33) Mechanical Engineer 2.4% 4.05  Vacancy Risk (5.00)  On-time flight departures (4.50)  Ensuring proper safety and security (4.50)  Environmental sustainability, water, and air quality (4.50)  Meets Strategic Goals (4.50) Financial Analysis and Planning 36.1% 3.67 (Top 5, met 20%) Information Technology (IT) 32.5% 3.89 (Top 5, met 20%) Project Planning 21.3% 4.00 (Top 5, met 20%)

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 24 To gather information on executive-level occupations, a separate survey was sent out to a different subset of AAAE members. Executive-level occupations were presented in a separate survey because it was expected that most airport stakeholders would view the executive jobs as all mission critical since they are required for oversight and continuity of operations. Thus, to avoid overshadowing identification of the essential MCOs that are not necessarily present at the leadership level, a randomly selected group of airport stakeholders were asked to provide input on executive occupations. Participants were asked which type of executive-level position (e.g., Airport Operations and Maintenance, Information Technology, Properties and Contract Management) would be the most essential for each of the three future scenarios. Survey questions were similar to those on the general mission critical survey. After being presented with the futuring scenarios (described in Chapter 2), survey participants indicated that some categories (or divisions or areas) of executive-level positions will be more critical to meeting airports’ future work requirements. These included the executive-level areas/divisions of:  Airport Operations and Maintenance  External Affairs/Government Relations  Finance and Asset Management  Information Technology (IT)  Marketing and Public Relations Using information gathered from the literature review, focus groups, and the surveys, a sample organizational chart was created to show the location of mission critical occupations within the context of many different airport occupations. It should be noted that this chart is designed to illustrate the wide variety of airport occupations, highlighting those that are mission critical. Each airport will likely have an organizational chart that differs somewhat from this example because of the varying structures and reporting authorities that are used to organize airport functioning. For example, some airports consider Risk Management to be a part of Administration whereas other airports consider Risk Management to be a part of Finance under the Chief Financial Officer (CFO). Further, to ensure breadth of coverage in our survey data collection, we separated executive-level positions into nine distinct categories; however, most airports will combine these categories in some way and will only include 4-6 major divisions within their airport structure. For example, in some airports Business Development is combined with Marketing while in others it is combined with Planning, Engineering, or Finance. In sum, the organizational chart presented on the following page is a hypothetical example of an airport organization structure and where the identified mission critical occupations would be located within it.

November 2016 Note. In this chart, o executive-level posit identified as mission ccupations that were i ions that were identifie critical through the Mis dentified as MCOs are d as mission critical. T sion Critical Survey. highlighted in blue. The he dark blue shaded o light blue shaded occ ccupations are those th ACRP 06-04: Ide upations are at were ntifying and Evaluati ng Airport Workforce Requirements 25

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 26 National Labor Statistics and Projections for Mission Critical Occupations Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were examined to better understand the current number of employees within each mission critical occupation across the nation as well as projections for the number of employees that will be needed by 2024. In addition to providing the current and projected number of employees in each of the mission critical occupations, BLS data also provide information related to the expected number of job openings due to both growth and retirements, median salaries, and typical educational requirements for each occupation. These data are presented on the following page in Exhibit 3-3. While BLS data are not available strictly for airport employees, the national data BLS provides are relevant as many airport employees work in jobs that are ‘industry agnostic’—that is, they appear in a number of different industries with generally similar job requirements. For example, engineers may require specific knowledge (e.g. FAA regulations) to work at an airport, but the talent pool that airports can draw from could include engineers working in a wide range of other industries, so the BLS numbers for the occupation as a whole are presented in the following estimates and projections. Though not specific to airport jobs, the national trends and expectations for future job openings revealed in the data have real implications for the airport workforce. For example, if the number of IT jobs is increasing in the U.S., airports could face increased competition for qualified IT personnel. If airports do not have a solid retention and succession strategy for their MCO jobs, they may find it difficult to recruit new employees in the broader marketplace, especially if other firms can offer better compensation and more developed career opportunities for potential employees. A similar challenge has already been experienced in Northern California, where municipal-run airports find it difficult to offer competitive compensation to IT professionals due to the close proximity of private industry in Silicon Valley and the large number of IT-related jobs in the area. This inability to bring in professionals often leads to the use of contractors, which is not necessarily a long-term, sustainable strategy, especially given the importance of IT occupations to the future of airports. In all MCOs, but particularly those in which increased competition and demand can be expected, it is important for airports to invest in their current talent and begin developing future talent to assume or compete for these positions. Within the table of BLS data, there are multiple job types (based on Standard Occupational Classification or SOC codes) that relate to each of the airport MCOs. For example, within IT there are 13 types of jobs that airports typically employ, such as computer systems analysts, computer programmers, or information security analysts. Since the data are not airport-specific, a number of relevant occupations were identified for each of the identified MCOs based on similarities in the required competencies and skillsets. For example, the occupation of Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers was identified as a source for Airport Development professionals because these individuals work with commercial and industrial leases, such as those that would be required for vendors in airport food courts or for bonded warehouses that reside on airport property. Additionally, architects were identified as a part of Airport Development because of the need for these employees to work on designs and finalize plans for improvements to airport terminals or other structures. When examining these occupations, it is important to consider that no individual occupation listed in the data may fully capture the competencies required in an airport environment and that each airport may have different names for these occupations.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 27 Exhibit 3-3. National Occupational Data and Projections for Airport Mission Critical Occupations SOC Code Occupation Title # of Jobs, 2014 Projected # of Jobs, 2024 Change in # of Jobs Percent Change (2014-2024) Job Openings Expected due to Growth and Replacement Needs National Median Annual Salary Typical Education Needed For Job Entry -- Airport Development Total 737,000 778,400 41,400 5.62% 133,400 -- -- 11-9141 Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers 313,800 339,100 25,300 8.1% 79,900 $54,270 High school diploma or equivalent 13-2021 Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate 85,800 92,500 6,700 7.8% 20,500 $52,570 Bachelor's degree 17-1011 Architects 112,600 120,4000 7,800 6.9% 26,300 $74,520 Bachelor’s degree 41-9022 Real Estate Brokers 337,400 346,800 9,400 2.8% 33,000 $40,990 High school diploma or equivalent -- Airport Operations Total 2,624,400 2,782,900 158,500 6.04% 931,300 -- -- 15-2031 Operations Research Analysts 91,300 118,900 27,600 30.2% 43,900 $76,660 Bachelor's degree 43-5011 Cargo and Freight Agents 78,800 84,300 5,500 7.0% 31,300 $41,380 High school diploma or equivalent 53-1011 Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors 5,800 5,800 0 0.0% 1,900 $47,760 High school diploma or equivalent 53-2022 Airfield Operations Specialists 7,200 7,500 300 4.2% 2,500 $49,180 High school diploma or equivalent 53-7062 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 2,441,300 2,566,400 125,100 5.1% 851,700 $24,430 No formal education credential -- Airport Security Total 1,142,000 1,193,300 51,300 4.49% 216,200 -- -- 33-9032 Security Guards 1,095,400 1,150,900 55,500 5.1% 209,600 $24,410 High school diploma or equivalent 33-9093 Transportation Security Screeners 46,600 42,400 -4,200 -9.0% 6,600 $38,090 High school diploma or equivalent 47-2111 Electrician Total 628,800 714,700 85,900 13.7% 181,800 $51,110 High school diploma or equivalent -- Engineering Total 737,300 777,300 40,000 5.43% 250,300 -- -- 17-2051 Civil Engineer 281,400 305,000 23,600 8.4% 106,700 $82,050 Bachelor's Degree 17-2071 Electrical Engineer 178,400 180,200 1,800 1.0% 41,100 $93,260 Bachelor's Degree 17-2141 Mechanical Engineer 277,500 292,100 14,600 5.3% 102,500 $83,060 Bachelor's Degree -- Financial Analysis and Planning Total 1,671,100 1,847,400 176,300 10.55% 604,100 -- -- 13-2011 Accountants and Auditors 1,332,700 1,475,100 142,400 10.7% 498,000 $65,940 Bachelor's degree 13-2031 Budget Analysts 60,800 62,300 1,500 2.5% 16,700 $71,220 Bachelor's degree 13-2051 Financial Analysts 277,600 310,000 32,400 11.7% 89,400 $78,620 Bachelor's degree -- IT Total 3,916,100 4,404,700 488,400 12.47% 1,083,800 -- -- 15-1111 Computer and information research scientists 25,600 28,300 2,700 10.7% 6,000 $108,360 Doctoral or professional degree

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 28 Exhibit 3-3. National Occupational Data and Projections for Airport Mission Critical Occupations SOC Code Occupation Title # of Jobs, 2014 Projected # of Jobs, 2024 Change in # of Jobs Percent Change (2014-2024) Job Openings Expected due to Growth and Replacement Needs National Median Annual Salary Typical Education Needed For Job Entry 15-1121 Computer systems analysts 567,800 686,300 118,600 20.9% 191,600 $82,710 Bachelor's degree 15-1122 Information security analysts 82,900 97,700 14,800 17.9% 25,500 $88,890 Bachelor's degree 15-1131 Computer programmers 328,600 302,200 -26,500 -8.0% 81,000 $77,550 Bachelor's degree 15-1132 Software developers, applications 718,400 853,700 135,300 18.8% 238,000 $95,510 Bachelor's degree 15-1133 Software developers, systems software 395,600 447,000 51,300 13.0% 107,900 $102,880 Bachelor's degree 15-1134 Web developers 148,500 188,000 39,500 26.6% 58,600 $63,490 Associate's degree 15-1141 Database administrators 120,000 133,400 13,400 11.1% 39,200 $80,280 Bachelor's degree 15-1142 Network and computer systems administrators 382,600 412,800 30,200 7.9% 79,400 $75,790 Bachelor's degree 15-1143 Computer network architects 146,200 158,900 12,700 8.7% 31,500 $98,430 Bachelor's degree 15-1151 Computer user support specialists 585,900 661,000 75,100 12.8% 150,500 $47,610 Some college, no degree 15-1152 Computer network support specialists 181,000 194,600 13,600 7.5% 36,900 $61,830 Associate's degree 15-1199 Computer occupations, all other 233,000 240,800 7,700 3.3% 37,700 $83,410 Bachelor's degree -- Project Planning 251,500 272,700 21,200 8.43% 88,900 -- -- 13-1051 Cost Estimator 213,500 232,300 18,800 8.8% 79,500 $60,050 Bachelor's degree 19-3051 Urban and Regional Planners 38,000 40,400 2,400 6.3% 9,400 $66,940 Master's degree Information for Each Mission Critical Occupation On the following pages, information is presented for each of the identified mission critical occupations. For these occupations, the following data are available:  Overview of occupation (example job titles, job description elements, and KSAs)  Forecast of current and future employment within the occupations (BLS data)  Training and development challenges (% of survey respondents reporting each challenge)  Recruitment and turnover challenges (% of survey respondents reporting each challenge)  Impacted performance criteria (% of survey respondents reporting impact on each of the criteria)  Strategy and decision making (% of survey respondents reporting impact on each factor)  Airport trends that will impact the occupation (% of survey respondents reporting each trend will impact the occupation)  Future scenarios and their impact in 5-10 years (considerations for each scenario).

November 2 Below and related to e This introd included in This sectio the occupa and educat Survey par developme  Lack  Lack  Lack  Lack  The need  Beca deve Challenges  Sma  Skill  High  High attra  Lack  This retire  This 016 on the followin ach section, a Key fo uctory section job description n provides info tion, the projec ional requirem ticipants were nt, specific to t of training an of training an of solid caree of focus on le education and s use of knowle lopmental opp In this section of survey part by 50-74.4% o identified by le specific to em ll applicant po set required o level of turnov competition a ctiveness else of talent in ex occupation wi ment occupation wi in the labor m In this section of survey part by 50-74.4% challenges ide g pages is a k nd the possible r Airport provides an o s, and examp Foreca rmation from t ted number of ents. Train asked about v he occupation d development d development r track in airpo adership deve training availa dge loss due t ortunities , training and d icipants are ind f respondents ss than 50% o Recr ployee recruit ol when/if need f this occupatio er within this o cross industrie where isting airport e ll be at risk for ll be difficult to arket , recruitment a icipants are in of respondents ntified by less AC ey that shows responses th Mission C verview of the le knowledge, st of Curren he Bureau of L jobs in 2024, ing and De arious challeng . Specific ques to support tec to support pe rts for this occ lopment ble to prepare o retirements, evelopment c icated by a re are identified f respondents uitment and ment and turno ing to fill a vac n is highly spe ccupation s for skill sets mployees to fi vacancy within fill in the next nd turnover ch dicated by a re are identified than 50% of r RP 06-04: Ident how this inform at could be hig ritical Oc type of work skills, and abil t & Future abor Statistics median annua velopment C es related to t tions for each hnical skills rsonal effective upation workers for th employees in hallenges that d exclamation with a yellow e were excluded Turnover C ver were aske ancy cialized, maki required in this ll future vacanc my airport in 5-10 years due allenges that w d exclamation with a yellow e espondents we ifying and Evalu ation is share hlighted in the cupation performed wi ities (KSAs) re Job Numbe (BLS) data on l salary range hallenges raining and occupation we ness is occupation i this occupation were identified mark icon. Ch xclamation po . hallenges d about in the ng finding emp occupation / ies in this occ the next 5-10 y to insufficient ere identified mark icon. Ch xclamation po re excluded fr ating Airport W d, the question templates. s Templa thin the occup quired to be su rs the current n for jobs within re: s insufficient to will need add by more than allenges ident int icon; those survey. These loyees difficul Better compen upation ears due to tu skill sets, kno by more than allenges iden int icon. The om the templa Th templ stron highli orkforce Require s that were as te ation, key ele ccessful in the umber of jobs the occupation meet future jo itional 75% ified challenges w t sation or job rnover or wledge, or inte 75% tified te. roughout the ate, particula g findings ar ghted in callo boxes ments 29 ked ments job. in , b ere: rest Key for Airport Mission Critical Occupations Tem plate – Sidebar indicates the occupation being covered, to ensure clarity rly e ut

November 2 One import participants criteria. Th  On-t  Stro  Impr  Impr TSA  Ensu  Envi Performan indicated th The impact occupation  This or co  This  Con Th st no This sectio identified b  E  C  Th This sectio percentage also prese considerati 016 ant aspect of a were asked a ese included: ime flight depa ng finances of oved passeng oved custome , and the FAA ring proper sa ronmental sus ce criteria are at the occupa of MCOs on a could have an occupation wi mmercializatio occupation inv sequences of a ese elements atements for th t a challenge, n provides an y survey partic merging techno hanging demo e complexity o In this section participants ag respondents a than 50% of p n focuses on of responden nts the impa ons. Im MCO is that bout the level rtures overall airport er experience r service with o fety and secur tainability, wat included in this tion has a stro S irport strategy impact on stra ll be essential n of airports olves key dec n error by an were included e specific occ but rather info overview of w ipants. Poten logies will req graphics, such f tasks perfor , trends are ma reed with the re identified w articipants we Future Imp the future s ts who felt th ct of the sce AC pacted Pe it has a strong of impact the o and meeting o ther stakehold ity er, and air qua section for the ng impact on t trategy and and decision tegy and deci to meeting stra ision making th employee in th in the templat upation. They a rmation about Airp orkforce and tial trends that uire new skill s as having a yo med in this pos rked by a red trend for the o ith a yellow ex re excluded fro acts of Scen cenarios pres e occupation w narios on bo RP 06-04: Ident rformance impact on airp ccupation has f passenger ex ers, such as a lity occupation if hat criterion. Decision M making is impo sion making in tegic goals rel at impacts ov is occupation e if at least 50% re marked wit the occupation ort Trends technology tr could impact t ets for employ unger workfor ition will increa exclamation p ccupation. Tre clamation poin m the template arios – Imp ented in the ould become th capabilities ifying and Evalu Criteria ort performanc on each of six pectations irlines/tenants at least 50% p aking rtant to unders cluded: ated to an incr erall airport bu will pose signif of responde h a green excl ’s involvement ends that will he occupation ees within this ce, is likely to se significant oint if at least nds identified b t icon. Trends . act in 5-10 surveys (see more mission /skill needs ating Airport W e criteria. As different airpo , concessionai ercent of surv tand. Specific eased focus o siness function icant costs or nts indicated a amation point in strategy. likely impact in the next 5-1 occupation impact this oc ly in the next 5 75% of survey y 50-74.4% o identified by le Years Chapter 2), critical under and job/workf orkforce Require such, survey rt performanc res, contractor ey respondent ways in which n the bottom li ing challenges greement with because they the occupation 0 years includ cupation in airp -10 years f ss and indicates each scenario orce developm ments 30 e s, s the ne the are , as ed: orts the . It ent Key for Airport Mission Critical Occupations Tem plate – Sidebar indicates the occupation being covered, to ensure clarity

November 2 Airport De developme transaction airport’s f commercia and passe Airport Dev long-term s Example employees airport prop options for property, a property. T responsible work with a to ensure the needs Example K  K th  K  K  K  K  K  K  K tra  K th  B  A  A  A  A ne  A sc  A  A  A  A 016 velopment em nt of airport pr s in which air acilities enab l demands, w ngers. Given elopment emp uccess of an a Job Descr manage res erty and facili terminals, po nd parties will hey also co for expansio irlines, airport the airport dev of its stakehold SAs nowledge of le ey relate to air nowledge of th nowledge of de nowledge of la nowledge of FA nowledge of an nowledge of ai nowledge of th nsport modes nowledge of an e airport. asic computer bility to identify bility to allocate bility to conduc bility to negotia eds of airports bility to read co ales. bility to unders bility to establis bility to commu bility to superv Airpo ployees are operty and fac ports participa le it to me hile supporting the growing loyees are be irport (Carlisle iption Elem ources for the ties. This invol tential develop ing to develop nduct land us n and land authorities, re elops in line w ers. gal practices, p port managem e statutes and sign standard ndlord/tenant l A regulations d ability to ana rport and airfie e key interactio at the airport. airport maste skills and profi and understa limited resou t an environme te and carry to . nstruction pla tand, draft, and h and maintai nicate clearly ise and motiva AC rt Develop involved in ilities, as well a te. They help et regulatory, efficient mov pressures of coming increa , 2015). ents: Airpor design and ves identifying ment opportu facilities/busin e feasibility s acquisition. T gulators, and c ith airport str rocedures, an ent and leasin ordinances go s, codes, and c aws. and grant ass lyze, develop ld layout plans ns between a r plan and the ciency in appli nd airport deve rces in a cost-e ntal assessm completion co ns and surveys apply the pro n effective inte and effectively te the perform RP 06-04: Ident ment Oc the design a s the real esta ensure that t financial, a ement of aircr these demand singly vital to t t Developme development retail and dini nities for unus esses on airp tudies and a hese employe onstruction st ategic goals a d terminology g. verning the lea riteria for airp urances. , and draft fina . irport operation various eleme cation to office lopment and p ffective mann ent to determin mplex real es and to make visions of lega rnal and extern , both orally an ance of subord ifying and Evalu cupations nd te he nd aft s, he nt of ng ed ort re es aff nd as se and mana ort facilities. ncial reports, p s, developme nts related to a and record m lanning capac er. e the impact o tate transitions calculations us l documents. al working rel d in writing. inates. Exampl  Air T  Term  Aviat  Prop  Com  Airpo  Airsi ating Airport W gement of real roposals, and nt, design, reta irside, landsid anagement tec ity. f potential dev involved in m ing architectur ationships.   e Job Titles: erminal Develo inal Developm ion Real Estat erties Coordin mercial Develo rt Real Estate de Developme orkforce Require estate propert facility budget il, advertising e, and facilitie hniques. elopment. eeting the prop al/engineering pment Manag ent Coordinat e Manager ator pment Coordi Specialist nt Coordinator ments 31 y. s. , and s of erty er or nator Airport Developm ent Occupations

November 2 *This media Appraisers o economy, th occupation w of numbers. Due to pot prevent a personal e Airports ca opportuniti survey res each area Airport Dev employees talent in ex expressed knowledge airport with challenge compensat for vacancy 0 200 400 600 800 1000 # 016 n salary range f Real Estate, A is salary range m ith a median sa ential position potential gap i ffectiveness an n overcome th es for their Airp pondents, are as a challenge      elopment occ a challenge f isting airport e difficulties hir that is require fewer people experienced i ion and greate . 849.6  Jobs in 2014 (# in thou Foreca includes all of rchitects, and Re ay be underest lary of $74,520 a Train vacancies, Airp n knowledge a d technical sk ese challenge ort Developm listed below w following the s Additional dev Lack of trainin (65.2%) Lack of trainin Lack of solid c Insufficient ed Recr upations requi or airports. Fu mployees to f ing Airport De d in the positio in the airport s the high co r job attractive 898.8 Projected # Job in 2024 sands) AC st of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not *Wh a B a hi on-t the various occ al Estate Broker imated. Also no ctually make abo ing and De ort Developm nd skills. The ills for these o s by identifying ent employees ith the perce tatements: elopmental op g and develop g and develop areer track in ucation and tra uitment and re a highly sp rthermore, the ill vacancies. velopment em ns. The hiring and surroundi mpetition for ness than the s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath ile some jobs, s achelor’s degree gh school diplom he-job training. upational titles w s). Given that so te, this is the me ve this amount velopment C ent employees re is also a lac ccupations, an and providing . These trainin ntage of resp portunities nee ment for perso ment for techn airports (63.4% ining available Turnover C ecialized skills re is a small a For example, a ployees with t challenge in ng community these skills a airport indust ifying and Evalu Job Numbe s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range* on Required ered from BLS O uch as Real Esta other Airport De a or equivalent c ithin Airport De me of these are dian range, mea given the definiti hallenges require greate k of training a d the field ge greater growt g and develop ondents indica ded (68.7%) nal effectivene ical skills (64.3 ) (52.6%) hallenges et, making the pplicant pool leader in a s he necessary this airport is e than other, la cross industri ry. These chal ating Airport W 5 of th trainin develo challe identif proble Airpor occup rs 898,800 5.79% $40,990 High sc equivale ccupational Emp te Appraisers an velopment jobs c ombined with at velopment (i.e. lower paying job ning that half of on of median as r developmen nd developme nerally lacks a h, developmen ment challeng ting ss %) process of re for these posi mall municipa skills due to xacerbated be rger airports o es, some of lenges put the orkforce Require e 6 possible g and pment nges were ied as matic for t Developmen ations. - $74,520 hool diploma o nt* loyment data. d Architects, req an be completed least moderate-t , Property Mana s in other parts o the incumbents the middle in a s tal opportuniti nt to support solid career t t, and promot es, as identifie cruiting and h tions and a lac lly-operated ai the airport-spe cause it is a s ften have. Ano which offer hi se positions a ments 32 t r uire with erm gers, f the in an eries es to both rack. ional d by iring k of rport cific mall ther gher t risk Airport Developm ent Occupations

November 2 Of the recruitm the sur challenge at least 5 Survey res Airport Dev overall pe financial p generating airport lead provide an funds and need to e support of impact on such emp indicated t percentage measures f  Fi  C  E  P  S Great a 016 87.8% 7 possible ret ent challenge vey, 5 were se for Airport De 0% of survey pondents indic elopment emp rformance. Fo erformance by greater comm er mentioned airport with the where fundin ngage with lo development perceptions of loyees impact hese occupatio of participan ollowing each nances (78.4% ustomer servic nvironmental s assenger expe afety and secu est Impact on Decision M of participant airport deve occupation meeting strat nd key decis ention and s included in lected as a velopment by respondents. ated the follow Im loyees impact r example, th identifying st ercial revenu Airport Deve ability to und g sources are cal politicians projects mean the airport am the airport’s ns are likely ts who agre criterion: ) e with stakeho ustainability (6 rience and exp rity (56.3%) S Strategy and aking: s indicated lopment s impact egic goals ion making AC ing roadblocks  H  S  L (6  H  R pacted Pe many aspect ey can impa rategies and o e. In a focus lopment emplo erstand how to available. Ad and commu s they can ha ong its stake environmenta to have a stro ed that Airpo lders (65.6%) 5.2%) ectations (64. trategy and Due to Airport ability key de in a f airport unders the air large Develo well a employ RP 06-04: Ident for airports se ighly specialize mall applicant ack of talent in 1.8%) igh competitio isk for vacancy rformance s of an airport’ ct an airport pportunities fo group, a larg yees can als gain additiona ditionally, the nity groups i ve a significan holders. Finally l sustainabilit ng impact on rt Developme 6%) Decision M the nature of Development to meet strateg cisions that af ocus group, a mentioned th tanding what port to adjust airport autho pment employ s its functio ees have a st ifying and Evalu eking to fill Ai d skillset (69. pool (63.4%) existing airpo n across indus (52.9%) Criteria s ’s r e o l ir n t , y, safety, an the following nt employees aking responsibilitie employees ha ic goals. Add fect airport bu n executive at these occu the airport ne its business st rity also sha ees in determ nality. Survey rong impact on ating Airport W rport Developm 1%) rt employees tries (60.1%) d security. Su performance m will significa s in developin ve a large imp itionally, these siness functio at a large m pations have eds and why. rategy accordi red the impo ining the loo respondents : orkforce Require ent positions: rvey respond easures, with ntly impact t g airport facil act on an airp employees im ning. For exam unicipally-oper a large focu This then ena ngly. A leader rtance of Ai k of the airpo indicated t ments 33 ents the hese ities, ort’s pact ple, ated s on bles at a rport rt as hese Airport Developm ent Occupations

November 2 Evolving te performed large airpo be aware o can ensure following a Scenario and S 53.3% of re scenario w Developme more missi Across the capabilities Among the  A m  In D Regarding  V co For both S success in survey. 016  Meeting (87.8%)  Key dec chnologies w in these occup rt authority ex f. By incorpo these positio irport trends w  Ne  In  Im 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Airp nt occupations on critical. Futu three scenar /skill needs an capabilities/s cross all three ost important r Scenarios 1 evelopment job Scenario 3, th acancies in A mmitments an cenario 1 and Airport Develo strategic goal ision making ( ill require new ations is also pressed growi rating these c ns remain alig ill impact Airpo w skillsets du crease in comp pacted by cha Future Imp Business logical lieve this ort become re Job Impact ios, there we d the impact o kill needs ask scenarios, ind equirement fo and 3, having s effectively. e greatest imp irport Devel d priorities of a Scenario 2, al pment jobs gi AC s 87.8%) Airp skillsets for expected to in ng regulatory c hanges into tr ned with the rt Developmen e to technology lexity of tasks nging demogra acts of Scen Scenario 2: 63.3% of respo scenario would Development o more mission c s to Conside re some differ f the scenarios ed about, the ustry-specific r Airport Devel strong mana act on job and opment posi irports. l of the job an ven the future RP 06-04: Ident  Err (69 ort Trends Airport Deve crease within t ompliance iss aining, develo airport’s busin t occupations: (68.8%) (64.4%) phics (57.1%) arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Airport ccupations be ritical. r for Airport D ences in expe on job and wo following findin knowledge a opment employ gerial skills w workforce re tions will cau d workforce re scenarios than ifying and Evalu ors result in si .5%) lopment empl he next 5-10 y ues that Airpo pment, and p ess strategies act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this come 74.4 sce Dev mor evelopment O ctations rega rkforce requir gs emerged: bout how the ees. ill also be hig quirements is se serious d quirements we the capabilitie ating Airport W gnificant costs oyees. The c ears. For exam rt Developmen romotional opp . Survey resul Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m elopment occ e mission criti ccupations rding the imp ements. airport functio hly important expected to b ifficulties in re found to be s and skill ne orkforce Require /challenges omplexity of t ple, a leader t employees ortunities, airp ts indicate tha eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Airport upations becom cal. ortance of va ns emerged as to execute Ai e: delivering on less importan eds included in ments 34 asks for a must orts t the ial, re is e rious the rport the t for the Airport Developm ent Occupations

November 2 Airport Ope everything efficient flig the impact becoming Operations ability to de Example Operations is safe a personnel, testing, ga coordinato managing Incident M Operations Airport Da includes do during insp customer complaints focused op Example K  K  K Fe pe  K  K  K  S op  S de  S  A  A  A  A ne  A ai  A su 016 rations emplo is in place on ht operations. s on airport o increasingly sig employees h liver its servic Job Descri occupations w nd supports and passenge te scheduling rs for first re emergency op anagement Sy employees’ s ily Self-Inspec cumenting, re ections. Fina service to st and critical erations. SAs nowledge of ru nowledge of sa deral Aviation rtinent regulat nowledge of ai nowledge of al nowledge of ai kill in systems erations, and kill in complex velop and eva kill in ensuring bility to unders bility to analyze bility to accura bility to acquire cessary to ac bility to implem rcraft operation bility to coordin pport of airfiel Airpo yees are critic airfield and air Due to the gr perating perfo nificant (Carlis ave a large es. ption Eleme ork closely w efficient move rs. This involv , and more. sponse incide eration incide stem (NIMS) chedule, coor tions to ensu porting, and tr lly, these emp akeholders an issues to en nway and light fety and secu Administration ory agencies. rline/airport gro l rules and reg rport security r analysis and d the environme problem solvin luate options a effective comm tand current av operational in tely read and i and apply kno hieve results. ent airfield saf . ate with agenc d and airside m AC rt Operat al to an airpor side environm eater regulato rmance, these le, 2015). Fur impact on an nts: Employ ith airlines to e ment of airc es managing These empl nts, and are nts while adhe standards. Ad dinate, and c re Part 139 c acking deficie loyees ensure d passenger sure safe, se ing regulations rity requiremen (FAA), Occup und and flight ulations applic egulations and etermining how nt will affect ou g including ide nd implement unications reg iation-related formation quic nterpret federa wledge, subje ety procedures ies such as ai anagement a RP 06-04: Ident ions Occ t, as they ensu ents for safe a ry pressures a employees a thermore, Airp overall airpor ees in Airp nsure the airfie raft, equipme runways, fricti oyees are al responsible ring to Nation ditionally, Airp onduct FAR-1 ompliance. Th ncies discover a high level s. They hand cure, custom . ts of FAR-139 ational Safety operations, te able to the airs how to interfa an airport sh tcomes. ntifying compl solutions. arding the use issues and fac kly and make l and state reg ct matter expe to ensure a s r traffic control ctivities. ifying and Evalu upations re nd nd re ort t’s ort ld nt, on so for al ort 39 is ed of le er- , Transportatio and Health Ad rminology, and ide and airfield ce with airport ould work and ex problems a of airport fac tors impacting appropriate de ulations. rtise, tradecra afe operating e , engineers, an Exampl  Ai  Ra  Gr  Ba  Ca  Ba  La Ma ating Airport W n Security Adm ministration (E procedures. operational e safety and se how changes nd reviewing re ilities and serv the airport env cisions. ft, and/or techn nvironment fo d command p   e Job Titles: rfield Operatio mp Operation ound Services ggage Handlin rgo & Freight ggage Porters borers and Fre terial Movers orkforce Require inistration (TS PA), and othe nvironment. curity personn in conditions, lated informat ices. ironment. ical competen r personnel an osts to ensure ns Specialists s g Agents ight, Stock, a ments 35 A), r el. ion to cy d nd Airport Operations Occupations

November 2 Due to upc a gap in kn is because With regar indicated th to support strong for that result sufficient t responden responden the statem 0 1000 2000 3000 # 016 oming retirem owledge and airports lack d to Airfield O at employees personal effec Airside Operat s suggest m raining and de ts. The training ts, are listed b ent:  A 2624.4  Jobs in 2014 (# in thou Foreca Train ents, Airport O skills. Some r a solid caree perations in p lack training a tiveness. How ions in genera ost Airport O velopment op and develop elow with the p dditional deve   2782.9 Projected # Job in 2024 sands) AC st of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not *So may Airf requ ing and De perations emp espondents ind r track for the articular, surv nd developme ever, this conc l. It is also im perations em portunities foc ment challeng ercentage of lopmental opp Lack of soli Lack of trai effectivenes s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath me Airport Opera require a colleg ield Operations S ired high school velopment C loyees require icated that th se employees ey respondent nt opportunitie ern was not a portant to not ployees hav using on lead es for Airport respondents a ortunities need d career track ning and devel s for Airfield O ifying and Evalu For Airpo and deve identified Two othe by at lea Job Numbe s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range on Required ered from BLS O tions jobs, includ e degree. Other pecialists, requir diploma or equiv hallenges greater develo is . s s s e e ership develo Operations em greeing with e ed (75.7%) in airports (52 opment for pe perations on ating Airport W rt Operations, lopment challe by over 75% r challenges w st 50% of resp rs 2,782,90 6.04% $24,430 High sch equivale ccupational Emp ing jobs such as Airport Operatio e on-the-job trai alent. pmental oppo pment, as ind ployees, as id ach statement .9%) rsonal ly (50.7%) orkforce Require 1 of the trainin nges was of respondents ere identified ondents. 0 - $76,660 ool diploma or nt* loyment data. operations ana ns jobs, such as ning in addition to rtunities to pre icated by 62 entified by su provided follo ments 36 g . lysts, the vent % of rvey wing Airport Operations Occupations

November 2 Airport Op retirements further incr Additionally may offer h difficult to a noted tha operations/ new emplo gain the ne reclassify increases reported a handlers o boot camp indicated th Given the Airport Ope at an airpo service wi airlines, air the leader employees business p terminal to as a resul airport’s p indicated performanc these emp criterion:  Safe  Cust  On-t 016 erations occup . These occup easing the cha , the airport in igher pay or g ttract those w t their airp communicatio yees strugglin eded skills) w positions into the challenge ttempting to h r airlines at the , so they are e following ro  Ris  Hig ir responsibilit rations emplo rt. They have th stakeholder port tenants, a of a large mun play a signific artners. This, partners. Thes t, passenger erformance i Airport Oper e measures, loyees will s ty and security omer service w ime flight depa Recr ations face ri ations also re llenge for airp dustry must c reater job attr ith specialized ort experien n center team g to pay off hig ith entry-level higher pay ca of hiring Airp ire employees airport. Addit able to apply adblocks for ai k for vacancy ( hly specialized Im y for implem yees strongly a large impact s due to the nd regulatory icipally-operat ant role in pr in turn, helps e employees experience an n environmen ations emplo with the perc ignificantly im (96.0%) ith stakeholde rtures (72.5%) Airport Oper impact AC uitment and sk for vacancy quire a highly orts looking to ompete with o activeness, m skillsets. One ced 100% in the past yea h student loa pay of $30,000 tegories. In te ort Operation from other a ionally, the air for and pote rports seeking 72.1%) skillset (67.7% pacted Pe enting safety impact proper on the airport’ ir role in mai governmental ed airport sha oviding a stab to mitigate ris also impact on d expectation tal sustainab yees strong entage of par pact these rs (73.7%) ations employ on 5 of the 6 id RP 06-04: Ident Turnover C due to upco specialized ski recruit employ ther industries aking it even m airport stakeho turnover in r. This was du n debt (taken o a year. To ov rms of additio s employees. irports or retra port hires temp ntially fill vac to fill Airport O )   rformance and security safety and sec s performance ntaining relatio agencies. In a red that Airpor le and reliable ks and deliver -time flight dep s. Finally, the ility. Survey ly impact th ticipants who measures fol  Pass  Envir ees were seen entified perfor ifying and Evalu hallenges ming llset, ees. that ore lder the e to n to ercome this c nal challenge To address t ining employe orary employe ant operations perations pos High competiti Small applican Criteria procedures, urity actions in customer nships with focus group, t Operations platform for a functional artures and, y impact an respondents e following agreed that lowing each enger experien onmental sust as having a s mance criteria ating Airport W 96 hallenge, as th s, a small app he challenge, es currently w es and trains positions. S itions: on across indu t pool (53.9%) Greate Perform ce and expec ainability (55.0 trong . of res noted Opera occup strong prope secur orkforce Require .0% e leader soug licant pool fu one large ai orking for gro them in a 6-m urvey respond stries (61.2%) st Impacted ance Criteria: tations (64.3% %) pondents Airport tions ations ly impact r safety and ity ments 37 ht to rther rport und onth ents ) Airport Operations Occupations

November 2 87.2 Airport Ope significant the most cr a leader at skilled at d Operations ability to m experiencin are not co Survey res Greate 016 % rations emplo costs and cha itical function a large comm ay-to-day duti employees in eet strategic g g. In a focus mpleted would pondents indic st Impact on A no O em ne d S yees have a la llenges for the in an airport, a ercially-opera es, but often l fluence key d oals related t group, anothe significantly i ated Airport O    irport Trend    ted Airport perations ployees wi ed new skil ue to techno AC trategy and rge impact on airport. A num nd many of the ted airport me ack an apprec ecisions that o the increasi r airport leade mpact the airp perations emp Significant cos Key decision m Meeting strateg Airp s: Evo Op new of t to i the opp ens tren ind imp New skillsets r Changing dem Increase in co ll lsets logy RP 06-04: Ident Decision M an airport’s s ber of airport m identified ga ntioned that th iation of the b impact overall ng pressures r mentioned th ort’s ability to loyees have a ts/challenges d aking (83.7%) ic goals (78.3 ort Trends lving technol erations emplo younger emp he airport work ncrease in com se changes ortunities for ure these pos ds and are ab icate that the act on Airport equired due to ographics (75 mplexity of tas ifying and Evalu aking trategy and an executives exp ps in these em ese employee igger picture o business fun of commercial at any tasks r deliver servic strong impact ue to errors (8 %) ogies will re yees. Additio loyees will lea force. Further plexity in the into training, Airport Oper itions remain le to meet vary following airpo Operations oc technology (8 .8%) ks (73.5%) ating Airport W y errors they ressed that A ployees’ skill s are very tec r overall airpo ctioning, as w ization that air equired of the es and meet p on: 7.0%) quire new sk nally, upcomin d to a shift in , these occupa next 5-10 year development, ations employ aligned with th ing airport ne rt trends will cupations: 7.2%) orkforce Require make can res irport Operatio sets. For exam hnically strong rt strategy. Ai ell as the airp ports are curr se employees erformance g illsets for Ai g retirements the demograp tions are expe s. By incorpor and promot ees, airports e emerging ai eds. Survey re have the gre ments 38 ult in ns is ple, and rport ort’s ently that oals. rport and hics cted ating ional can rport sults atest Airport Operations Occupations

November 2 Scenario and S 69.4% of re scenario w Operations mission cri As can be occupation these jobs Across all included:  K e  I For Scenar  V an  R im 016 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Airp occupations m tical. Fut seen above, s in terms of m are provided b three scenario nowledge of ffective respon ndustry-speci ios 1 and 3, w acancies in A d priorities of eliance on Air portant eleme Future Imp Business logical lieve this ort ore ure Job Impac Scenarios 1 ission criticalit elow. s, the capabi specific safet se. fic knowledge ith regard to jo irport Operati airports. port Operatio nt of ensuring AC acts of Scen Scenario 2: 44.3% of respo scenario would Operations occ mission critica ts to Conside and 3 are ex y. Findings re lities/skill nee y standards a about how th b and workfo ons jobs will c ns employees effective opera RP 06-04: Ident arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Airport upations more l. r for Airport pected to ha garding the sk ds that were nd regulation e airport functi rce requireme ause serious by those in tions. ifying and Evalu act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this 66.7 sce Ope mis Operations O ve the greate ill needs and j identified as t s will become ons will be req nts, the great difficulties in other airport j ating Airport W Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m rations occup sion critical. ccupations st impact on ob impacts of he most impo increasingly im uired. est impact is e delivering on obs will be inc orkforce Require eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Airport ations more Airport Opera these scenario rtant for the fu portant for xpected to be: the commitme reasing and a ments 39 ial, re is tions s on ture nts n Airport Operations Occupations

November 2 In the pos across man given that target for employees potential t regulations has attemp and airport to use their Example J responsible facilities, fr are in c concession airport to o the airfield in collabor Security em restricted a the safety o where they Airport Sec security ac Example K  K  K  K  K  S  A  A  A  A sa  A  A pu 016 t-9/11 world, y industries. T air travel is a terrorists. Air , and passen hreats. Airpor in addition to ted to shift dut s frequently cr personnel for ob Descriptio for ensuring om parking to harge of ba aires to ensu versee continu , and they perf ation with fire ployees cont ccess such as f passengers are and maki urity employe tivities. SAs nowledge of FA nowledge of in nowledge of th nowledge of th kill in managing bility to analyze bility to remain bility to convey bility to plan, o fety departme bility to establis bility to establis blic officials a Air security has his is especia major transpor port Security gers are suf t Security job the needs of ies to airports eate non-scre screening—w n Elements: A safety and s terminals to t dging of all re they have b ed, safe func orm a critical fighters and lo rol access to control towers and employee ng sure access es must also c A security pro ternational acc e standards by e functions of crisis situatio , evaluate, an calm and reso ideas clearly a rganize, staff, c nt. h priorities, st h and maintai nd the public. AC port Secu become a for lly true for the tation mode a ensures all a ficiently prote s are a prod airports. Rece (such as exit l ener positions hich only they irport Securit ecurity of an he airfield. Th employees, een cleared. tioning in the t emergency res cal law enfor aircraft, bagga , operations, a s and screenin to restricted a omplete repor cedures for ai ords, laws, rul which the qua other governm ns. d make rapid, urceful in crisi nd effectively oordinate, and andards, and p n effective wor RP 06-04: Ident rity Occu emost concer airport industry nd a prominen irport facilities cted from an uct of federa ntly, DHS/TSA ane monitoring to enable TSA can do. y personnel ar airport and a ese employee tenants, an They patrol th erminal and o ponse functio cement. Airpo ge areas, cus nd the airfield g baggage, bu reas of the air ts when there rports. es and regulat lity of public s ental agencies accurate decis s situations. , both orally an direct the act rocedures for king relationsh ifying and Evalu pations n , t , y l ) e ll s d e n n rt tomer pick-up itself. This me t also for verif port is control are security b ions governing afety services as they relate ions regarding d in writing. ivities of a mu public safety. ips with subor Example  Airp  Airp  Tra  Airf ating Airport W locations, an ans that there ying vehicles a led for all mea reaches and k airport operat are evaluated to public safe critical factors lti-function, cro dinates, Board   Job Titles: ort Security C ort Security nsportation Ins ield Security orkforce Require d other areas is responsibili re authorized ns of entry. Fi eep written lo ion and securi . ty services. in emergenci ss-trained pub officials, othe oordinator pector ments 40 with ty for to be nally, gs of ty. es. lic r Airport Security Occupations

November 2 Upcoming Additional occurring. effectivene area as a c 0 500 1000 1500 # 016 retirements c developmenta These employ ss. For these hallenge is pre   1142.0  Jobs in 2014 (# in thou Foreca Train ould potential l opportunitie ees also lack t challenges, th sented below Additional d Lack of trai effectivenes Recr 1193.3 Projected # Job in 2024 sands) AC st of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not *Th by 9 is e **A add ing and De ly cause a ga s will be ne raining and de e percentage o following the s evelopmental ning and devel s (54.0%) uitment and Recruiting a the increase the challen respondents to upcoming significant n potential saf primary road  Hig  Risk s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath e number of Tran % from 2014 to xpected to increa irport Security job ition to this educ velopment C p in knowled eded to prev velopment to s f respondents tatement: opportunities n opment for per Turnover C pplicants for A d need for hig ge of filling indicated that retirements. G egative impac ety and secu blocks for airp hly specialized for vacancy ( ifying and Evalu Job Numbe s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range on Required ered from BLS O sportation Secu 2024; however, t se, explaining th s typically requir ational requireme hallenges ge and skills ent gaps fro upport person indicating ea eeded (67.2% sonal hallenges irport Security hly specialize Security oc these occupa aps in the sec ts on an airpo rity threats. S orts seeking to skillset (58.4% 52.7%) ating Airport W 2 of the training develop were se problem Security rs 1,095,4 4.49%* $24,410 High sc equivale ccupational Emp rity Screeners is he number of ge e overall increas e short-term on- nt. of Airport Se m al ch ) positions is a d skillsets, wh cupations. Ad tions are at ris urity workforc rt, as they m urvey respond fill security po ) orkforce Require 6 potential and ment challeng lected as being atic for Airport Employees. 00 - $38,090 hool diploma o nt** loyment data. expected to decr neral security gu e in jobs seen he the-job training in curity employ challenge du ich further add ditionally, su k for vacancy e are likely to ay lead to gre ents indicated sitions are: ments 41 es r ease ards re. ees. e to s to rvey due have ater the Airport Security Occupations

November 2 Given the very large frequent co have a sig service an terminals experience Survey res strongly im percentage significantly  Sa  C Due to the occupation potentially in significa these occu responden Greates 016 90.8 nature of their impact on air ntact with stak nificant impact d passenger and handle in which airp pondents ind pact the foll of particip impact these fety and secu ustomer servic importance s have a larg put the airport nt costs and/o pations have o ts indicated Se    t Impact due  New techn  Increa (77.9 noted th new secu skillsets required to updat technolo % Im work, Airport port safety an eholders and on the airport experience. security bad ort customers icated Airport owing perform ants who a measures follo rity (94.6%) e with stakeho S of Airport Se e impact on and all emplo r challenges. n key decisio curity occupat Errors w Key dec Meeting to Airport Tre skillsets due to ology (90.8%) se in complex %) at rity are due ed gy AC pacted Pe Security emplo d security and passengers. T ’s performance For example, ging, which feel safe withi Security jobs ance measur greed securit wing each cri lders (86.3%) trategy and curity to an a an airport’s s yees and pass The growing n making proc ions have a str ill have signific ision making (7 strategic goals Airp nds: New and impo com emp thes lead emp emp will indic occu ity of tasks RP 06-04: Ident rformance yees have a they are in hus, they can in customer they patrol creates an n the airport. are likely to es, with the y jobs will terion:  Pa  O Decision M irport’s overal trategy. Beca engers in dan importance of esses and the ong impact on ant costs/chall 7.1%) (63.4%) ort Trends technologies security mea rtant post-9/1 e with a nee loyees who w e new technol to an increase loyees. Finall loyees are cau impact Securit ated the fol pations:  Ch ifying and Evalu 94.6 Criteria Greatest Im ssenger expe n-time flight de aking l function and use errors m ger, conseque security in ai airport’s abilit : enges (81.7% provide airpo sures, an obj 1 (Carlisle, 20 d for new s ill be utilizing ogies, along w in the comple y, upcoming sing a shift in y occupations lowing airpor anging demog ating Airport W % pacted Perfo of r indi emp imp sec rience and exp partures (61.8 activities, em ade by Secu nces of errors rports also inc y to meet strat ) rts the ability ective that h 15). However killsets for th the technolo ith greater trav xity of tasks p retirements a workforce de in airports. S t trends will raphics (59. orkforce Require rmance Crite espondents cated Secur loyees large act safety an urity ectations (75. %) ployees in t rity personnel are likely to r reases the im egic goals. Su to increase s as become h , new technolo e Airport Sec gies. Addition el regulations erformed by t nd new you mographics, w urvey respond impact Sec 5%) ments 42 ria: ity ly d 4%) hese can esult pact rvey afety ighly gies urity ally, , will hese nger hich ents urity Airport Security Occupations

November 2 Scenario and S 70.6% of re scenario w Security oc mission cri In each o requiremen types of sk The followi Among the  K ef  M pe ai  In Across sce  V a  R im 016 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Airp cupations bec tical. Fu f the three sc ts were very s ills needed by ng findings hig included capa nowledge of fective respon ore advanced rform; employ rports. dustry-specif narios, the gre acancies in A nd priorities of eliance on A portant elem Future Imp Business logical lieve this ort ome more ture Job Imp enarios, expe imilar. As such Security emp hlight the antic bilities/skill n specific safe se. technologica ees will need ic knowledge atest impacts irport Securi airports. irport Securi ent of ensuring AC acts of Scen Scenario 2: 71.7% of respo scenario would Security occup mission critica acts to Consid ctations for f , it is likely tha loyees and th ipated future i eeds, three w ty standards l savvy will b new skills ba about how the on job and wo ty positions w ty employees effective oper RP 06-04: Ident arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Airport ations become l. er for Airpor uture skill nee t, regardless o e impact of th mpacts of the s ere rated as be and regula e required of sed on specifi airport functio rkforce requi ill cause serio by those in ations. ifying and Evalu act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this more 82.5 sce Sec mis t Security Occ ds and the f the specific f e scenario on cenarios on A ing very impo tions will bec Security emplo c technology ns will be requ rements are e us difficulties other airport ating Airport W Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m urity occupatio sion critical. upations impact of the uture experien job requireme irport Security rtant across al ome increasi yees for airpo innovations inc ired. xpected to be in delivering o jobs will be orkforce Require eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Airport ns become m scenarios on ced in airports nts will be sim jobs: l three scenari ngly importan rts to success orporated by : n the commitm increasing an ments 43 ial, re is ore job , the ilar. os: t for fully their ents d an Airport Security Occupations

November 2 Airports re to ensure s lighting, ru Both airpo electrical s repair of th Example responsible airport ele communica new electr elements b all electrica National E also respo testing and Example K  K  K  K  S to  S  S  A  A  A  A  A dr  A  A 0 200 400 600 800 016 ly on complex mooth operat nway equipm rt employees ystems, and E e systems that Job Descrip for installatio ctrical systems tion. They are ical wiring, eq ased on speci l lines, equipm lectrical Code nsible initiating repairs, within SAs nowledge of FA nowledge of el nowledge of In kill in the use o ols, and testing kill in troublesh kill in repairing bility to locate a bility to handle bility to deal co bility to use lad bility to provide iving needed v bility to provide bility to earn an 628.8 # Jobs in 2014 (# in th electrical syste ion and efficie ent, commun and passen lectricians are keep airports tion Elemen n, maintenanc , including po responsible uipment and n fications and l ent, and light and Federal A supply action airport guidel A regulations ectrical terms a ternational Bu f tools and equ equipment. ooting to dete machines or s nd correct ele and operate h urteously and ders, scaffolds assistance du ehicles. primary sketc d maintain a c Forecas 704. Projected # 2024 ousands) AC Airport ms both indoo ncy. This elect ication equipm gers heavily critical to the m in operation. ts: Airport e, inspection, wer distributio for layout and eed to install ocal codes. Ele ing are in acc viation Regul to obtain prop ines. and recomme nd understan ilding Codes (I ipment, such rmine causes o ystems using n ctrical trouble igh voltage tes effectively with , or roofs to co ring emergenc hes or cost es urrent Electric t of Curren 7  Jobs in RP 06-04: Ident Electricia rs and outdoo rical work spa ent, and mo rely on the aintenance a Electricians a and repair of n, security, a planning of a these electron ctricians ensu ordance with t ations. They a er equipment ndations for ai ding of the fun BCs) and/or N as power cons f operating err eeded tools. promptly. ting equipmen airport staff, t nduct work. ies by operati timates for ser ian’s license. t & Future J Project 2024 % Incre 2014-2 Median Minimu Require Note: Nu data. ifying and Evalu ns rs ns re. se nd re all nd ny ic re he re for rport lighting s ction of electric FPA. truction equipm ors and determ t and high volt enants, and re ng flood lights vice. ob Number ed # of Jobs, ase in Jobs, 024 Annual Salary m Education d mbers gathered Exampl  El  El  El  Ai  Ai ating Airport W ystems. ally controlled ent, measurin ining what to age switchgea presentatives or generators, s 714,700 13.66% $51,110 High schoo equivalent from BLS Occup   e Job Titles: ectrician ectrical Worke ectrical Techni rport Electricia rfield Electricia orkforce Require equipment. g devices, pow do about error r and transform of other agenc placing flares, l diploma or ational Employm r cian n n ments 44 er s. ers. ies. or ent Airport Electricians

November 2 Airport Ele personal e career trac Airport E developme a focus gro of success retirements education prepare E providing g identified b challenge f A small ap market ma workforce Furthermor compete w attractivene employees following ro Given the are expect in the nex function pr Electricians sustain th indicated performanc 016 ctricians lack a ffectiveness; ks outside of lectricians. U nt for Electricia up, an airport ion planning, . However, th and training lectricians for reater growth y survey resp ollowing each  Add dev opp (94. plicant pool a ke it difficult gaps. Upcom e, as noted in ith other ind ss to Electric to fill vacanci adblocks for a  S  H  H (9  R  In in widespread na ed to largely i t 5-10 years. operly and en must be ab e high pace Electricians a e measures: Train solid career tr however, the airports that c pcoming retir ns to prevent authority exe to ensure the ese challenge programs wit airport career , development ondents are lis statement: itional elopmental ortunities need 7%) Recru nd insufficient to recruit and ing retireme a focus group ustries that ians. Finally, t es in Electricia irports seeking mall applicant ighly specializ igh competitio 4.7%) isk for vacancy sufficient skills labor market Im ture of Electr mpact several Airports rely h sure safety on le to install a of airport op re likely to AC ing and Dev ack and oppor re may be re an be utilized ements also a gap in know cutive mention workforce is s are escalat h airport-spec s. Airports ca , and promotio ted below, wi ed    itment and skillsets, know hire Airport E nts also incr by the leader potentially off here is a lack n positions. S to fill electrici pool (94.7%) ed skillset (94. n across indus (89.5%) ets, knowledg (84.2%) pacted Pe icians’ duties i aspects of ov eavily on elec the airfield an nd maintain t erations. Sur strongly impa RP 06-04: Ident elopment C tunities to dev levant Electri and amended require gre ledge and skill ed the importa prepared to ed by the lac ific curriculum n begin to ov nal opportunit th the percenta Lack of trainin personal effec Lack of solid c Insufficient ed Turnover C ledge, and int lectricians, lea ease the ris of a large airp er higher pay of talent amo urvey respond an positions: 7%) tries e, interest  rformance C n an airport, t erall performa trical systems d in the termi hese systems vey responde ct the follow ifying and Evalu hallenges elop cian for ater s. In nce face k of to ercome these ies. The trainin ge of respon g and develop tiveness (63.2 areer track in a ucation and tra hallenges erest in the la ding to poten k for vacanc ort, airports m or greater ng current air ents indicated Lack of tale airport emp (68.4%) riteria hey nce to nal. to nts ing Gre 100 ating Airport W 5 of th were id proble Airport by ove survey challenges b g and develo dents indicatin ment for %) irports (52.6% ining (52.6%) bor tial ies. ust job port the nt in existing loyees atest Impacte % indic Elect prope secu orkforce Require e 7 challenges entified as matic for Electricians r 75% of respondents. y identifying pment challen g each area a ) d Criteria: ated ricians impac r safety and rity ments 45 and ges s a Airport Electricians t

November 2  Saf  Cu Electricians making, du example, e to the airpo safe airpor airside ope function of Survey res airports du Upcoming the Electri employees electricians results indi Scenario and S 66.7% of re scenario w become m airports. 016 ety and securi stomer service have a large e to an airport rrors made by rt, as they ma t operations. A rations, Electr the business a pondents indic e to:  Sign  Meet  Busi retirements an cian workforce . By incorpor , airports can cate that the fo  Im  Ne  In 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Ele ore mission cri ty (100.0%) with stakehold S impact on airp ’s dependence Electricians ca intain lighting a s a key eleme icians can have nd pursuit of a ated electricia ificant costs/ch ing strategic g ness functionin d younger gen in airports. ating these c ensure electric llowing trends pacted by dem w skillsets req crease in comp Future Impa Business logical lieve this ctricians tical in AC ers (73.7%) trategy and ort strategy an on electrical s n result in sig nd other equip nt of safe lands a great impa n airport’s stra ns have a stro allenges due t oals (78.9%) g (52.6%) Airpo erations ente Additionally, hanges into ian positions will have the g ographic chan uired due to te lexity of tasks cts of Scen Scenario 2: 83.3% of respo scenario would become more Airports. RP 06-04: Ident  On-  Pas Decision M d decision ystems. For nificant costs ment vital to ide and ct on the tegic goals. ng impact on o errors (100.0 rt Trends ring the workfo evolving techn training, deve remain aligned reatest impac ges (84.2%) chnology (78. (77.8%) arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Electric mission critica ifying and Evalu time flight depa senger experie aking Greate of resp are sig when E %) rce will lead t ologies will r lopment, and with the airpo t on Airport Ele 9%) act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this ians l in 77.8 sce bec Airp ating Airport W 100% rtures (63.2% nce and expe st Impact on Decision Ma ondents ind nificant cost lectricians m o a shift in the equire new s promotional rt’s business s ctricians: Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m ome more mis orts. orkforce Require ) ctations (52.6% Strategy and king: icated there s/ challenge ake errors demographic killsets for th opportunities trategies. Sur eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Electrician sion critical in ments 46 ) s s of ese for vey ial, re is s Airport Electricians

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 47 Future Job Impacts to Consider for Airport Electrician Occupations Findings regarding the importance of capabilities/skill needs and the impact of the scenarios on job requirements differed slightly across scenarios. The following findings highlight the anticipated future impacts of the scenarios on Airport Electrician jobs. The most important capability/skill need considering Scenario 1 is:  Knowledge of specific safety standards and regulations will become increasingly important for effective response. Considering Scenarios 2 and 3, the most important capability/skill need for the future was identified as:  More advanced technological savvy will be required of Electricians for airports to successfully perform. For Scenario 1, the greatest impact on job and workforce requirements is expected to be:  Specialized knowledge/skills will make Electrician positions more difficult to fill. This was seen as a having a greater impact than each of the skill needs included in the survey. For Scenario 2, the greatest impact on job and workforce requirements is expected to be:  Vacancies in Electrician positions will cause serious difficulties in delivering on the commitments and priorities of airports. For Scenario 3, the greatest impact on job and workforce requirements is expected to be:  Reliance on Electricians by those in other airport jobs will be increasing and an important element of ensuring effective operations. Airport Electricians

November 2 Airport En planning, Facilities a performanc passenger engineers, airport’s ab Example J project pla airport faci concept lay costs es maintenan ensure tha materials o inspections materials. administeri claims and Example K  K ai  K co  K  K cr  S  S  S  A w  A sp  A B  A ba  A  S ca 016 gineers are including faci nd design ha e, including a safety. As electrical eng ility to meet st ob Descriptio nning, design lities and equi outs for propo timates, pro ce and repair t proper eva ccurs as nee and evalua Finally, they ng relevant c payment requ SAs nowledge of th rport buildings nowledge of fe nstruction, fac nowledge of th nowledge of ai iteria and proc kill in the area kill in project m kill in quality co bility to negotia ith a win-win m bility to review ecifications. bility to create usiness Plan a bility to effectiv ckgrounds. bility to analyze kill in the succe pital developm heavily involv lities design, ve a large im spects such a result, Eng ineers, and civ rategic goals a n Elements: , construction pment. They a sed facilities. viding meas programs as luation of soi ded. Additiona tions of airpo may be ontracts, inclu ests for major e engineering and equipmen deral, state, an ilities, building e financial dim rcraft operation edures, runwa of computer-ai anagement. ntrol and mon te and partner indset and app and understan and execute in nd facilitate the ely communica soil and mate ssful oversigh ent programs AC Airport ed in all as construction, pact on the as operationa ineers (includ il engineers) nd objectives. Engineers are , repair, and lso assist in th This includes urements, a well as org ls, pavement lly, Airport En rt facilities, involved in ding reviewing capital projects principles and t. d local laws, r codes, and op ensions of fac al characteris y, taxiway and ded design (CA itoring costs. effectively wit roach. d difficult and itiatives in are implementati te verbally an rials to provide t and managem , delivering on RP 06-04: Ident Enginee pects of airp and inspectio airport’s over l efficiency a ing mechanic are critical to responsible maintenance e preparation preparing budg nd developi anizing work conditions, a gineers condu equipment, a managing a and recomm . practices relat ules, regulatio erations of a c ility developme tics and the us apron charact D). h a variety of c complex engin as of responsib on of the Plan d in writing, wi technical rec ent of large a time, on budge ifying and Evalu rs ort n. all nd al an for of of et ng to nd ct nd nd ending contra ing to the main ns, and guideli ommercial air nt programs. es of traffic for eristics, draina onstituent gro eering estimat ility that are a . th individuals o ommendations nd complex ai t, and on spec Exampl     ating Airport W ct awards, c tenance and c nes relating to port. ecasts, landin ge, access rou ups, both inter es, design doc ligned with the f varied profes for projects. rport (or relate .   e Job Titles: Civil Enginee Electrical Eng Mechanical E Senior Engin orkforce Require hange orders, onstruction of engineering, g and take-off tes and roads nal and extern uments, and Airport’s Strat sional d/adjacent ind r ineer ngineer eer ments 48 and . al, egic ustry) Airport Engineers

November 2 5 of the 7 and turno challeng identified problema Airport E with 2 se over 80% participa Additional skill gaps engineerin and develo solid caree as identifie indicating e 0 200 400 600 800 1000 # 016 recruitment ver es were as tic for ngineers, lected by of survey nts. developmenta that are expe g programs ra pment progra r track for thes d by survey ach area as a  La ai  Ad op  H in  H (8 737.3  Jobs in 2014 (# in thous Forecas Train l opportunities cted to occu ther than airpo ms available fo e positions. T respondents, challenge is p ck of solid car rports (75.0%) ditional develo portunities nee Recru Engineers competitio operated a to offer organizatio difficult fo further exa of and ap existing ai workforce. Engineerin igh competitio dustries (84.2 ighly specializ 0.0%) 777.3 Projected # Job in 2024 ands) AC t of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not ing and Dev will be neede r when older rt-specific pro r the enginee he greatest tra are listed belo resented follow eer track in pmental ded (75.0%) itment and are highly so n to hire them irport express competitive c ns. High com r airports to a cerbated by th ply for Airport rport employe Survey res g positions an n across %) ed skillset s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future J jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath elopment C d for Airport E engineers re grams, so airp rs they employ ining and dev w. For these ing the statem  Lack for p Turnover C ught after em . In a focus ed a great nee ompensation petition along w ttract potentia e small pool o Engineering j es to fill vacan pondents ind d keeping them    ifying and Evalu ob Number s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range on Required ered from BLS O hallenges ngineers to p tire. Most en orts may not . Finally, the a elopment chal challenges, t ent: of training a ersonal effect hallenges ployees acros group, an exe d for Engineer compared t ith the need f l Engineering f Engineers in obs. Additiona cies in these icated the p filled are: Lack of talent i airport employ Small applican Risk for vacan ating Airport W s 777,300 5.43% $82,050 Bachelo ccupational Emp revent potenti gineers are tr have sufficien irport industry lenges for Eng he percentag nd developm iveness (52.4% s industries, l cutive for a s s in airports, b o private se or specialized employees. the labor mark lly, there is a positions, cre rimary roadb n existing ees (65.0%) t pool (61.9%) cy (55.6%) orkforce Require - $93,260 r’s degree loyment data. al knowledge ained in gen tly robust train currently lack ineers in airpo e of responde ent ) eading to grea mall municipa ut found it diffi ctor enginee skillsets make This challenge et who are aw lack of talen ating gaps in locks for fil ments 49 and eral ing s a rts, nts ter lly- cult ring s it is are t in the ling Airport Engineers

November 2 overall. Fo dissatisfact and overal the followi significantly  En  Sa  C Airport Eng and goals. for airports these emp Survey res As new te skillsets to become m Engineers by the FAA federal pro and young these chan employees positions: 016 r example, poo ion as well as l airport revenu ng performan impact these vironmental s fety and secu ustomer servic ineering job a They impact having a mo loyees can res ults indicate following asp  Erro  Mee  Key chnologies bec utilize these te ore complex. I has become m . As a result, cess guideline er employees ges into thei . Survey resul  Incre  New (81.3 Im A f rly designed f a decrease i e (Carlisle, 20 ce measures, measures ind ustainability (8 rity (81.3%) e with stakeho S ctivities align cost performa re commercial ult in significan that Engineer ects of strateg rs will pose sig ting strategic decision maki ome increasin chnologies. A n a focus grou ore involved d those involve s in addition to entering the w r workforce p ts indicate tha ase in comple skillsets requi %) AC pacted Pe irport Engine due to the e performance. environmental also impact th in developing a acilities and passenger exp acilities resulti n retail spend 15). Survey re with the pe icated following 7.5%) lders (72.2%) trategy and with and impa nce a schedul focus. Furthe t costs and ch s have the g y and decision nificant costs/ goals and com ng (88.2%) Airpo gly prevalent dditionally, the p, a large mun ue to federal d in airport pl being experts orkforce will lans, airports t the following xity of tasks (8 red due to tech RP 06-04: Ident rformance C ers impact ma ffect the airp Specifically, sustainability e airport’s perf nd maintainin design also erience, incre ng in passeng ing by passen spondents ind rcentage of p each perform   Decision M ct the airport’s e, which is a rmore, errors allenges for th reatest impac making: challenges (10 mercialization rt Trends in the airport nature of Eng icipally-operat requirements b anning, includ in their techn cause a shift can better en airport trends 8.9%) nology ifying and Evalu riteria ny aspects of a ort’s facilities Engineers as well as ai ormance in cu g relationships impact the asing the influ er congestion gers. This imp icated Engine articipants wh ance criterion Passenger exp (66.7%) Finances (50.0 aking mission predicate made by e airport. t on the 0.0%) (94.1%) industry, Engi ineering tasks ed airport exec ecoming more ing Engineers ical areas. Ad in workforce d sure they hav will have the  Impacted changes ating Airport W 10 n airport’s ove and design largely impa rport safety a stomer servic with stakeho airport’s finan ence of Engi are likely to re acts the pass ers are likely o agreed tha : erience and e %) Greatest Impa and Decis of responde errors by cause s costs/ch neers will nee and duties in utive suggest intense and i , need to beco ditionally, upco emographics. e sufficient n greatest impa by demograp (56.3%) orkforce Require 0% rall performan have on air ct the airpo nd security. T e, given their lders. An airpo ces and ove neers on airp sult in passen enger experie to strongly imp t Engineers xpectations ct on Strateg ion Making nts indicated Engineers ignificant allenges d to acquire n airports is likel ed that the role ncreased scru me specialists ming retireme By incorpora umbers of th ct on Enginee hic ments 50 ce, port rt’s hey role rt’s rall orts ger nce act will y ew y to of tiny in nts ting ese ring Airport Engineers

November 2 Scenario and S 75.0% of re scenario w Engineers critical. Survey par to have the understand needs in E Under Sce  K ef  M Considerin  In  K ef For Scenar  V p Under Sce  S 016 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Airp become more F ticipants indica largest impac ing workforce ngineering jobs narios 2 and 3 nowledge of fective respon ore advanced g Scenario 1, t dustry-specif nowledge of fective respon io 1, the great acancies in riorities of airp narios 2 and 3 pecialized ce Future Impa Business logical lieve this ort mission uture Job Imp ted the scena t on Airport E capacity, it w : , the most impo specific safe se. technologica he capabilitie ic knowledge specific safe se. est impact on j Engineering j orts. , the greatest i rtifications or AC cts of Scen Scenario 2: 33.3% of respo scenario would Engineers bec critical. acts to Cons rio regarding i ngineers and ill be importa rtant capabili ty standards l savvy will be s/skill needs about how the ty standards ob and workf obs will caus mpact on job a advanced ed RP 06-04: Ident arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Airport ome more mis ider Airport E ntegrated busi they would be nt to consider ties/skill need and regulat required of en identified as m airport functio and regulat orce requirem e serious diffic nd workforce ucational atta ifying and Evalu act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this sion 50.0 sce Eng criti ngineer Occu ness and safe come more mi the following s identified we ions will bec gineers for air ost important w ns will be requ ions will bec ents is expec ulties in deliv requirement inment will be ating Airport W Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m ineers becom cal. pations ty systems (Sc ssion critical i findings abo re as follows: ome increasin ports to succe ere: ired. ome increasin ted to be: ering on the c s is expected t required to pe orkforce Require eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Airport e more mission enario 1) is lik n this scenario ut greatest fut gly important ssfully perform gly important ommitments o be: rform effective ments 51 ial, re is ely . In ure for . for and ly. Airport Engineers

November 2 Given the operations Analysis a industry. T the shifting challenged financial, p Example J Planning business managing These em revenues a and summ airport fina studies. Example K  K  K  K ad  K  K  K ai  S  S re  A an  A  A 016 Airpo importance and sustaining nd Planning o hese occupatio landscape o to develop olitical, and co ob Descripti employees a planning, dev airport budgets ployees are nd conducting arize airport a nces. Lastly, SAs nowledge of th nowledge of FA nowledge of th ministration. nowledge of in nowledge of th nowledge of th rport or govern kill in the supe kill in the imple design, introdu bility to commu d external rela bility to deal ta bility to apply f rt Financi of financial e the long-term ccupations p ns are becom f the airport strategies ali mmercial pres on Elements re responsible elopment, an and computin also responsi financial anal nd air traffic they conduct e principles of A grant assur e theories, prin vestment strat e sale and issu e principles an mental agency rvision, motiva mentation of a ction of best p nicate clearly tionships at a ctfully and effe inancial expert AC al Analys xpertise in fu viability of th lay a critical ing increasing industry, in w gned with gr sures (Carlisle : Airport Finan for financia d manageme g airline rates ble for trackin ysis. They also trends to dete and oversee public finance ances and reg ciples, and pr egies to maxim ance of public d practices go . tion, and direct change effort ractices, or int and effectively ll levels. ctively with the ise to key strat RP 06-04: Ident is and Pla nding day-to e airport, Finan role in the air ly significant u hich airports owing regula , 2015). cial Analysis l and econo nt. This invo , fees, or char g and projec monitor, anal rmine impact economic im administration ulations that a actices of orga ize returns on revenue bond verning the op ion of professi or transformat egrating financ , both orally an public and co egic and opera ifying and Evalu nning Oc -day cial port nder are tory, and mic lves ges. ting yze, s of pact including com ffect financial s nizational stru investment of s. eration and ma onal and techn ion of the finan ial and other i d in writing an mmunity repre tional decision Exam  A  A  F  A  C ating Airport W cupation plex financial trategy and re cture, manage funds. nagement of ical staff. ce function su nformation ma d to maintain h sentatives. s. ple Job Titles ssistant Finan uditor inancial Analy irport Econom omptroller orkforce Require s arrangements. venue. ment, and a major interna ch as work nagement sys armonious int   : ce Manager st ic Planner ments 52 tional tems. ernal Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Occupations

November 2 5 of th challeng were between of surve Survey res developme occupation the require receive su challenges these cha challenge i Although F specialized industries o skillsets an airports. Fu puts Airpo additional d the primary 0 500 1000 1500 2000 # 016 e 7 possible es in this area selected by 50% and 70% y respondents ults indicate ntal opportuni s lack a solid c d KSAs not b fficient airport- for these jobs llenges, the s presented fo   inancial Anal skillset. The ffering higher d high compet rthermore, cu rt Financial A ifficulties for a roadblocks fo 1671.1  Jobs in 2014 (# in thous Forecas Train airport emplo ties to address areer track in eing taught in focused traini , as identified percentage of llowing the sta Additional dev Lack of solid c Recru ysis and Plan re is also hig compensation ition, along wit rrent airport em nalysis and P irports in mee r airports seek      1847.4 Projected # Job 2024 ands) AC t of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not ing and Dev yees in Finan knowledge a airports. Simil airport-specific ng. The great by survey resp respondents tement: elopmental op areer track in itment and ning occupat h competition and greater jo h a small appl ployees lack lanning occu ting financial g ing to fill Finan Highly speciali High competiti Risk for vacan Lack of talent Small applican s in RP 06-04: Ident t & Future J jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath elopment C cial Analysis nd skills gaps. ar to other occ training prog est training a ondents, are l indicating ea portunities nee airports (50.6% Turnover C ions typically across indust b attractivene icant pool, ma the talent need pations at pot oals and perfo cial Analysis a zed skillset (64 on across indu cy (60.8%) in existing airp t pool (55.6%) ifying and Evalu ob Number s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range on Required ered from BLS O hallenges and Planning Additionally, upations, it ma rams or the fa nd developme isted below. F ch area as ded (63.2%) ) hallenges have a trans ries for these ss than the air kes recruiting t ed to fill vaca ential risk for rmance criteria nd Planning jo .8%) stries (63.6%) ort employees ating Airport W 2 of 6 ch related t develop identifie Analysis Planning s 1,847,4 10.55% $65,940 Bachelo ccupational Emp occupations Financial Analy y be the case ct that these e nt or a ferrable skills occupations, port industry. hese employe ncies in these vacancy, wh . Survey resp bs are: (58.4%) orkforce Require allenges o training and ment were d for Financial and Employees. 00 - $78,620 r’s degree loyment data. will need furt sis and Plann that this is du mployees do et, it is a hig with some ot Highly speciali es challenging occupations. T ich would ca ondents indica ments 53 her ing e to not hly her zed for his use ted Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Occupations

November 2 Gr Perf Financial A decisions airport’s st tasks and Planning o on decision Along thes negative potentially responden occupation noted & P imp 016 95.5% eatest Impac ormance Cri  F nalysis and P made by airpo rategic goals a duties perfo ccupations, the making and t e lines, finan impacts on result in signif ts indicated s have a stron    Financial A lanning emp act strong a finances Im ted teria: inances (95.5% S lanning plays rt executives nd objectives rmed in Fina se employees he airport’s ab cial errors ca an airport’s icant costs and Financial Ana g impact on: Key dec Meeting Consequ nalysis loyees irport AC pacted Pe Due to Fina responsibilities large impact relationships w the FAA, mea customer serv increased focu pressures with respondents in strongly impac of participants )   trategy and a large role to meet the . Given the na ncial Analysi have a large ility to achieve n have wides activities, and challenges. S lysis and Pl ision making (9 strategic goals ences of error RP 06-04: Ident 9 rformance C ncial Analys in managing on the air ith various st ns that they ice. Finally, t s on the pass out sacrificing dicated Finan t the following who agreed lis Customer serv Passenger ex (51.9%) Decision M in key overall ture of s and impact goals. pread can urvey anning G 4.7%) (91.3%) include signif ifying and Evalu 4.7% riteria is and Plan an airport’s b port’s overall akeholders, su directly impac hese employe enger experien the satisfactio cial Analysis performance ted after each ice with stake perience and e aking reatest Impac icant costs/cha ating Airport W ning employ udget, these e finances. A ch as govern t the airport’ es are critica ce, as they m n of airport pa and Planning measures, wi criterion: holders (60.8% xpectations t on Strategy Making: llenges (78.9% of respon indicated Analysis a employee decision m orkforce Require ees’ roles mployees hav dditionally, t ment officials s performance l to an airpo ust meet finan ssengers. Sur jobs are likely th the percent ) and Decision ) dents Financial nd Planning s impact key aking ments 54 and e a heir and in rt’s cial vey to age Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Occupations

November 2 New techn Planning e technologie that airport focus grou mentioned focusing o returns. T complexity Planning jo employees Survey res jobs:    Scenario and S 74.6% of re scenario w Financial A occupation In each of and the im Among the scenarios w  In Related to  R in For Scenar  Va on 016 ologies in airp mployees to s. The great s are experie p, a leader at the importa n innovation a hese emergi of tasks pe bs. Finally, up will lead to pondents indic New skillsets Increase in c Impacted by 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make Airp nalysis and Pl s more missio Future Job the three scen pact of the sce capabilities as: dustry-specif job and workf eliance on Fi creasing and a io 2, the great cancies in Fi the commitm orts will requir acquire new er financial a ncing will also a large comm nce of incre nd customer s ng focus are rformed in coming retire a shift in w ated the follow due to techno omplexity of ta changing dem Future Impa Business logical lieve this ort anning n critical. Impacts to C arios for Airpo narios on job r /skill needs a ic knowledge orce requirem nancial Analy n important el est impact on j nancial Analy ents and priorit AC Airpo e Financial An skillsets to nd regulatory impact these ercially-opera asing efficien ervice to recei as may incr Financial Ana ments and you orkforce dem ing airport tren logy (69.1%) sks (66.4%) ographics (60. cts of Scen Scenario 2: 60.0% of respo scenario would Analysis and P more mission c onsider for Fi rt Financial An equirements w sked about, t about how the ents, under S sis and Plan ement of ensu ob and workf sis and Plann ies of airports RP 06-04: Ident rt Trends alysis and utilize the pressures jobs. In a ted airport cies and ve greater ease the lysis and nger new ographics. ds have a stro 8%) arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make Financ lanning occup ritical. nancial Analy alysis and Pla ere very much he one that e airport functio cenarios 1 an ning employ ring effective o orce requirem ing positions . ifying and Evalu ng impact on act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this ial ations 88.9 sce Ana mor sis and Plann nning jobs, ex alike. merged as m ns will be requ d 3, the greate ees by those perations. ents is expec will cause ser ating Airport W Financial Anal Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m lysis and Plan e mission criti ing Occupati pectations for ost important ired. st impact was in other air ted to be: ious difficulti orkforce Require ysis and Plann eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake Financial ning occupatio cal. ons future skill ne across all th indicated to be port jobs will es in deliverin ments 55 ing ial, re is ns eds ree : be g Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Occupations

November 2 Given the airports cu occupation becoming to improve manageme and other social med HR execut expertise i private sec difficult for Example troublesho systems a security m from cyber functions helpdesk a variety of s Example K  K  K IT  K  K  A  A  A  A  S 016 rapid progre rrently and in u s play a critic increasingly si operational nt systems, cu technology ch ia (Institute fo ive at a large n today’s airp tor demand the airport to a Job Descrip ot a variety re functioning echanisms to security threa within the ai nd support fu ervices. SAs nowledge of in nowledge of ne platforms and nowledge of pr nowledge of C bility to think st bility to ensure bility to collect, bility to build a kills in project m ssion and inc pcoming years al role in the gnificant with t efficiency lik stomer-facing anges such a r the Future, 2 airport noted t ort IT workfo for and limite ttract highly qu tion Element of technology properly. The protect an a ts and attacks rport, such a nctions, and o formation syste twork and wire developments inciples and p RM business-t rategically abo ITS risks are m analyze, evalu nd promote cro anagement, AC Airport IT reased use o (Herrmann & airport indus he introduction e computerize technologies s use of mob 015). During a he importance rce. However d supply of t alified candida s: IT employ issues to en y design, inst irport’s networ . They also p s network in versee contra ms design, de less commun ractices of bus o-consumer te ut using techn anaged, inclu ate, and repo ss-functional b negotiation, an RP 06-04: Ident Occupat f technology Hazel, 2012), try. This role of technologi d maintenan like ticket kiosk ile devices a focus group, of cybersecur , given the hi hese skills, it tes. ees in airpo sure all airp all, and mana ks and system lan and direct frastructure a ctors providing velopment, an ication system iness administ chnologies ology to move ding IT securit rt complex tech usiness team d effective com ifying and Evalu ions in IT is es ce s, nd an ity gh is rts ort ge s IT nd a d implementa s, dispatch equ ration airport forward y, disaster rec nical data s munication   Exampl  Ne  He  IT  IT  Sy  Se  Cy  So  Co Sp ating Airport W tion strategies ipment and ca overy and bus e Job Titles: twork Adminis lp Desk Techn Services Spec /Computer Sys stem Security rver Administr ber Security P ftware Engine mputer Netwo ecialist orkforce Require bling, and cur iness continuit trator ician ialist tems Analyst Analyst ator rogrammer er rk Support ments 56 rent y Airport IT Occupations

November 2 IT occupat upcoming skills. To developme airport indi is technolo jobs, as id indicating e Upcoming potential g performanc as well, du industries, leader at a noted that across ind sector. Ad Francisco of these em attractive o responden jobs are: 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 # 016 ions in airports retirements re overcome the nt, and promo cated that IT e gy training in p entified by sur ach area as a retirements c aps in the IT e. However, r e to the nee and a lack o large airport it is difficult to ustries and ten ditionally, airp or Austin, have ployees will r pportunities o ts indicated th  Hig ind 3916.1  Jobs in 2014 (# in thousa Foreca Train lack a solid c quire further d se challenges tional opportu mployees are lace for other vey responden challenge is p   Recr oupled with g workforce, w ecruiting emplo d for specializ f talent in cur and a leader i recruit IT em d to be offere orts located a difficult tim eceive training r higher pay at e primary roa h competition ustries (90.4% 4404.7 Projected # Job 2024 nds) AC st of Curren Pro % I Me Min Not *Co **C leas leas ing and De areer path and evelopment fo , airports wil nities for thes not only critica employees. Th ts are listed b resented follow Lack of solid Additional d uitment and enerally high hich will impa yees to fill the ed skill sets, rent airport em n a large mun ployees, as th d higher comp in technology e retaining the at the airport other compan dblocks for ai across ) s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future jected # of Job ncrease in Job dian Annual S imum Educati e: Numbers gath mputer Program omputer Network t an Associate’s t some college; velopment C opportunities r IT employee l need to foc e employees. l in implementi e greatest tra elow. For the ing the statem career track i evelopmental o Turnover C turnover may ct the airport’ se gaps is a c competition w ployees. Bot icipally-operate ey are in high ensation in th hubs, such ir IT employe , but leave due ies in the area rports seeking  Highl  Lack empl  Risk  High ifying and Evalu Job Numbe s, 2024 s, 2014-2024 alary Range on Required ered from BLS O mers are expecte Support Specia degree; Comput Few jobs require hallenges to develop pe s to prevent a us on identif In a focus g ng new techno ining and deve se challenges ent: n airports (64.9 pportunities n hallenges lead to s overall hallenge ith other h an HR d airport demand e private as San es. Many to more . Survey to fill IT G y specialized s of talent in exi oyees (65.9%) for vacancy (6 turnover (53.7 ating Airport W 90 rs 4,404,7 12.47% $47,610 Bachelo ccupational Emp d to decrease 8 list and Web Dev er User Support more than a Bac rsonal effective gap in need ying and sta roup, an exec logies, but als lopment challe , the percenta %) eeded (60.8% reatest Recru Cha killset (72.1%) sting airport 1.7%) %) of res indic com a indus orkforce Require .4% 00 * -$108,360 r’s degree** loyment data. % eloper require a Specialist requir helor’s degree. ness. Addition ed knowledge ndardizing gro utive from a l o in ensuring t nges for airpo ge of respond ) itment/Turno llenge: pondents ated high petition cross tries for IT ments 57 t es at ally, and wth, arge here rt IT ents ver Airport IT Occupations

November 2 9 Because IT and databa performanc Directors f various siz expectation technologie and large Airport IT airport can impact the significantly  C  P  S  O  Fi Due to the decision m as increase strategic g take advan Greatest I and De note s req te 016 5.4% employees d ses, they are e in the nex rom both mun es indicated s as a res s can also pro airports oppo staff must be utilize them to following pe impact these ustomer servic assenger expe afety and secu n-time flight de nances (56.9% increased relia aking that are d commercia oals (Carlisle, tage of these o  Me  Bu  Sig mpact on Stra cision Makin d that new IT killsets are uired due to updated chnology Im evelop and m expected to h t 5-10 years. icipally-operat IT employees ult of new t vide small air rtunities to de able to deplo increase over rformance me measures follo e with stakeho rience and exp rity (85.0%) partures (60.2 ) nce on techno used to guide l revenues and 2015). Howev pportunities. S eting strategic siness function nificant costs/ tegy g: With partic Exec incre a sm think airpo that upco demo airpo will b have    AC pacted Pe aintain all of a ave a large i For example ed and indep play a role in echnologies ( ports with opp crease opera y and mainta all performanc asures, with wing each cri lders (87.2%) ectations (86. %) Strategy an logy across a airports into th greater opera er, an airport urvey respond goals (87.6%) ing (85.4%) challenges due Airp rapidly progre ularly for em utive Director asingly import all, municipally strategically, rt to the next is needed to d ming retireme graphics of t rt strategy so e required of the greatest im New skillsets Increase in c Impacted by RP 06-04: Ident rformance n airport’s netw mpact on the , in focus gro endently oper meeting cha e.g., mobile ortunities to in tional costs ( in these techn e. Survey res the percentag terion: 5%) d Decision irports, IT occu e future. New tional efficienc may need IT ents indicated to errors (81. ort Trends ssing technolo ployees in IT s indicated th ant for IT emp -operated airp to help determ level. These s evelop, deplo nts and youn he workforce. that IT employ them. Survey pact on airpo required due t omplexity of ta demographic c ifying and Evalu Criteria orks, system airport’s overa ups, Executiv ated airports o nging custome devices). Ne crease revenu Carlisle, 2015 ologies so th pondents indic e of participa Making pations have technologies c ies, which wil expertise to a IT jobs have 5%) gies comes a occupations. D at one perso loyees is adap ort spoke of a ine how to u kills are in add y, and mainta ger new emp These chang ees are prepa results indicat rts with regard o technology ( sks (89.2%) hanges (75.4% Airport IT emp a strong imp per ating Airport W s, ll e f r w e ). e ated IT jobs a nts who agr a great impact ome with new l enable airpo dminister the t a strong impac need for new uring focus g nal attribute tability and fle need for IT e se new techn ition to the te in new techno loyees will ca es need to be red and able, e that the follo to IT: 95.4%) ) loyees were s act on 5 of the formance crite orkforce Require re likely to stro eed that they on the strateg opportunities rts to better ac echnology and t on: skills and abil roups, two ai that is beco xibility. A lead mployees who ology to push chnical knowle logy. Furtherm use a shift in incorporated to do the work wing changes een as having 6 identified ria ments 58 ngly will y and , such hieve fully ities, rport ming er at can the dge ore, the into that will Airport IT Occupations

November 2 Scenario and S 98.5% of re scenario w become m Across the employees Among the three scen  M em Related to  R en     016 1: Integrated afety Techno Systems spondents be ould make IT o ore mission cri three scenario were similar. capabilities/ arios was: ore advanced ployees will n job and workf eliance on IT suring effectiv Future Imp Business logical lieve this ccupations tical Future Job I s presented t skill needs in technologica eed new skills orce requirem employees by e operations.   AC acts of Scen Scenario 2: 96.1% of respo scenario would become more mpacts to Co o survey partic cluded in the l savvy will be based on spe ents, the gre those in othe RP 06-04: Ident arios – Imp Passenger-C Airport ndents believ make IT occu mission critica nsider for Air ipants findings survey, the o required of IT cific technolog atest impact un r airport jobs ifying and Evalu act in 5-10 entric Sc M e this pations l 92.9 sce bec port IT Occup regarding the ne that emerg employees fo y. der all three s will be increa ating Airport W Years enario 3: Incr arket, and Po % of respond nario would m ome more mis ations future job im ed as most im r airports to su cenarios was sing and an im orkforce Require eased Financ litical Pressu ents believe th ake IT occupat sion critical pacts for Airpo portant acros ccessfully perf indicated to be portant eleme ments 59 ial, re is ions rt IT s all orm; : nt of Airport IT Occupations

November 2 Planning i effectively need to be the airport. of airport p plans, and customers the succes airport exe stricter fed tend to be rather th constructio Example employees strategic p business preparation hearings a anticipate f Example K  K  K  K em  K  K  K pu  K  K  S  S  S  A  A  A  A  A 016 s a key elem meet the need completed, a Airport Projec lanning, includ understandi to ensure they s of an airpor cutive, the role eral requireme specialists in an becom n/design back Job Descrip develop and lans for airpo plans. They , and quality nd meetings uture needs. F SAs nowledge of FA nowledge of fe nowledge of ai ergency plan nowledge of re nowledge of st nowledge of la blic or govern nowledge of th nowledge of en kill in contract a kill in presentin kill in commun bility to interac bility to conduc bility to allocate bility to manag bility to develo Airport ent in ensur s of all stakeho nd achieve stra t Planners are ing creating a ng the future can be met. t. According t of airport plan nts. Under FA interpreting a ing enginee ground. tion Elemen revise airport rt growth to are respon control of airp related to air inally, they pa A regulations deral laws rela rport master p s, and other re gulatory comp rategic plannin rge-scale proc mental context e financial dim vironmental re dministration. g to and liaisin ication, active t with others an t simulation m limited resou e complex plan p requests for AC Project P ing that airpo lders, accomp tegic goals fo heavily involv irport plans, de needs of As a result, th o a large mun ning has start A’s greater s nd meeting fe rs or de ts: Airport P plans, ranging short-term d sible for the ort planning do port projects, rticipate in the and FAA advi ted to airport p lans, airport lay levant plannin liance requirem g and project urement progr . ensions of fac gulations. g with a board listening, and s d communica odeling for airs rces in a cost-e ning projects proposals and RP 06-04: Ident lanning O rts are able lish projects th r the direction ed in all aspec veloping mas the airport a ey are critical icipally-operat ed to shift due crutiny, Planne deral guideline veloping th roject Planni from long-te evelopment a manageme cuments. Add and work wit development o sory circulars t lanning and d out plans, des g documents. ents related t management. ams and the la ility developme of directors. peaking. te effectively w ide or termina ffective mann with consultan develop contra ifying and Evalu ccupatio to at of ts ter nd to ed to rs s, eir ng rm nd nt, itionally, thes h airport stak f airport maste hat pertain to p esign. ign standards o airport devel ws and regula nt programs. ith varied aud ls. er. ts and develop cts related to Exampl  Pr  Ai  Av ating Airport W ns e employees p eholders to so r plans. lanning and d , safety and se opment and co tions that perta iences. ers. needed servic   e Job Titles: oject Planner rport Planner iation Planner orkforce Require articipate in p lve demands esign. curity analysis nstruction. in to such in a es. ments 60 ublic and , Airport Project Planning Occupations

November 2 Employees and develo associated these emp developme identified responden Project Pla of regulati occupation the airport compensat occupation roadblocks employees 0 100 200 300 400 # 016 within the Air pment to sup potential kno loyees. Airpo nt, and promo by survey pa ts indicating ea  A  L  L (  L e nning occupat ons, federal la s is also small industry to re ion and gre s at risk for for airports in these jobs:  H  S  L  H  R 251.5  Jobs in 2014 (# in thou Forecas Train port Project P port both tec wledge and sk rts can over tional opportu rticipants, ar ch area as a c dditional deve ack of solid ca ack of training 52.8%) ack of training ffectiveness ( Recru ions in airport ws, and fina , with high com cruit and hire ater job attr vacancy. Su seeking to ighly specializ mall applican ack of talent i igh competitio isk for vacanc 272.7 Projected # Job in 2024 sands) AC t of Curren Pro % I 202 Me Ra Min Re Not *Ur thes ing and Dev lanning occup hnical skills a ill gaps also come these nities for Plan e listed below hallenge follow lopmental opp reer track in a and developm and developm 52.8%) itment and s require a hig nce and proc petition for th Planning sta activeness. T rvey respond fill Project P ed skillset (71 t pool (63.6%) n existing airpo n across indu y (53.8%) s RP 06-04: Ident t & Future J jected # of Job ncrease in Job 4 dian Annual S nge imum Educati quired e: Numbers gath ban and Regiona e positions. elopment C ation lack a so nd personal e present a nee challenges by ning staff. Th , with the ing the statem ortunities need irports (57.3% ent for technic ent for person Turnover C hly specialized urements that ese employees ff, especially hese challen ents indicate lanning positi .9%) rt employees stries (58.4%) ifying and Evalu ob Number s, 2024 2 s, 2014- 8 alary $ on B ered from BLS O l Planners requir hallenges lid career trac ffectiveness. d for greater identifying a ese training a percentage o ents: ed (66.7%) ) al skills al hallenges skillset, give are required across indus given that oth ges put thes d the followin ons and reta (60.2%) ating Airport W 4 of the 6 training a challenge identified for Airpor Planning 5 of the recruitm turnover were ide problem Project occupat s 72,700 .43% 60,050 - $66, achelor’s deg ccupational Emp e a Master’s deg k in airports a Upcoming ret developmenta nd providing nd developme f n the airport-s . The applica tries. As a resu er industries e g in orkforce Require possible nd developme s were as problematic t Project occupations. 7 possible ent and challenges ntified as atic for Airport Planning ions. 940 ree* loyment data. ree to be hired in s well as train irements and l opportunities greater grow nt challenges, pecific knowle nt pool for th lt, it is difficult may offer hig ments 61 nt to ing the for th, as dge ese for her Airport Project Planning Occupations

November 2 Airport Pro airport can (Carlisle, 2 Project Pla the airport’ are likely to that these  Pa  En  Fi Given thei airport de Planning s making in employees costs and indicate th impact on regarding: As new tec utilize the t Finally, up changes th changes in ensure the following a 016 ject Planning s have a large i 015). The lay nning employe s performance strongly impa employees will ssenger expe vironmental s nances (79.7% r critical role velopment an taff strongly airports. Addi have the po challenges f at these emp airport str hnologies are echnologies. A coming retirem at are expec to training, de se positions r irport trends w A Im pans many as mpact on pass out and desig es frequently in customer s ct the followin significantly im rience and exp ustainability (8 ) S in both short d business p impact strate tionally, errors tential to res or the airport loyees will ha ategy and d  K  M  S introduced to dditionally, tas ents and ne ted to impact velopment, an emain aligned ill have the gre  New ski  Increase  Impacte irport Project impact o AC pacted Pe pects of an ai enger experien n of an airpor participate in p ervice. Survey g performance pact the mea ectations (82.3 2.3%) trategy and - and long-te lanning, Proj gy and decis made by the ult in signific . Survey resu ve the strong ecision mak ey decisions ( eeting strateg ignificant cost Airpo airports, Proje ks performed w younger em these occupa d promotional with the airp atest impact o llsets required in complexity d by demograp Planning empl n all 6 of the id RP 06-04: Ident 92 rformance C rport’s activitie ce and expec t also affects ublic hearings respondents measures, w sures noted fo %)    Decision M rm ect ion se ant lts est ing Greates 92.2%) ic goals (91.0% s/challenges d rt Trends ct Planning em by these emp ployees ente tions. By inco opportunities ort’s business n Project Plan due to technol of tasks (76.9 hic changes ( oyees were se entified perfor ifying and Evalu .2% riteria s and function tations, which, the environme and collabora indicated Airp ith the percen llowing each p Safety and s Customer se On-time fligh aking t Impact on S ) ue to errors (8 ployees will loyees are exp ring the work rporating the for Project Pla strategies. S ning occupatio ogy (83.3%) %) 74.4%) en as having a mance criteria ating Airport W s. For example in turn, impac ntal sustainab te with stakeh ort Project Pla tage of particip erformance cri ecurity (79.7% rvice with stak t departures (5 trategy and D noted Proj occupatio decision m to airport functionin 0.8%) have to acquir ected to incre force will lead se new trend nning occupat urvey results ns: strong . orkforce Require , the layout of ts airport finan ility. Additiona olders, impac nning employ ants who agr terion: ) eholders (79.5 8.2%) ecision Makin ect Planning ns impact ke aking relate business g e new skillsets ase in complex to demograp s and associa ions, airports indicate that ments 62 an ces lly, ting ees eed %) g: y d to ity. hic ted can the Airport Project Planning Occupations

November 2 Scenario and S 75.0% of re scenario w Planning O critical. Considerin in findings For Scena important c  Kn ef  In For Scenar  In  St ef Related to  R an 016 1: Integrated afety Technol Systems spondents be ould make Airp ccupations mo Future g the scenario while Scenario rios 1 and 2, onsiderations owledge of s fective respons dustry-specif io 3, the capa dustry-specif rong manage fectively. job and workf eliance on Ai d an importan Future Impa Business ogical lieve this ort Project re mission 8 s P c Job Impacts s and related f 3 differed slig two of the c for the future o pecific safety e to the scena ic knowledge bilities/skill ne ic knowledge rial skills in P orce requirem rport Project t element of en AC cts of Scen Scenario 2: A 1.5% of respo cenario would lanning occup ritical. to Consider fo uture skill need htly for Airport apabilities/sk f Airport Proje standards an rio. about how the eds identified about how the roject Planners ents, under S Planning em suring effectiv RP 06-04: Ident arios – Imp Passenger-Ce irport ndents believe make Airport ations more m r Airport Pro s and job imp Project Planne ill needs incl ct Planners. T d regulations airport functio as most impo airport functio will become i cenarios 1 an ployees by th e operations. ifying and Evalu act in 5-10 ntric Sce M this Project ission 77.8 scen Plan critic ject Planning lications, Scen rs. uded in the s hese capabilit will become i ns will be requ rtant were: ns will be requ ncreasingly im d 2, the greate ose in other ating Airport W Years nario 3: Incre arket, and Po % of responde ario would ma ning occupatio al. Occupations arios 1 and 2 urvey were ra ies/skill needs ncreasingly im ired. ired. portant to exec st impact was airport jobs orkforce Require ased Financi litical Pressur nts believe thi ke Airport Proj ns more miss were quite sim ted as the m were: portant for ute the job indicated to be will be increas ments 63 al, e s ect ion ilar ost : ing Airport Project Planning Occupations

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 64 Demand for Mission Critical Occupations Across the U.S. While each of the mission critical occupations described previously will be important in airports across the U.S., demand for employees in these fields varies across the country. Regional demand is important to consider when preparing a workforce development strategy that includes recruitment and engagement of talent within the local labor market or even in preparing for a national search. When there is higher demand for an occupation in a specific area compared to the national average, it will be more difficult to find and keep employees in those positions due to the local competition. Conversely, when there is relatively little presence of a job within a state, finding employees with relevant experience can be difficult as talented candidates are less likely to gravitate toward an area that presents few job opportunities. Thus, extreme highs or lows in terms of concentration of occupations in a region can create challenges for airports trying to recruit and retain employees in those areas. BLS data were used to explore state-by-state demand for each mission critical occupation. Specifically, the location quotient (LQ) for each of the identified mission critical occupations was examined. The LQ shows the concentration of an occupation in a region compared to the national concentration of that occupation. Therefore, an LQ of 1.0 means that the percentage of employees in a certain occupation is the same for the state and the nation as a whole. Conversely, an LQ of less than 1.0 means that there is a lower concentration of that occupation in the state. An LQ of 0.5 would mean that the state has half the concentration of that occupation as compared to the U.S. as a whole (e.g., 5% of employees in a state are civil engineers and 10% of employees in the country are civil engineers). An LQ above 1.0 means that there is a greater concentration of that occupation in the state than in the nation. In this section, for each of the MCOs identified, LQs are provided for the two states that have the highest concentration of jobs similar to the MCO and the two states that have the lowest concentration of related jobs. Charts will have more than four states if the various occupations that fall within the category differ in their highest and lowest LQs. LQs for each of the MCOs in all U.S. states are provided in Appendix C. Airport Development Related Occupations As described previously in the Identification of Mission Critical Occupations section of this chapter, Airport Development is not an occupation specifically referenced in the BLS data. Thus, data from multiple similar occupations were combined to provide projections and information for the Airport Development MCO. These are industry-spanning occupations which have similar job tasks and KSA requirements to Airport Development occupations. The most closely related Airport Development occupations include: Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers; Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate; Architects; and Real Estate Brokers. These various occupations used to create the Airport Development MCO projections can also inform recruitment strategy for airports, particularly given the lack of airport-trained talent currently available in the labor market. As can be seen in Exhibit 3-4, one of the similar occupations used in the Airport Development projections- Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers (which includes individuals responsible for industrial and commercial leases)- are most highly concentrated in Hawaii and Nevada. This indicates there is a greater percentage of these positions in those states’ labor markets than in other states in the U.S. This also suggests there will be many job opportunities for employees, and competition for employers in these states for Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers. Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate, on the other hand, can be found in the greatest proportions in West Virginia and Wyoming; the lowest concentration of these jobs are in Kentucky and Washington, DC. With regard to Architects, Washington, DC has a very high concentration of these employees. Finally, Real Estate Brokers are most highly concentrated in Florida and Virginia. Airports in the states with a high LQ for each occupation need to understand that there may be greater competition for these employees, while airports in the states with low LQs may realize that they have difficulty finding employees to fill Airport Development job vacancies.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 65 Exhibit 3-4: Concentration of Airport Development Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ Airport Operations Related Occupations The next MCO, Airport Operations, includes five different occupations from the BLS data, as seen in Exhibit 3-5. The majority of these Airport Operations occupations have a high concentration in Alaska. Specifically Cargo and Freight Agents, Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors, and Airfield Operations Specialists are more highly concentrated in Alaska than in the U.S. as a whole. This means that it may be easier to find employees within these occupations to fill airport openings in Alaska than in other states. Airports could consider the impact of these high concentrations on filling other airport jobs, since other airport jobs could benefit from having employees with these skills. Looking specifically at Operations Research Analysts, the greatest concentrations are found in Virginia and West Virginia, meaning competition is likely high for these employees in these two states. Exhibit 3-5: Concentration of Airport Operations Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ AL KY WV WVNE DC MS NH NV WV NY VA HI WY DC FL 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 11-9141: Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers 13-2021: Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate 17-1011: Architects 41-9022: Real Estate Brokers NV WV NC IL DCMT OK OH IN VT VA FL HI ND IL WV AK AK AK TN 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15-2031: Operations Research Analysts 43-5011: Cargo and Freight Agents 53-1011: Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors 53-2022: Airfield Operations Specialists 53-7062: Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 66 Airport Security Related Occupations When looking to fill Security positions within airports, employees may potentially be classified as Security Guards or Transportation Security Screeners. LQ data for these occupations are provided in Exhibit 3-6. For Security Guards, the greatest concentration of these employees can be found in Nevada and Washington, while South Dakota and Maine have fewer job opportunities for Security Guards. Considering Transportation Security Screeners, there is likely little competition with other employers in Iowa and Kansas because of the low concentration of employment in this occupation. However, Alaska and Hawaii have a relatively large percentage of their employment in the area of Transportation Security Screeners. Airport Electrician Related Occupations Another occupation identified as an MCO through this project is Electricians. Electricians perform a variety of work in airports and are important to ensuring effective operations both within and outside of the terminal. Both Wyoming and North Dakota have just over twice the concentration of Electricians as the national average (see Exhibit 3-7). With this large concentration of Electricians in Wyoming and North Dakota, there is likely to be greater competition for Electricians in these areas. Conversely, the lowest concentration of Electricians is found in Washington, DC and New Jersey. However, it the concentration of Electricians in New Jersey is not a great deal lower than the national average. Airport Engineer Related Occupations Engineers were also identified as mission critical for airport operations, and specifically in the areas of civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering. LQ data for the states with the highest and lowest concentration of engineers is provided in Exhibit 3-8. For both Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the state with the lowest concentration compared to the entire nation is Nevada. Both Indiana and Arkansas have relatively low concentrations of Civil Engineers; about half the concentration of the U.S. Considering the states where there will likely be the greatest competition for engineering employees due to the higher concentration of employment, Alaska and Washington have the greatest concentration of Civil Engineers, Massachusetts and Alabama have the greatest concentration of Electrical Engineers, and Connecticut and Michigan have the greatest concentration of Mechanical Engineers. The concentration of Mechanical Engineers in Michigan is over 4.5 times that of the U.S. as a whole. Exhibit 3-6: Concentration of Airport Security Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ Exhibit 3-7: Concentration of Airport Electrician Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ SD IAME KSNV AK DC HI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 33-9032: Security Guards 99-9093: Transportation Security Screeners DC NJ WY ND 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 47-2111: Electricians

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 67 Exhibit 3-8: Concentration of Airport Engineer Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Related Occupations In the Washington, DC area, there is a high concentration of Accountants and Auditors, Budget Analysts, and Financial Analysts which could impact selection of talent for airport Financial Analysis and Planning occupations, as can be seen in Exhibit 3-9. The concentration of Budget Analysts in Washington, DC is especially high with almost seven times the concentration of the nation’s average. Areas with lower concentrations of employees within this MCO include Mississippi and Arkansas for Accountants and Auditors, Indiana and Iowa for Budget Analysts, and Montana and Louisiana for Financial Analysts. These states with low concentrations may not have a very large applicant pool available for airport positions that become vacant or need to be filled. Exhibit 3-9: Concentration of Airport Financial Analysis and Planning Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ IN NV NV AR DC WV AK MA CTWA AL MI 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 17-2051: Civil Engineer 17-2071: Electrical Engineer 17-2141: Mechanical Engineer MS IN MT AR IA LACO VA DC DC DC DE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13-2011: Accountants and Auditors 13-2031: Budget Analysts 13-2051: Financial Analysts

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 68 Airport IT Related Occupations Exhibit 3-10 provides the LQ data for the various IT occupations. There are many different types of jobs that IT employees are needed to fill, as can be seen by the high number of BLS occupations in the figure below. When considering LQs and the concentration of employment within IT occupations, Washington, DC and Virginia each have high concentrations of employees in IT. Virginia has one of the highest concentrations for eight of the 13 IT occupations while DC has one of the highest concentrations for five of the occupations. This means that airports in and around DC and Virginia will likely experience a great deal of competition for IT employees, much of which will be from industries outside of airports and possibly higher salaries than airports can offer. The states with the lowest concentrations of IT employment vary by type of IT job, however both Alaska and Louisiana have one of the lowest concentrations of IT employment in six of the 13 BLS IT occupations. Therefore, Alaska and Louisiana likely do not have a large pool of IT employees available to fill needed positions in airports. Exhibit 3-10: Concentration of Airport Information Technology (IT) Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ LA WV AK ND LA LA MSOH AK WV KY AK AK AK DC DE AR NJ VA VA OR MD VA VA WA WA WA DC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15-1111: Computer and Information Research Scientists 15-1121: Computer Systems Analysts 15-1122: Information Security Analysts 15-1131: Computer Programmers 15-1132: Software Developers, Applications 15-1133: Software Developers, Systems Software 15-1134: Web Developers LA MS LA NV KS DESD ND AK LA IN SDDC VT MD VA AZ MD VA VA VA DC MD DC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15-1141: Database Administrators 15-1142: Network and Computer Systems Administrators 15-1143: Computer Network Architects 15-1151: Computer User Support Specialists 15-1152: Computer Network Support Specialists 15-1199: Computer Occupations, All Other

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 69 Airport Project Planning Related Occupations Finally, the Airport Project Planning Occupations are shown in Exhibit 3-11. Virginia and Delaware have the greatest concentration of Cost Estimators, whereas Washington and Vermont have the greatest concentration of Urban and Regional Planners. Considering the states with the lowest concentrations for these occupations, it may be difficult to find Cost Estimators in areas such as Washington, DC or West Virginia. Similarly, there are likely not a large number of Urban and Regional Planners available for jobs in Louisiana and Arkansas. When looking to recruit for Airport Planning positions, states should be aware of these findings. Mission Critical Executive-Level Positions This section provides information gathered about the executive-level positions in terms of their perceived impact on airport performance, workforce challenges, and influence of airport trends. For each of the three scenarios presented in Chapter 2, the following executive-level positions were identified as being the most essential given the potential future described: Survey respondents were asked to consider the impact of the most critical executive-level positions on various airport performance criteria. The table in Exhibit 3-12 provides the mean (i.e., average) responses (on a 5-point scale) regarding the level of impact of the positions on each of the performance criteria. As can be seen in this table, Airport Operations and Maintenance executive positions are seen as the most impactful on the performance measure of having flights depart on time. Both IT and Marketing/Public Relations executive-level positions have their greatest performance impact in the area of improved passenger experience and the meeting of passenger expectations. Alternatively, External Affairs/Government Relations executive-level positions have their greatest impact on improved customer service with other stakeholders, such as airlines/tenants, concessionaires, contractors, TSA, and the FAA. Exhibit 3-12: Executive-Level Positions: Perceived Impact on Airport Performance Criteria (Mean Values) Airport Operations and Maintenance External Affairs/ Government Relations Finance and Asset Management Information Technology (IT) Marketing and Public Relations On-time flight departures 3.55 2.33 2.50 3.15 2.50 Exhibit 3-11: Concentration of Airport Security Occupations in States with Highest and Lowest LQ DC LA WV ARVA WA DE VT 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 13-1051: Cost Estimators 19-3051: Urban and Regional Planners Scenario 1: Integrated Business and Safety Technological Systems  Critical executive-levels: Airport Operations & Maintenance; Information Technology (IT) Scenario 2: The Passenger-Centric Airport  Critical executive-levels: Airport Operations & Maintenance; Marketing & Public Relations; IT Scenario 3: Increased Financial, Market, and Political Pressure  Critical executive-levels: External Affairs/Government Relations; Finance and Asset Management; Marketing and Public Relations

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 70 Strong finances of overall airport 4.00 3.67 5.00 3.46 3.90 Improved passenger experience and meeting of passenger expectations 4.45 3.33 4.25 4.85 4.80 Improved customer service with other stakeholders, such as airlines/tenants, concessionaires, contractors, TSA, and the FAA 4.82 4.33 4.25 4.62 4.60 Ensuring proper safety and security 4.64 3.67 3.25 4.46 3.20 Note. Responses on the scale ranged from the positions (1) Not at all having an impact to (5) Having an extreme impact. Next, specific challenges and trends associated with each of the identified executive-level positions are explored. For these executive-level positions, the following data are provided:  Training and development challenges  Recruitment and turnover challenges  Airport trends  Skills that will be required to effectively function under the future scenarios.

November 2 A According training an technical s identified fo lead the a integrated airport. To prepare lea Operations these chal Overall, rec Maintenan ample suc executive-l from other of the job/ indicated t Due to po systems or positions w executives standards positions.  M  A  In  D 016 irport Op to survey parti d developmen kills that will b r these execu irport under th business and overcome the ders to be su and Maintena lenges, the pe statement:  New  Lac  Lac ruitment and ce executive-le cessors, at lea evel jobs. How industries, and workplace tha he primary ro positions is:  Co tential change creating an ai ill have a sig to have more and regulation Survey respon ore advanced change in the creasing comp eep knowledge erations a Tr cipants, Airpor t both for pers e needed to e tive-level posi e scenarios in safety technolo se challenges, ccessful in the nce executive rcentage of re leader develo k of training an k of training an Re turnover was n vel positions. st 2-3 levels d ever, one ch specifically fro t make the oth adblock for ai mpetition acro s that airports rport that is m nificant impac technologica s. These tren dents indicate technological s types of stake lexity of job ta of specific sa AC nd Maint aining and De t Operations a onal effectiven ffectively funct tions is that ne which it was gical systems airports will n se positions. -level position spondents ind pment progra d developmen d developmen cruitment an ot seen as a s In fact, 54.6 eep, in their a allenge noted m industries w er industries m rports seeking ss industries fo Airp might experi ore passenger t on their air l expertise to ds will impact d these execut avvy (81.9%) holders with w sks (69.9%) fety standards RP 06-04: Ident enance E velopment C nd Maintenan ess, such as m ion in the futu w leader deve deemed most and the seco eed to focus o The greatest t s, as identified icating each a ms needed for t to support te t to support pe d Turnover C ignificant chal % of survey irports to fill e is the compet here there is ore attractive to fill Airport r skillsets requ ort Trends ence due to i focused, Airpo ports in the n conduct their how executive ive-level jobs w hom executive and regulation ifying and Evalu xecutive- hallenges ce executive-l anagerial and re scenarios p lopment progr essential, sp nd scenario ab n ensuring tha raining and de by survey re rea as a cha future scenar chnical skills n rsonal effectiv hallenges lenge with reg respondents i xecutive-level ition for execu better compen to applicants. Operations a ired of these e ncreased tech rt Operations ext 5-10 yea work as well s need to be p ill entail: s must interac s (60.0%) ating Airport W Level Pos evel positions interpersona roposed. The ams will be ne ecifically the f out creating a t training prog velopment cha spondents, ar llenge is prese io situations (8 eeded (72.8% eness (54.6%) ard to the Airp ndicated that positions with tives with the sation for exec Accordingly, s nd Maintenan xecutives (10 nology and in and Maintenan rs. These ch as stronger kn repared to be t (72.7%) orkforce Require itions within airports l skills, but als greatest challe eded to effect irst scenario a passenger-ce rams are read llenges for Ai e listed below nted following 1.8%) ) ort Operations they felt there in this catego required skill utives or elem urvey respond ce executive- 0.0%) red ski tegrated busi ce executive- anges will req owledge of s successful in ments 71 lack o for nge ively bout ntric y to rport . For the and are ry of sets ents ents level ness level uire afety their

November 2 Airpor Two of the as identifie effectivene prepare em participants executive-l that include developme survey res a challenge As with the as a signifi In fact, abo with other i positions; h market. Th fill Airport responden Especially Affairs/Gov 10 years. for their jo survey resp  A  In  Jo  D 016 t Externa greatest train d by survey p ss (e.g., mana ployees in th indicated th evel positions. s increased f nt challenges pondents, are is presented  Lac  Lac  Lac  New Airport Opera cant challenge ut half of resp ndustries for th owever, surve is finding, com External Affair ts indicated the  Declin  Lack when conside ernment Rela These change bs. Multiple tr ondents indic change in the creasing comp bs require spe eep knowledge l Affairs/G Tr ing challenges articipants wer gerial skills) a is area to take at there are This group of inancial, marke for Airport Exte listed below. F following the s k of training an k of training an k of effective c leader develo Re tions and Ma with regard to ondents did n ese executive y respondent bined with the s/Government primary road e in talent am of ample succe ring a future sc tions executive s will require e ends will impa ated these exe types of stake lexity of job ta cialized know of specific sa AC overnme aining and De for Airport Ex e the lack of t nd technical e on future op not career ma positions was t and political rnal Affairs/Go or these challe tatement: d developmen d developmen areer maps to pment program cruitment an intenance exe the Airport Ex ot indicate ch -level employe s indicated tha lack of compe Relations exe blocks for airpo ong existing a ssors to fill the Airp enario involvi -level position xecutives to in ct how execut cutive-level jo holders with w sks (66.7%) ledge or skills a fety standards RP 06-04: Ident nt Relatio velopment C ternal Affairs/G raining and de ffectiveness. A enings for the ps to show identified as b pressures for vernment Rel nges, the perc t to support pe t to support te direct personn s will be need d Turnover C cutive-level po ternal Affairs/G allenges with r es. A noted c t there is not tition for empl cutive-level po rts seeking to irport employee se positions w ort Trends ng increased f s will have a s teract with new ives need to b bs will entail: hom executive nd will therefo and regulation ifying and Evalu ns Execu hallenges overnment Re velopment pr s such, trainin executive-leve how employe eing particular airports to dea ations executiv entage of res rsonal effectiv chnical skills n el into this exe ed for this exe hallenges sitions, recruit overnment R egard to high hallenge is the a lack of talen oyees, indicat sitions to mee fill these exec s to fill future hen executive inancial and m ignificant impa people and h e prepared to s must interac re be hard to f s (66.7%) ating Airport W tive-Leve lations execut ograms to sup g and develop l positions. A es can progre ly important fo l with. The gr e-level positio pondents indic eness (100.0% eeded (75.0% cutive-level tra cutive-level o ment and turn elations execu levels of turno lack of interna t for these po ed that airports t future needs utive-level pos vacancies (66 s leave (66.7% arket pressure ct on their air ave deep, spe be successfu t (66.7%) ill (66.7%) orkforce Require l Positio ive-level posit port both pers ment is neede dditionally, su ss through t r a potential fu eatest training ns, as identifie ating each are ) ) ck (66.7%) ccupation (66.7 over was not tive-level posit ver or compe l talent to fill t sitions in the l should be ab . Overall, su itions are: .7%) ) s, Airport Exte ports in the ne cialized knowle l in their posit ments 72 ns ions, onal d to rvey hese ture and d by a as %) seen ions. tition hese abor le to rvey rnal xt 5- dge ions;

November 2 Air Airport Fin third scena political pre and develo positive fin positions opportuniti positions fo pressure. but that the executive-l Multiple ch employee industries t challenge their respo Due to a p to provide relations, a likely expe that this ty savvy, spe executives Manageme  In 016 port Fina ance and Ass rio, which exa ssure. Accor pment opportu ding regarding is that three es, including r the new req This suggests re are areas w evel positions percentage  La  La allenges were recruitment an o hire individu is compounded nses, survey p retaining Airp  Com  Lack  Dec otential future a financial ret nd maintainin rience increas pe of scenario cialized know must interact nt executive-le creasing comp nce and A Tr et Manageme mined the pote ding to survey nities to supp training and d quarters of p both training uirements that that there are here more tra , as identified of respondent ck of training a ck of training a Re noted for Airp d retention. T als with the sk because of t articipants ide ort Finance an petition across of ample succ line in talent am in which airpor urn while also g a safe airpo ing complexity will impact the ledge, deep k . The only tre vel positions w lexity of job ta AC sset Man aining and De nt executive-le ntial impact o participants, t ort participants evelopment fo articipants in and experient will come with some develo ining is needed by survey s indicating ea nd developme nd developme cruitment an ort Finance an he greatest ch illset that is ne he apparent la ntified the follo d Asset Manag industries for essors in the ong existing a Airp ts feel continu offering com rt, Airport Fina in their job req se executive- nowledge of nd that was n ill entail: sks (75.0%) RP 06-04: Ident agement velopment C vel positions f airports havin hese executiv either person r the Airport F dicated that ial learning, to a future focus pmental oppor . The greates respondents ch area as a c nt to support p nt to support t d Turnover C d Asset Mana allenges focus eded to be su ck of internal wing as the gr ement execut skillsets requi airport to fill va irport employe ort Trends ous competing petitive wages nce and Asse uirements. C level occupatio safety standa oted as having ifying and Evalu Executiv hallenges were identified g to deal with e-level positio al effectivenes inance and As there are ad prepare ind ed on increas tunities, likely t training and d are listed bel hallenge is pre ersonal effect echnical skills hallenges gement execu ed on the hig ccessful in the talent to fill p eatest challeng ive-level emplo red of these ex cancies (75.0% es to fill future pressures (e. and benefits, t Managemen onversely, sur ns in terms of rds, or the ty an impact is ating Airport W e-Level P as especially increased fina ns do not hav s or needed te set Managem equate leader ividuals in the ed financial, m focused on th evelopment c ow. For thes sented followi iveness (100.0 needed (75.0% tive-level posit h level of com se executive-le ositions that b es encounter yees: ecutives (75.0 ) vacancies (67 g., political, reg maintaining p t executive-le vey responde an increasing pes of stakeh that Airport F orkforce Require ositions important fo ncial, market, e sufficient tra chnical skills. ent executive- ship developm se executive- arket, and pol e jobs themse hallenges for t e challenges, ng the stateme %) ) ions with rega petition from o vel positions. ecome vacant ed when hiring %) .0%) ulatory, custo ositive comm vel employees nts did not ind need for tech olders with w inance and A ments 73 r the and ining One level ent level itical lves, hese the nt: rd to ther This . On and mer) unity will icate nical hich sset

November 2 A According support the executive-l under the s and safety these chall successful positions, When cons challenge f IT is a grow – organiza recruitmen successors the level o Due to pot integrating level positi executives demands d Airport IT e  In  M  W  D 016 irport Inf to survey parti technical sk evel positions cenarios in wh technological enges, airports in these pos as identified b percentage  Ne  La idering the rec or airports is t ing occupatio tions which ma t challenges f within airport f talent of pote airports see  Co  La  De ential changes business and ons will have to have more ue to the jobs xecutive-level creasing comp ore advanced ill be difficult to eep knowledge ormation Tr cipants, Airpor ills that IT exe is that new le ich it was dee systems and th will need to f itions. The gre y survey resp of respondent w leader deve ck of training a Re ruitment and r he high level o n across indus y be able to o or Airport IT s to take over ntial employe king to fill Airp mpetition acro ck of successo cline in talent a that airports m safety techno a significant im technologica becoming mo employees. O lexity of job ta technological s fill because o of specific sa AC Technolo aining and De t IT executive- cutive-level p ader developm med most ess e second sce ocus on ensur atest training ondents are li s indicating ea lopment progr nd developme cruitment an etention of em f competition a tries, with thes ffer better pay executive-leve these position es. Accordin ort IT executiv ss industries fo rs to fill this ex mong existing Airp ight experien logy solutions pact on their l expertise to re complex. A verall, survey r sks (100.0%) avvy (100.0% f a need for sp fety standards RP 06-04: Ident gy (IT) Ex velopment C level positions ositions requir ent programs ential, specific nario about cre ing that trainin and developm sted below. Fo ch area as a c ams needed fo nt to support t d Turnover C ployees for ex cross industrie e employees to employees l employees s and even ou gly, survey res e-level position r skillsets req ecutive-level p airport emplo ort Trends ce in futures s or creating a airports in the conduct their ll survey respo espondents in ) ecialized know and regulation ifying and Evalu ecutive- hallenges lack training a e. The greate will be need ally the first sc ating a passe g programs ar ent challeng r these traini hallenge is pre r future scena echnical skills hallenges ecutive-level p s for employe in high deman than airports. include that tside of airpor pondents indi s are: uired of these osition if curre yees to fill futu uch as those passenger-cen next 5-10 ye work as wel ndents select dicated these ledge/skills gi s (61.6%) ating Airport W Level Pos nd developme st challenge i ed to effective enario about i nger-centric ai e ready to pre es for Airport ng and develo sented followi rio situations ( needed (61.6% ositions in Airp es with the ap d in many diffe In addition to there are not ts there is a p cated the prim executives (10 nt leaders leav re vacancies ( described in th tric airport, A ars. These ch l as abilities t ed these two t executive-leve ven future sce orkforce Require itions nt opportunitie dentified for t ly lead the ai ntegrated busi rport. To overc pare leaders t IT executive- pment issues ng the stateme 84.6%) ) ort IT, the gre propriate skill rent organiza competition, o enough qua erceived declin ary roadblock 0.0%) e (61.5%) 53.9%) e scenarios a irport IT execu anges will req o meet increa rends as impa l jobs will enta narios (76.9%) ments 74 s to hese rport ness ome o be level , the nt: atest sets. tions ther lified e in s for bout tive- uire sing cting il:

November 2 Air According critical in fu financial, m developme airports be effective. O indicated th maps may positions. level posit For Airpor challenge i survey res airports. A perception to fill these Due to pot Public Rel These cha the work r prepared to executive-l  In  M  A 016 port Mark to survey parti ture scenario arket, and po nt programs to gin to develop ne potential at there are e prove useful The greatest t ions, as ident respondents  New  Lac require t Marketing a dentified is the pondents indic dding to the c that both with jobs. Accor Airport Mar  C  D  D ential changes ations executiv nges will requi equires a grea be successfu evel jobs will e creasing comp ore advanced change in the eting and Tr cipants, Airpor s that focus on litical pressur adequately p training progr area to build ffective career in preparing raining and de ified by survey indicating eac leader devel k of adequate ments (60.0%) Re nd Public Re high level of ated that the hallenges enc in airports and dingly, survey keting and Pu ompetition acr ecline in talent ecline in talent that airports e-level positio re executives t ter degree of l in their posit ntail: lexity of job ta technological s types of stake AC Public R aining and De t Marketing an creating a pa es. Within the repare execut ams that focu on some pos maps for thes employees for velopment cha respondents h area as a ch opment progra leadership dev cruitment an lations execu competition fo skills these e ountered whe across the lab respondents blic Relations e oss industries among existin across the lab Airp might experie ns will have a o function in a technical exp ions. Survey sks (100.0%) avvy (100.0% holders with w RP 06-04: Ident elations velopment C d Public Relat ssenger-centr se scenarios, ives for these s on these fut itive findings e executive-lev the Airport M llenges for Air are listed be allenge is pres ms needed for elopment opp d Turnover C tive-level posi r these execut xecutives need n trying to re or market as indicated the xecutive-leve for skillsets req g airport empl or market to fi ort Trends nce due to po significant im n environment ertise. These respondents in ) hom executive ifying and Evalu Executive hallenges ions executive ic airport and leaders perce potential futur ures and wha is that 40 per el positions. L arketing and port Marketing low. For thes ented followin future scenar ortunities to pr hallenges tions, the gre ive across ind to have are cruit for these a whole, there greatest chall l positions are: uired of these oyees to fill fut ll these positio tential future pact on their in which their trends will im dicated Airpor s must interac ating Airport W -Level Po -level position those where t ive there to b es. As such, t leaders will n cent of the s everaging the Public Relatio and Public R e challenges, g the statemen io situations (8 epare employe atest recruitm ustries. In fact also in high d executive-lev is a decline in enges for airp executives (8 ure vacancies ns (60.0%) scenarios, Airp airports in th jobs become pact how exec t Marketing an t (60.0%) orkforce Require sitions s will be espec here are incre e a lack of le it is important eed in them t urvey respond se available ca ns executive- elations execu the percentag t: 0.0%) es to meet ne ent and rete , 80 percent o emand outsid el positions is the talent nee orts seeking t 0.0%) (60.0%) ort Marketing e next 5-10 ye more complex utives need t d Public Rela ments 75 ially ased ader that o be ents reer level tive- e of w ntion f the e of the ded o fill and ars. and o be tions

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 76 Identifying Sources of Talent to Fill Mission Critical Positions For each of the occupations that have been identified as mission critical, it will be necessary for airports to ensure these positions remain filled by a workforce that has the capacity to fully execute the necessary job requirements. It may be possible for airports to hire employees from other airports, which would yield employees who have relevant skillsets that will transfer easily to their new jobs. However, sustaining and recruiting talent for these MCOs can be challenging in a labor market that has a small labor pool of qualified workers, is highly competitive, or where potential employees may not be aware of opportunities within the airport industry. There will not always be employees in other airports who are available and willing to fill open positions. In thinking strategically about how to fill MCOs as their demand expands, airports should consider the implications of two systems for growing the talent pipeline of qualified workers:  Renewal Systems: This comprises opportunities to recruit new talent to the airport industry through the retraining of employees in other industries, and specifically those that are downsizing or shrinking.  Advancement Systems: This source of employees considers the educational system and focuses on opportunities to attract new talent to the airport industry from community and technical colleges, four-year universities, and graduate programs. Analysis for each of these systems, specific to the airport industry and the identified mission critical occupations, is provided in the following sections. Renewal Systems: Finding Employees from Shrinking Industry Sectors Potential pools of new workers exist within industry sectors related to airports or the mission critical occupations that are expected to experience downsizing over the next 10 years. It is likely that many employees in these industry sectors will be seeking new job opportunities as their fields shrink. In cases where the migrating employees possess KSAs similar to those needed in the airport mission critical occupations, they can be retrained to meet staffing demands in airports. For example, employees from the manufacturing industry sector may be well qualified to fill positions within the Airport Development or Engineering occupations. In this section, industry sectors that are forecasted to shrink at the national level between 2014 and 2024 are identified. A bubble chart in Exhibit 3-13 presents the size and relative growth or shrinkage of prominent industry sectors between 2014 and 2024. The bubble chart is followed by a tabular representation of the same information with 2014 and 2024 occupational numbers. Estimates in the table with red text are those industry sectors that are projected to decrease in size between 2014 and 2024.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 77 Exhibit 3-13: Industry Sector Size and Growth Estimates Industry Description 2014 # of Jobs (in thousands) Projected 2024 # of Jobs (in thousands) Projected Growth (in thousands) % Growth Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting 2,138 2,028 -111 -5% Construction 6,138 6,929 790 13% Financial activities 7,980 8,487 507 6% Government - Federal 2,729 2,346 -383 -14% Government - State and local 19,134 19,890 756 4% Information 2,740 2,713 -27 -1% Leisure and hospitality 14,710 15,651 941 6% Manufacturing 12,188 11,374 -814 -7% Other services 6,394 6,662 268 4% Professional and business services 19,096 20,986 1,889 10% Transportation and warehousing 4,640 4,777 137 3% Utilities 553 505 -11 -2% Wholesale and retail trade 21,191 22,281 469 2% In reviewing the industry sector size and growth estimate data, it is clear that opportunities exist for the retraining of workers from downsizing industries. For example, the Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting; Federal Government; Information; Manufacturing; and Utilities industry sectors are projected to experience shrinkage over the next 10 years. The Federal Government sector alone is projected to experience a decrease of about 383,000 jobs nationwide while the Manufacturing industry sector is estimated to lose more than 814,000 jobs in the U.S. This indicates that migrating workers from these industries could be prime candidates for targeted recruitment into MCOs, if training and development programs specific to airports are provided. Advancement Systems: Finding Employees from Relevant Educational Programs Beyond other industries or internal hires, new talent can be identified from the nation’s educational system. This can include hiring graduates of local technical/community colleges and national four-year universities or graduate [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 ‐20% ‐10% 0% 10% 20% 2014-2024 % Growth *Bubble size represents 2014 jobs in each industry sector. Pr oje cte d N um be r o f J ob s i n 2 02 4

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 78 programs. This section provides an overview of the types of educational programs from which airports can draw employees into the mission critical occupations. As a first step in identifying the appropriate advancement systems, the National Center for Education Statistics’ (NCES) crosswalk between DOL SOC codes and Department of Education (DOE) Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes was used to derive a mapping of the SOC list to existing U.S. educational programs for each of the MCOs. The resultant list of CIP codes and their alignment with the MCOs is presented in Exhibit 3-13. Exhibit 3-13: CIP Codes Related to Airport Mission Critical Occupations Mission Critical Occupation CIP Code Standard Education Program Description Airport Development 04.1001 Real Estate Development. 52.1501 Real Estate. Airport Operations 49.0105 Air Traffic Controller. 14.3701 Operations Research. 52.0408 General Office Occupations and Clerical Services. Airport Security -- No CIP Code match identified, as only a high school diploma or equivalent is required Electrician 46.0302 Electrician. 46.0303 Lineworker. Engineering 14.0801 Civil Engineering, General. 14.0802 Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 14.0803 Structural Engineering. 14.0804 Transportation and Highway Engineering. 14.0805 Water Resources Engineering. 14.0899 Civil Engineering, Other. 14.1001 Electrical and Electronics Engineering 14.1099 Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Other. 14.1901 Mechanical Engineering. 14.3301 Construction Engineering. 14.4101 Electromechanical Engineering. Financial Analysis and Planning 27.0305 Financial Mathematics. 30.1601 Accounting and Computer Science. 43.0117 Financial Forensics and Fraud Investigation. 52.0301 Accounting. 52.0303 Auditing. 52.0304 Accounting and Finance. 52.0305 Accounting and Business/Management. 52.0801 Finance, General. 52.0806 International Finance. 52.0807 Investments and Securities. 52.0808 Public Finance. 52.1601 Taxation. Information Technology (IT) 01.0106 Agricultural Business Technology. 11.0101 Computer and Information Sciences, General. 11.0102 Artificial Intelligence. 11.0103 Information Technology. 11.0104 Informatics. 11.0199 Computer and Information Sciences, Other. 11.0201 Computer Programming/Programmer, General.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 79 Exhibit 3-13: CIP Codes Related to Airport Mission Critical Occupations Mission Critical Occupation CIP Code Standard Education Program Description 11.0202 Computer Programming, Specific Applications. 11.0203 Computer Programming, Vendor/Product Certification. 11.0299 Computer Programming, Other. 11.0301 Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician. 11.0401 Information Science/Studies. 11.0501 Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst. 11.0701 Computer Science. 11.0801 Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design. 11.0802 Data Modeling/Warehousing and Database Administration. 11.0803 Computer Graphics. 11.0804 Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation. 11.0901 Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications. 11.1001 Network and System Administration/Administrator. 11.1002 System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager. 11.1003 Computer and Information Systems Security/Information Assurance. 11.1005 Information Technology Project Management. 11.1006 Computer Support Specialist. 14.0901 Computer Engineering, General. 14.0903 Computer Software Engineering. 14.0999 Computer Engineering, Other. 15.1204 Computer Software Technology/Technician. 26.1103 Bioinformatics. 26.1104 Computational Biology. 30.0801 Mathematics and Computer Science. 30.1601 Accounting and Computer Science. 30.3001 Computational Science. 30.3101 Human Computer Interaction. 43.0116 Cyber/Computer Forensics and Counterterrorism. 51.0709 Medical Office Computer Specialist/Assistant. 51.2706 Medical Informatics. 52.1201 Management Information Systems, General. Project Planning 04.0301 City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning. 04.1001 Real Estate Development. 45.1201 Urban Studies/Affairs. 14.1801 Materials Engineering. 14.1901 Mechanical Engineering. 14.3301 Construction Engineering. 14.3601 Manufacturing Engineering.

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 80 Exhibit 3-13: CIP Codes Related to Airport Mission Critical Occupations Mission Critical Occupation CIP Code Standard Education Program Description 15.1001 Construction Engineering Technology/Technician. 52.0101 Business/Commerce, General. 52.0201 Business Administration and Management, General. While each of these educational programs is related to the airport MCOs, not all programs are likely targeted by airports to find applicants for jobs. Even those educational programs that are not currently considered by airports to be relevant to their workforce may have a strong potential to prepare the next generation of the airport workforce. Thus, graduates from these different educational programs could be targeted in future recruitment efforts. As an example, one airport reports that the majority of their airport operations staff come from pilot or aviation management programs. Chapter 4 of this report will provide more detailed information on an evaluation of airport-specific education, training, and development programs. The relationship between current airport training and education with respect to the MCOs and related KSAs described in this chapter will also be further analyzed in Chapter 4. .

Next: Chapter 4: Education, Training, and Development Programs »
Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements Get This Book
×
 Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements gathers information that will help identify and evaluate the current and future airport job requirements and associated workforce capacity needs; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and provide a practical guidebook that presents effective workforce planning and development strategies. The Web-Only document summarizes the information gathered in the first phase of the project.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!