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Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements (2016)

Chapter: Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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November 2 This chapte analysis of education a Major Sec 1. 2. 3. 4. Value of C    Key Summ       How Lead      016 r highlights th mission critica nd training lan tions of Chapte Workforce capac labor market cons Workforce capac These needs poin Supporting evid according to the n occupations, work Next steps and r capacity needs id airports with prac hapter to Airpo Informs airports a initiatives. Recaps the evide address identified Delineates how th where they shoul ary Points from Heavy competitio Airports’ recruitm Municipality syste Increased awaren Airport-specific kn Succession mana ers Can Make U Identify which wo leader’s airport. Determine where consider whether Work with T&E pr Use this chapter a Provide the suppo capacity building 5. e major workfo l occupations, dscape. The c r  ity challenge ar iderations, intern ity needs – Ther t to potential defic ence – For each w eed they support force capabilities ecommendation entified. This sect tical guidance to a rts Industry  bout likely threats nce and data gath needs. e airport industry d start planning be  Chapter  n with other indus ent strategies are ms and processe ess of airport car owledge, IT expe gement, workforc se of Chapter  rkforce capacity n the airport might additional efforts oviders to incorpo s a collaboration rting evidence to strategies. AC Conclu rce challenges market resear onclusions su Chapter 5 eas- There are 3 al staff developme e are 7 workforce its the industry sh orkforce capacity . The supporting e and building of th s– This section de ion also emphasiz ddress workforce to workforce cap ered across this s and individual air tter for the future tries to fill many a often constrained s challenge airpor eer opportunities rtise, and persona e planning and de eeds are likely to need to increase w should be made w rate more empha and discussion to industry research RP 06-04: Ident sions and , key themes, ch on labor pro mmarize what Executive Overv major workforce c nt, and workforce capacity needs th ould address thro need, the data p vidence is organi e talent pipeline, scribes the consi es the importanc gaps identified in acity and compete tudy to support th ports will need to (e.g., Phase II re irport MCOs. by local labor ma ts’ ability to respo is needed. l effectiveness sk velopment, and t have the greatest orkforce develop ith local program sis on the skills a ol as the leader s entities and mem ifying and Evalu Recomm and conclusio jections, indus is known abou iew apacity challenge planning. at are summarize ugh workforce de resented through zed according to or current airport derations that em e of conducting so this report. nce so they can e business case think about the wo search). rkets. nd quickly to wor ills will be critical argeted talent ma impact in light of ment emphasis. s to increase awa nd knowledge ide eeks out industry bership organiza ating Airport W endation ns that have e try trends, an t the airport in s facing airports, d within the 3 ch velopment and p out this report are whether it relates training and educ erge as a result o lution-oriented re better prioritize th for implementing rkforce capacity kforce gaps. for future workfor nagement strateg current circumsta For example, the reness of job opp ntified as importa partnerships. tions to stimulate orkforce Require s merged from a d the airport dustry’s workfo including external allenge areas. lanning strategies summarized to mission-critical ation. f the workforce search to provide eir workforce strategies to needs and areas ce. ies are needed. nces within the leader should ortunities. nt herein. research on ments 116 n rce .

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 117 capacity needs based on availability of future talent, job-specific considerations, projected future airport workforce requirements and skill needs, and airport education and training resource sufficiency. Further, this chapter highlights valuable recommendations and next steps that airports could pursue to prepare for impending workforce challenges. While development of practical strategies and best practices is reserved for Phase II of this project (pending approval), this chapter promotes awareness of the challenges, opportunities for improvement, and planning considerations for maintaining the airport personnel required for operational continuity and improvements. Both national and localized, airport-specific implications are provided. Key Themes Workforce capacity, as defined in the first chapter of this report, reflect the potential of U.S. airports to respond effectively and efficiently to emerging job demands in the face of industry changes and trends. The research provided in this report points to several areas where emphasis on workforce replenishment and development along with outsourcing, succession planning, and renewed emphasis on training and education will be needed to ensure the airport workforce has the necessary skills and competencies to effectively perform future job requirements. As a result of this research, seven workforce capacity needs emerged as issues the airport industry will need to confront to ensure continued success over the next 5-10 years. The seven needs can be grouped into three major challenge areas as shown:  Challenge Area 1: Attracting New Talent o Workforce Capacity Need A. Increasing awareness of airport career opportunities o Workforce Capacity Need B. Investing in early development of the talent pipeline o Workforce Capacity Need C. Embracing a far-reaching strategy for new talent  Challenge Area 2: Building Internal Staff Capacity o Workforce Capacity Need D. Addressing new skill gaps from industry changes o Workforce Capacity Need E. Increasing airport-specific knowledge o Workforce Capacity Need F. Enhancing personal effectiveness skills  Challenge Area 3: Planning for Future Workforce Needs o Workforce Capacity Need G. Implementing succession planning In the following text, the seven workforce capacity needs are presented in the boxes. Following each box, the supporting evidence for that theme is provided. Next, implications of this research at a local and national level are briefly discussed. Finally, the potential impact of practical strategies and best practice guidance for industry and airport leaders is presented. Challenge Area 1: Attracting New Talent This section presents three airport workforce capacity needs related to growing the external talent pipeline.

November 2 At the Nati was identif transportat airports. Th (CTE) and education p jobs, but su Likewise, t consider tr requires vo governmen school syst transportat extracurric leaders an to commun among you Jobs cons countless o array of po Workforce promote ai place little candidates One educa longstandin pursuing fli 2 Council of Results. Fra April 24-26, Workfor New ent Supportin stakehold airports. attention jobs is lik      016 onal Transport ied as one of t ion workforce, e Summit ack science, techn rovide founda ch programs a he Summit ide ansportation ca cational couns ts, military, pri ems to be awa ion illustrations ular programs. d industry orga ity organizatio ng people) to iderations. T ther industries tential career o pipeline. Mo rport career op marketing emp may not be aw tor commented g interest in a ght training or University Tran mework for Acti 2012 ce Capacity N rants into the l g data: 5 of th ers include jo Further, 3 of th in airport T&E ely weak for ta Project Plann Electricians* Engineers* IT Profession Financial Ana ation Workforc he greatest cha illustrating tha nowledged tha ology, enginee tional knowled re not specific ntified that chil reer opportun elors, parents vate institution re of and inclu or practice op As advocates nizations have ns that impact promote aware here are many , increasing th ptions for indiv st airports do n portunities, wh hasis on beco are of the opp that most new n airport caree other high-pro sportation Cent on. eed A. Increa abor market la e 8 MCOs ide bs frequently s ese MCOs (*) , suggesting ex lent in these fi ing al* lysis & Planni AC e Summit held llenges impac t this concern g t career techn ring and math ge and skills fo ally tailored to dren and youn ities. Such con , community le s, parochial an de more exam portunities in t for the airports a role to play career decisio ness of airpor airport occupa e competitiven iduals with ex ot currently ha ich limits the t ming an emplo ortunities with hires do not r. Instead, ma file aviation de ers (CUTCworkf sing awarene ck awareness ntified by indus ourced outside receive little posure to airp elds. ng RP 06-04: Ident in April 20122 ting the oes far beyon ical education ematics (STEM r transportatio the industry. g adults rarely sideration aders, municip d alterative ples of heir curricula o industry, airp in reaching ou ns (especially t careers. tions, includin ess of the jobs pertise in thes the air career of thes the fut conce to imp progra of indu emplo study attenti analys portray ve the market alent pipeline f yer of choice o in airports. enter airport m ny students tra grees. Upon re orce.com). Nati ss of airport of varied caree try of ort ifying and Evalu , building awar d ) n al r ort t g many of the (e.g., Electric e highly neede port industry m possibilities a e careers hav ure of the indu rning for airpor lement market ms or other ac stry opportuni yees into airpo also pointed o on on career m is to ensure ca ed to the pub ing capacity o or most of the r featuring the anagement ed nsition to an a alizing some o onal Transporta career opport r opportunities  Pu car cha  All cha  CT airp edu  Ma sm  He ind  Air is a T& ating Airport W eness of trans identified MCO ians, Enginee d fields, the re eans that few t airports. Con e been deeme stry, this defic t leaders. Stra ing campaigns tivities that wi ties and bring rts. One indus ut that airports apping and co reer opportun lic. r capabilities to airport MCOs. specific jobs ucation progra irport-focused f the limitation tion Workforce S unities. available in a Highligh blic lack of awar eers is one of g llenges. transportation fi llenged by lack E and STEM do ort or transport cation. rketing budgets all to promote a avy competition ustries to fill ma port T&E could e lack of student E. orkforce Require portation caree s that span rs). Given the latively small s are aware of t sidering that m d mission critic it should be tegies are nee , outreach ll spread aware more potential try leader in th need to focus mpetitive wag ities are accur adequately Airports tend that exist so jo ms due to a degree after fi s of certain av ummit Summa irports. ts: eness of airport reatest capacity elds are of awareness. es not focus on ation specific for airports too irport jobs. with other ny airport MCOs xpand but there demand for mo ments 118 rs wide ize of he any al to ded ness is es ately to b rst iation ry of . re

November 2 careers, so directors w were scarc Further, ref information growing, th talent pipel Sufficienc factor for g explained t marketing as pilot trai airport-spe One indust education u increasing needs impa stronger pu risk having To build wo initiatives t employees funding air experience examples o pipeline de cultivated b traditionally veterans, lo across indu non-traditio needs and decisions o Operations appealing t broader ou Workfor Educatin awarene Supportin agreed th demand 016 me students th ho began in th e, and then the erral programs about airport e community c ine. y of airport T& rowing a deep hat there may budgets are lim ning programs cific curriculum ry stakeholder p through coll awareness. Th cting the airpo sh to increase an insufficient rkforce capac o engage the c to discuss the port-related cla the airport firs f methods to i velopment. A y targeting ne considered b w income and stries or within nal candidates unique interes f this potential jobs may ena o two-income treach campai ce Capacity N g young peop ss of airport ca g data: All of ere is opportu was greater. en branch ove e airport indus n ended up g and outreach careers to thei onnections the E. The capac er talent pipelin be little they ca ited and curre . Furthermore , airports will n agreed that th egiate educati is could be ac rt world” and s awareness of talent pool as ity that is able ommunity, pot ir airport caree ssroom activit t hand through ncrease aware pipeline of futu w or different t y most airports unemployed airport affiliat , airports also ts that may inf talent. For exa ble alterative w families. Furth gns that will en eed B. Invest le and non-trad reers to expa the T&E provi nity to expan AC r into an airpo try in the 1970 ravitating towa efforts could h r peers. While se individuals ity of training e in airports. n do about po nt marketing te , because man eed to attract ere has been on. This exper hieved by pus ubsequently h airport career demand grow to fully meet a ential employe rs at school ca ies, or allowing enrichment a ness and prom re talent could ypes of applica . Examples inc individuals, tho es (e.g., airline need to consid luence the em mple, shift wo ork schedules er, airports nee gage the publ ing in early a itional candida nd the future ta ders interview d their program RP 06-04: Ident rt-specific trac s following flig rd airport jobs. elp airports le the number of have develop and education Rather, airport tential shortag nds to be focu y critical occu talent from out little to no enga t expressed tha hing the public ow those need s and generate s. ll of an airport’s es, and other reer days, students to ctivities are all ote early also be nts not lude retirees, se employed s). To attract er the work-lif ployment rk for Airport that are d to adopt ic and increase nd full-spectr tes about airp lent pipeline. ed s if ifying and Evalu k. As a furthe ht training or m verage the cur retirement-elig ed are underap programs doe T&E provider participation in courses. Base airport leaders jobs, the rate not appear to needs for airp es in new grad sed on other pations and sk side airport T& gement from t t the industry and educators s can translat interest in mis needs, airpor stakeholders. e awareness o um developm ort jobs can he  Bu job pip  Sm cha  Ma hig  Air the sig gen ating Airport W r example, the ilitary service rent workforce ible employee preciated as a s not appear to s would like to airport-relate d on small sam state as a ma of expansion i be meeting the orts. Airport T& uates for airpo aviation degree illed trades are E programs. he airport indu must take resp to “look outw e into job oppo sion critical oc ts should cons For example, f career oppor ent of the tale lp generate in Highligh ilding early (K-1 s is key to grow eline. all applicant po llenge airport re ny mission-critic h risk for vacanc port stakeholder airport workforc nificant demogra erational; ethni orkforce Require re are many ai where pilot job to extend s in MCOs is means to gro be the limitin see more d degrees and ple sizes, wh jor concern fo n airport T&E d growing work E providers a rt careers as s and careers not addresse stry in K-12 onsibility for ard” and “see t rtunities. With cupations, air ider outreach encouraging tunities. Such nt pipeline. terest and ts: 2) awareness of ing the airport ols continue to cruitment. al jobs are at a y. s acknowledge e is experiencin phic shifts (e.g c). ments 119 rport s w the g ich r all oes force lso their such d in he out a ports g .,

November 2 campaigns Commerce Job consi airports mu interest in a opportunity made awar many have trajectory. A career day highway tra experience consider ho (e.g., Elect unable to f experience local econo that help to Workforce retirees. Fu on the insti generation Project find backgroun airports are efforts to a translators similar stra Further, air attract but Sufficienc virtually no actually air developing Supportin having th pool” by those 6 M a high ri Supportin workforce 6 out of 016 may include p ). derations. To st begin to see irport jobs ear to guide indiv e of airport job already made s an example s have been ef nsportation to s and interesti w to reach ind ricians) which ill lower-level p ; even when th my. Thus, airp offset wage c pipeline. Th rther, some ne tutional knowle . ings also indic ds such as non able to acces ddress diverse during classes tegies in traini ports should c also retain em y of airport T& programs focu port employee the local talen g data: Of the e challenge of more than 50% COs also we sk for vacanc g data: Chan was identified the 8 MCOs id artnerships wi address a sys outreach and ly in life. Airpo iduals toward a s until long aft significant dec of early pipeli fective in grow high school st ng events. One ividuals who m are particularly ositions in are e individual ha orts need to re hallenges. e current airpo w employees dge older gen ate that airpor -English spea s a wide range perspectives and individua ng programs, p onsider the wo ployees who m E. Based on sed on secon s. Both of thes t pipeline. 6 MCOs ident “small applic of participan re identified as y. ging demogra as a major fa entified. AC th local membe temic concern talent develop rts may miss a irport careers er high school isions about t ne developme ing awareness udents throug airport indica lo a he be aw A ight not be su difficult for air as such as ma s the relevant ach potential rt workforce is come from diff erations of wo ts may not be kers or individu of talent, airp and needs. As ls to help to st erhaps by par rkplace benefi ay hold differe the comprehe dary school stu e populations ified as ant ts, 5 of having phics of the ctor impacting RP 06-04: Ident rship or other for airports of ment as a “cra critical if they are not graduation, w heir career nt, construction of careers in h hands on ted they work cal schools du yearly event to lp students ga gins to build i areness of ai full spectrum p ited for higher ports to fill. On intenance bec experience, h talent early an beginning to c erent demogra compared clash can positive va will help b and job sh rkers bring and equipped to de als for whom orts may need an example, udents who ha tnering with loc ts, work arrang nt values and nsive search o dents or the v could be key to ifying and Evalu A smal has op 9-12, fo careers staff di this air to begi very yo government o a “small applic dle-to-grave” hen with ring in interview sk mportant caree rport jobs. ipeline develo education but e airport leade ause it is hard e/she is often d d emphasize th hange as youn phic backgrou to seasoned a occur, airports lue of such di uild shared ca adowing prog the technolog velop new ent English is a se to customize t Port Jobs’ Airp ve learning ch al organizatio ements, and j perspectives t f airport T&E p ast number of attracting peo ating Airport W l municipally-o ened a charter cusing specifi . The school e rectly at the sc port mentioned n workforce de ung ages. rganizations (e ant pool” acro initiative and s ills. This is va r skills in stud pment strateg could thrive in r indicated tha to find employ rawn to highe e benefits of a ger employee nds or unique irport employe must learn ho fferences throu pacity. For exa rams are often ical savvy com rants of differe cond language heir recruitme ort University allenges. Airp ns that offer in ob features tha han tenured ai rograms, it wa workers at an ple to airport c orkforce Require perated airport school, grade cally on aviatio ngages airpor hool. A leader that the goal velopment at .g., Chamber ss critical jobs trive to cultivat luable becaus ents, but also y would also technical trad t they are ofte ees with requi r paying jobs i irport employm s are replacing experiences es. While a cu w to leverage gh programs t mple, mentori used to capita mon to the yo nt ethnic . To ensure t nt and develop in Seattle prov orts could use terpreter supp t will not only rport personne s surprising to airport who are areers and ments 120 s n t at is of , e e it brings e jobs n red n the ent lture the hat ng lize unger hat ment ides ort. l. find not

November 2 One execut shared: “Th problem in younger pe cities for co smaller com Despite the path forwa examples o approach a context of a aeronautic airports the which seem The secon sponsored By adoptin previously concession and a desir U.S. Comm York and W This makes unlike for o is ample ex Smaller air talent due t and compe that when r Job consi hire individ airport-spe airports or Workfor Airports markets Supportin across th robust wi (Source: Supportin survey pa were one 016 ive from a sma ere is also a b smaller areas a ople move out llege etc., leav munities.” absence of s rd for the airpo f “aviation aca nd focus on d viation. Many al engineering mselves (desp s like a signif d type of mode by an airport a g similar mode untapped sour s, and other te e to grow in th ercial service ashington, DC it difficult to fi ther industries posure to sim ports can find o their relative titive hiring. O ecruiting for a derations. Ac uals with spec cific needs can without nearby ce Capacity N should embrac . Further, muni g data: Betwe e 8 MCOs bet despread talen BLS) g data: For 5 o rticipants indic of the major ro ll airport rain-drain s to bigger ing uch programs, rt industry. Firs demies” that u eveloping STE also incorpora concepts, but ite often being icant missed o l is an educati nd often on th ls, airports ma ces of talent a nants that hav eir careers. airports are of , many cities nd talent local (e.g., financia ilar organizatio it particularly c isolation and ne airport’s hu irport jobs, reg cording to surv ific skill sets th bring about c airport-related eed C. Embra e regional and cipally-run airp en 4.5-12.5% ween now and t sourcing stra f the 8 MCOs ated that high adblocks to c AC two models su t, there are se tilize a technic M competenci te flight trainin none are orien affiliated with pportunity for t onal or univers e premises of y be able to ac t contractors, a e both airport ten isolated fro only have one ly that has airp l institutions; re ns within one c hallenging to b limited resourc man resource ardless of airpo a need to re because of required for particularly airport-spec rarely be fo workforce. ey results, five at might not be hallenges for t T&E program cing a far-rea national strat orts face frequ growth projec 2024, sugges tegy will be ne , more than 5 ly specialized s urrent recruitm RP 06-04: Ident ggest a veral al school es in the g or ted toward airports), he industry. ity program the airport. cess irlines, experience m one anothe major airport. ort experience tail) where the ity or region. ring in new es for outreac leader indicate rt size, there cruit nationall the unique ski airport jobs, since those ific skills can und in the loca out of the eig available in th hose airports t s. Further, lea ching, bound egies to identif ent delays and ted ting a eded. 8% of kills ent. ifying and Evalu The Airport Jo the Seattle-bas focuses on job that operate at Airport Univers opportunities f bearing course local communi needs of the p workforce, clas and focus on t take the next s airport security r. With the exc re h d is y lls l ht airport MCO e local workfo hat are in cities dership positio industry-specif to obtain from Even with a ro development s airports will like cities or region developing a p technical posit ary-spanning y new talent d obstacles in  Air ano exp  Se trad cou are  Air rec the are  Air mo imp ating Airport W bs program, op ed non-profit placement for SeaTac airpo ity program pr or employees t s through part ty colleges. To redominantly lo ses are held a opics that can tep in their car , communicati eption of majo s required airp rce. Hiring for with low conc ns in airports o ic knowledge t local labor sou bust cross-trai trategy to fill m ly need to find s. Thus, airpo ipeline for man ions that spans strategy for ue to limited lo their hiring pro Highligh ports are often i ther making it d erienced talent ven of the eight e jobs so locali ld be difficult; fo airport specific ports need to st ruiting across co highest and low as of a particula port T&E progra re remote place acting student orkforce Require erated by Port Jobs companies rt. Their ovides o take credit- nerships with meet the w-income t the airport, help them eers (e.g., on skills). r cities like Ne orts to recruit jobs with thes entrations of ften require hat may be dif rces. ning and intern ost open posi talent from ot rts should con agement and geographic new talent. cal labor cesses. ts: solated from one ifficult to hire . MCOs are not zed recruitment ur of those jobs . rategize when untry by avoidi est concentrati r job. ms are located s, thereby recruitment. ments 121 w and e ficult al tions, her sider ng on in

November 2 An executive airport expres generational d by stating how workforce brin the technolog play a signific adapt the agin boundaries to offer inte In addition and restrict responsive selection o processes that is need promising y level role a did not hav for-profit st new benefi revenue. T may exist d Workforce regional “sw but not suc compared employees similar emp If an occup occupation concentrat economy, b unemploym when and w According multiple air move is se disadvanta outside of t compete w localized m Supportin quotient data prov to target 016 at a medium-s sed the benefi iversity and te the younger gs vibrancy an y aspect forwa ant role in help g workforce. . One airport rnship program to geographic ions on hiring. ness needed t f talent with sp can make it dif ed to lead airp oung employe s the only rele e. Despite the ructure is not n ts structure an hus, airports n ue to their ope pipeline. Wh eet spots” wh h a high conce to the national and perhaps g loyment oppo ation has a hig s with overlapp ion and thus le oth locally and ent rate, the n here to target to focus group ports, larger a en as an upgra ge. Smaller a he immediate ith other indus arketplace (e. g data: Appen s (LQ) by stat ides insight in their recruitme ized t of chnology new d moves rd. They ing to HR profession s that could a challenges, m These airports o maintain wor ecialized skill s ficult to attract orts into the n e the airport d vant position c challenges air ecessarily a s d more compe eed robust stra rating structur en seeking tale ere there is en ntration that a average for th reater challen rtunities are av h concentratio ing skill sets f ss competition nationally, an umber of job v recruitment e participants, a irports are ofte de. However irports may nee geographic are tries for the be g., in terms of dix C provides e for each of th to areas where nt strategy for AC al indicated tha ttract college s unicipality-run suggest that kforce capacit ets. One airpo talent that em ext decade an esperately wa lassification in ports may face imple process. titive wages, th tegies that wil e. nt across the ough of a pres irports would f at job type; this ges in hiring q ailable and thu n of employee rom which to r for employees d its impact on acancies, and fforts (SHRM, irports tend to n able to recru , this approach d to show mo a or from diffe st employees, competition, co appeal to w Sufficiency problem for them. Given the fact that Forks, ND; S localized, es BLS location e MCOs. This airports may specific jobs. RP 06-04: Ident t an effective w tudents from a airports expres municipality re y. Airports als rt leader state bodies the ent d beyond. 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ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 124 technology can affect airports in sometimes contradictory ways. For example, new technology may be used to update and streamline processes with the goal of operational efficiency. However, with new technology and systems, employees who are not technology-savvy may struggle to accomplish their work using new methods and systems and thus, delays can occur until the workforce capacity catches up to the new job requirements. This points to the need for airports to recognize how technology will impact future job requirements and the competencies and skills required to operate new technology implemented in their facilities. The IT changes also suggest new training will be required for current employees and some airports may need to restructure how they select, hire and train all incoming personnel. Jobs considerations. IT was identified as mission critical by more survey participants than any other airport occupation. This recognition of the growing importance of technology highlights that new employees will need up-to-date technology skills and related competencies to succeed. Due to national emphasis on technological innovation, cloud computing, mobile devices, and data collection and storage, the number of IT jobs across the nation will be growing faster than the average job over the next 5-10 years. Across U.S. industries, a large number of IT job openings are anticipated due to new technological requirements and impending retirements. This growth in IT demand across all industries guarantees increased competition for IT employees for airports; many which already find it challenging to attract such talent. The current study also identified that technology skill needs are not exclusive to IT professionals. Airport stakeholders indicated that Airport Operations staff are increasingly dependent on technology to complete their daily tasks, and one airport leader went as far as to suggest that every area of the airport will become highly dependent on technology to operate. As further evidence of this trend, many of MCOs studied required technology-related competencies, such as experience with financial analysis software for Financial Analysis and Planning professionals, computer-aided design (CAD) software for Electricians and Engineers, or new scanning or x-ray technology for Airport Security. Even airfield and leadership roles may require computer interfaces or mobile technologies to effectively complete the job. In sum, in each of the occupations projected to be most critical to airports in the next 5-10 years, technology will impact job requirements and skill needs, and airports need to ensure that these changing needs are adequately addressed for all jobs. Supporting data: Over 1/3 of the 746 survey respondents identified IT professional in the top 5 most mission-critical occupations for airports in the next 5-10 years. Supporting data:  IT professional expected national growth of over 12%  1 million+ national IT job openings from 2014-2024. (Source: BLS)

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 125 Workforce pipeline. One airport educator commented that airports are “frankly…overwhelmed by emerging technologies and understand little about how to prepare for them.” While more IT professionals will be needed across all airports, the current workforce will also all need exposure to the new, revolutionary technology that airports are implementing. At some point in the near future, every single worker will need to receive exposure, training, and practice with new technologies. However, airport stakeholders acknowledge that many current employees are reluctant to embrace new technology. For example, according to case studies conducted with airport representatives, new technology can be difficult for older generations to accept and understand. This is partly due to their attachment to traditional approaches that would become obsolete once the technology is introduced. Younger generations of workers (e.g., Millennials) have received attention for their tech-savvy skills. However, some airport leaders have discovered that the social norms and customer service skills of individuals who are accustomed to interacting through digital media may be lacking since those individuals have typically received less opportunity to polish their verbal communication and customer-facing skills. While airport jobs will soon necessitate a technology-savvy workforce, communication and rapport building with passengers and the numerous customers that exist within the airport (e.g., concessions) and the community (e.g., local political leaders) will continue to be paramount. Thus, airports face a dual development dilemma of needing to increase technological capacity while simultaneously growing the workforce to be customer-focused. Sufficiency of airport T&E. Most airport education and training providers agreed that information technology and related occupations were growing in importance for airports. They also recognized that all roles within an airport were requiring more familiarity and comfort with digital media and interfaces. Some educational providers mentioned integrating technology across their programs. However, to date there is still a significant gap in information technology T&E in the airport environment. Among the T&E programs reviewed (see Chapter 4), the only IT-related content appeared in courses focused on basic office productivity and database software. Only seven total courses with some IT-related content were identified across all of the T&E providers that responded to the questionnaire. It is clear then that most talent for IT jobs comes from outside of airport training and education programs. This research has revealed two clear gaps in the T&E pipeline related to information technology: 1. Leaders are not being trained or educated on how to apply innovative technology and leverage it for success in the airport environment. They may also not have sufficient understanding to effectively manage IT professionals or make informed decisions about investments in information technology or systems. 2. Education and training for IT professionals does not prepare them for the specific implementation of that technology in an airport environment, and there is no widely available training to prepare them for this. Airport-specific experience must either be learned on the job or trained within individual airports. These findings suggest that there are opportunities for both airport T&E providers and airports themselves to develop courses and lab experiences that education currently does not offer. Future airport leaders could be trained on how to leverage technology. There could also be courses developed that will help new or experienced IT professionals better understand the technology needs and systems at airports. Even if airports do not operate or perform IT services, they still need to have managers who can oversee and have sufficient technical competency to ensure that technology work within the airport is being done correctly and according to specifications. Supporting data: All 27 focus group and interview participants agreed some IT expertise will be needed across all of the airport workforce (not just IT jobs). Supporting data: Case study participants acknowledged generational differences in acceptance and knowledge of new technologies. Supporting data: Among the 35 programs in the broader T&E scan, none offered courses on IT implementations in an airport environment.

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November 2 that airport technologie personnel t Additionally the FAA an must adhe guidelines engineers something into the air training pro focused on and regula Workforce performanc some airpo experience within a city to the cont airports co employers concession the airport Sufficienc developing operate on training wo dependent this experie Supportin that the # workforce Supportin  ACI emp oper  AAA oper dem  Kan heav 016 s serve (e.g., a s could also b o effectively le , there are ve d potentially lo re. Airport em to ensure com or financial ana that will need t port setting. E grams, they w ensuring that tions that apply pipeline. Sta e particularly rts focus on bu but this often . ext of a larger, uld also focus as these indiv s may have em itself. y of airport T& “airport comp them interact uld make it ea on developing nce and grow g data: 85% o 1 most impor is: Industry- g data: has an airport loyees that em ations. E has Certifie ations, safety, onstrate know sas State’s ai y emphasis on irlines, comme e unique to the verage the tec ry specific requ cal governme ployees need t pliance with al lysts will learn o be taught an ven if new emp ould likely ben all new employ to their job an keholders in th in the next 5-10 ilding a talent proves difficult commercial se on talent sourc iduals will have ployees who E. Evidence etence” or a ge to support safe sier to expand talent internal the talent pipe f the 746 surv tant requirem specific know operations d phasizes airsid d Airport Em and other topi ledge of Part 1 rport manage hands-on exp AC rcial lessees, airport enviro hnology for air irements, rule nts or municipa o be very fami l rules. These about in their d assessed on loyees come efit from an on ees know the d the airport a is study ident years. Given pipeline is to s due to the lim rvice airport. es that are alr some exposu could bring the suggests the a neral understa and secure a the talent pipe ly. Internships line. ey responden ent for the fut ledge about iploma progra e, landside, a ployee program cs to help emp 39 requiremen ment degree eriences in an RP 06-04: Ident vendors in term nment and req port functionin s, and regulati lities to which liar with these are not topics education, but ce they are br from airport-sp boarding strat requirements, s a whole. ified airport-spe the importanc earch for emp ited number of In addition to u eady within the re to airport fu ir existing kno irport T&E sec nding of how ir travel. For ex line by recruiti or temporary e ts agreed ure airports. m for new nd terminal s for airport loyees learn a ts. program place airport contex ifying and Evalu On so 10 int se en typ co ge inals). The im uire specific tr g. ons from airports that rather ought ecific egy rules, cific knowledg e of airport-spe loyees with air commercial s Employees a one example because thes knowledge an learned at the sing GA airpo airport but wo nctioning. For wledge of airp tor is beginnin the airports an ample, ACI, A progra their p Such t extens also al broade occupa genera course Electri from o their ro ng from other i mployment pr nd s t. ating Airport W e industry exp me airports off 1” type of cour roduces Board nior staff to the vironment but e of course is mmonplace fo nerally. plementation aining and dev e as critical to cific knowledg port- and aviat ervice airports t general aviat of a potential t e workers hav d experience se jobs will be rts as a potent rking for other example, con ort needs to e g to realize the d the numerou AAE, and som ms are providi rograms to airp rends would be ion to other T& ignment with n r range of mis tions. For exa l airport know s could focus cians, IT perso ther industries les on an airp ndustries and ograms could orkforce Require ert noted how er an “Airports se that members and airport currently, this not r staff positions of certain elopment for I effective job e, one way th ion specific typically cluste ion (GA) airpor alent source e airport-relate and the skills easily transfe ial source of ta non-airport tractors, vendo mployment wit importance o s businesses t e university ng more expos ort operations nefit from E providers a eeds related to sion critical mple, in additi ledge, specific on what Engin nnel, and othe need to know ort. Such trans make airports also help to de ments 127 T at red ts is d rable lent, rs, or hin f hat ure in . nd a on to eers, rs about ition less velop

November 2 Technical s group parti overempha effectivene described t poor, and i abilities. A the airport, in a highly indicated th solving skil complex en Job consi asked abou effectivene a weak poi two greate Workforce adaptability effectivene skills are n not just ent complex op ability to co stakeholde Sufficienc programs i most often focus on in personal ef future work planning, b public, the is also imp Workfor Airport t who are Supportin surveyed skills wer the 8 MC of the 5 more dev 016 kills are impor cipants comme size technical ss and profess hat the writing t is a challenge nother leader but employee collaborative e at all employe ls to help the a vironment. derations. Fo t the availabil ss skills offere nt in airport tra st training and pipeline. Dur , flexibility, an ss skills may b ecessary at en ry-level emplo erational, fina mmunicate an rs is essential y of airport T& nterviewed as from airports h terpersonal sk fectiveness sk force with the ut also equipp airports’ many ortant that lead ce Capacity N alent developm flexible and ab g data: Of the , over 50% ind e a training an Os. Similarly, executive-leve elopment in p tant for all airp nted that airpo expertise at th ional skills. Fo and grammar when employ indicated that t s are often lac nvironment. F es need to hav irport thrive in r each of the M ity of training a d to employee ining and deve development c ing focus grou d other person e desirable, ai try or could be yees who strug ncial, commerc d build rappor to achieving a E. According part of this res iring recent gr ills, communic ills. It is not sim technical know ing them with t tenants, and s ership develo eed F. Enhan ent strategy n le to adapt to 746 airport s icated that per d developmen 50% of respon l mission critic ersonal effectiv AC ort occupation rts or T&E pro e expense of d r example, on skills of emplo ees come in w eamwork is vit king the skills n inally, airport s e critical think an increasingl COs, survey r nd developme s. This was rep lopment. In fa hallenges exp ps, airport lead al effectivenes rports should a easily trained gle with perso ial, and politic t with a broad n airport’s strat to the airport earch, one of t aduates is a n ation, public sp ply a matter o ledge of airpo he means to e takeholders in pment program cing persona eeds to focus new situations takeholders sonal effective t challenge for dents identifie al jobs as nee eness skills. RP 06-04: Ident s, but some fo viders may eveloping per e airport leade yees at all leve ithout these ba al to the succe ecessary to s enior leaders ing and proble y dynamic and espondents w nt in personal eatedly identif ct, for three of erienced. Reg coul skills intel man adap to bu to re envi ers discussed s skills. While lso consider fo once on the jo nal effectivene al landscape, range of egic goals. educational he concerns h eed for greater eaking, and ot f providing the rt managemen ngage with the the communit s like those l effectivenes on personal eff with strong int ness 6 of d 3 ding ifying and Evalu One indica dema profe involv crede emph incre staff effec prese empl of the cus sonal r ls are sic ss of ucceed m ere ied as the MCOs, thi ardless of the d benefit from in areas such ligence, comm agement, orga tability. These ild profession spond better t ronment, work the need to se selecting new r each MCO w b. Focus grou ss. As airport the eard her t and y. It s skills. ectiveness sk erpersonal ski    ating Airport W Airport T&E pr ted that airpo nding more “w ssionals at all es more certif ntialing of airp asis airports p asing the profe can also have t of attracting j nting airports oyer that value ir workers. s was identified occupation, a developing pe as interperso unication skills nization, prob personal effe al capacity and o the challenge place peers, a lect employee employees wit hether the pe p participants leaders face a ills to prepare e lls are in great Hig Specialized t sought after a workforce wh effectiveness often Stakeholders effectiveness major training challenge are Personal effe workers bette another as w themselves a change. orkforce Require ovider rts are orld class” levels. This ications and ort staff. The lace on ssionalism of the secondary ob seekers by as an s developmen as one of the irport employee rsonal effective nal, emotional , time and stre lem solving, an ctiveness skills equip employ s of the work nd sudden cha s based on h personal rsonal effectiv indicated that n increasingly mployees. E demand acros hlights: echnical skills a nd developed i ile personal may be neglect indicated perso skills are one o and developme as ctiveness skills r engage with o ell as manage nd their respons ments 128 t top s ness ss d help ees nges. eness it is mployees s airports. re n the ed too nal f the nt help ne e to

November 2 offered by their leade Challenge This sectio of operatio Succession important f threat of su number of airports wo relevant sk occur. A so institutiona current lea stakeholde positions m when an em In addition airport func respond to airports wil technology succession MCOs thro external ou Jobs cons Workforce and a diver In light of th efforts on b into execut how to nav Workfo Airports requirem strategie Supportin growing    016 ACI and as we rs. Area 3: Plann n presents an ns. planning and or airports give ccession chal airport personn uld have 2-3 in ills ready to ste lid succession l knowledge by ders whose sh rs that particip ay not have e ployee leave to retaining va tions, new kno some of the c l benefit from t , social media, strategy need ugh a balance treach. iderations. A pipeline. It is se set of expe e high volume uilding profess ive leadership igate local poli rce Capacity N are beginning ents, increase s to replace c g data: Amon occupations Electricians: IT Profession Financial Ana ll as academic ing for Futur airport workfor succession m n the changes lenges is comp el who are ret dividuals iden p into a highe strategy also partnering pro oes they may ated in this stu ven a single po s. luable institutio wledge and sk hanging dema alent who have and business s to consider h d approach of large number imperative tha riences to ens of impending ional capacity needs to have tics. It can be d eed G. Imple to recognize th d labor marke urrent leaders g the MCOs, th are jobs comm 13.7% al: 12.47% lysis & Planni AC degree progra e Workforce N ce capacity ne anagement are the industry is ounded by the irement-eligibl tified for each r level job sho involves prepa spective succ eventually fill. dy indicated m tential succes nal knowledge ills will also be nds on airports skills in data strategy. Thus ow to address internal develo of airport jobs t airports deve ure they have retirements an among emerg knowledge of ifficult for mid menting succ e importance t competitivene in each MCO t e top 3 fastes on across ind ng: 10.55% RP 06-04: Ident ms focus on i eeds ed related to p particularly facing. The growing e. Ideally, MCO with uld an opening ring to retain essors with However, the any critical sor to step in about how th needed to . For example analytics, glob , a robust vacancies in pment and , particularly in sig su ind m pl an M lop future lead the broad pers ticipated acros ing leaders in airport operati -career employ ession plann of succession ss, retirement o avoid the im t ustries: ifying and Evalu nstilling these lanning for the e , al operations an nificant effect ggests continu ustries in jobs any other indu ace heavy emp d succession COs which wil ers with strong pective neede s the industry junior and mid ons, how to su ees to obtain ing. management s, and turnove pact of future c  Air ser cap acr com MC  Su ma ind  Cla wit to b  Lea bui jun  Air foc lea ating Airport W personal effect future and en d maintenance s of retirement ed workforce that are critic stries. Thus, a hasis on work planning strate l only grow in n managerial a d to lead airpo , airports need -level positions ccessfully run the experience in light of new r. Airports wil apability gaps Highligh port retirements ious challenge t acity when part oss-industry gro petition) for tal Os. ccession plannin nagement are c ustry. sh of expectatio h hiring of young e addressed. dership progra lding leadership ior and mid-leve port T&E like AC used on next ge ders. orkforce Require iveness skills suring sustain , are facing . Labor market needs across al to airports a irports will nee force developm gies for these ational deman nd technical s rts into the futu to focus their . Someone m the business, necessary to skill l need . ts: will present o workforce nered with high wth (and thus ent related to g and knowledg ritical for airport ns and cultures er workers nee ms must focus o capacity with l staff. I and AAAE are neration of airp ments 129 in ability data nd d to ent d. kills re. oving and e ds n ort

November 2 One pan “Succes constrai cannot p until the hiring pr difficulty my mun job open two inte process etc. It m position new per develop the outside the especially process do vacating is strategies c the near fu Sufficienc leaders. Fo Member pr Both organ themselves airport man replenish th up. Neverthele other workf One oppor senior emp are passed their staff. younger ge skills, while Supportin participa existing 8 MCOs; market p competiti 016 elist for this st sion planning ned municipal repare a requ position is act ocess takes m of recruiting fo icipal personn ing, how long rview events, s ing of fingerpri ay take me 4- s. There is ze son to learn fro se capabilities airport, so tar leadership pos cuments. Inte imminent to h ould help mitig ture. y of airport T& r example, AC ogram target m izations also h . In addition, a agement help e entry-level w ss, there are a orce developm tunity is to add loyees to ensu on and that le For example, e neration to im younger emp g data: Betwe nts indicated workforce” is this challenge rojections sugg on for talent in udy indicated, is difficult in th civil service sy isition to fill a v ually vacant. T onths, depend r the position, el department it takes them t etting a startin nts/backgroun 6 months to fil ro opportunity m his/her suc . At the same geted success itions for which restingly, one elp promote kn ate some of t E. Several a I’s Airport Man id-career man ave leadership cademic degre to provide tale orkforce as m number of op ent programs ress cultural g re that the exp aders can bett xperienced pr prove public sp loyees may ha en 58-69% of “lack of talent a top concern is likely to gro est increased those same o AC e stem – I acancy hen the ing on the how long posts the o process, g date, d checks, l key for the cessor.” time, it can be ion planning is most of the jo airport on the w owledge trans he knowledge irport T&E prog agement Prof agers who ma development e programs th nt that could h id-level emplo portunities for to improve this aps between ju eriences of se er utilize the s ofessionals co eaking and ne ve ideas on ho survey in for 6 out of w as labor ccupations. RP 06-04: Ident very difficult t all the more im To ensure c (KM) strateg managemen sharing infor and the work KM activities tacit knowled other employ b responsibilit est coast curr fer before the loss that many Airport lead among youn succession some focus past one co airport for th interest in lo are more wi the past. Sim workers und but that they operational airport jobs. closed civil for selecting quickly whis rams focus on essional Accre y have aspirat programs orie at focus on elp yees move T&E and process. nior and nior leaders trengths of uld help the tworking w mobile ifying and Evalu A leader at authority ind employees’ careers and challenge in they are not organization their role at stone. Ther needs to de high potenti be competin candidates. o find qualified portant. ontinuity of ope y should acco t effort. KM inv mation that is place culture. before retiree ge can be cod ees. KM is im ies are not cap ently allows ov incumbent leav airports are fa ers also expres ger generatio management i group particip uld expect mos eir entire care ng-term emplo lling to switch ilarly, airport erstand techn are not alway demands and To exacerbate service proces new talent an ked away into developing th ditation Progra ions of moving nted toward se ating Airport W a medium-size icated that yo expectations r employment i retaining them interested in w forever. Inste the organizatio efore, the airpo velop a culture al employees, g for diminish   replacements rations, know mpany any suc olves gatherin integral to bus It is importan s leave to ens ified, stored, a portant for all tured in manu erlaps of emp es. This and o cing or at risk sed that typic ns of employee ncreasingly dif ants indicated t employees t er, younger em yment with on organizations o leaders expres ology and tech s prepared to time commitm that, municip s are faced wit d thus, the bes other organiza e next genera mme and AAA into senior le nior leaders e orkforce Require d airport unger egarding their s a major . Specifically, orking at one ad, they view n as a steppin rt industry that retains or airports will ing potential for exiting lea ledge manage cession g, storing, and iness operatio t to implement ure that any of nd shared wit occupations, b als or formal loyees when ther similar of experiencin al characteristi s have made ficult. For exam that while in th o stay with the ployees have e organization r careers than sed that youn nical requirem address the ents required b al systems wit h a lengthy pr t talent might tions. tion of airport E’s Certified adership positi ager to improv ments 130 g ders ment ns these their h ut g in cs ple, e less and in ger ents, y h a ocess be ons. e

November 2 technology other caree The indust retraining r that the mi this can ca individuals Future Dir In light of th airport indu seven work to avoid po capability. uncovered opportuniti unable to a swiftly to e passenger placing the routes and closures. Whether th through an consistentl operations manage co grapple wit airports mu be willing t planning, a workforce s help the air implementa Above all, workforce c resources t They must approach t as governm To support industry sh building wo building str industry-wi 016 could improve r developmen ry could also e etirees from c litary is one of use friction wit as well as oth ections e significant c stry is facing, force capacity tential gaps in Airports that do by this report es to their mor dequately equ merging techno demands, and mselves at risk customers, an ey are municip independent a y focused on c . But staying “l sts can place h sudden chan st not lose sig o invest in long nd workforce c ustainability o port understan tion of various airport leaders hallenges of t o workforce pl also begin to e o workforce ca ent officials, l airport leaders ould identify, d rkforce capac ategies and im de solutions. S terminal oper t programs cou xplore alternat ivil service an their biggest s h their less dis er pools of tale hanges and ch airports must a needs presen workforce cap not heed the may find thems e capable pee ip their workfo logies, politica financial chal of operationa d in the worst ally managed uthority, airpo ost control and ean” in terms o an incredible b ges in workloa ht of how staff er-term strateg apacity buildin ver time. Furth d the impact o strategies ac should shift th he weeks, mon anning and de ngage their in pacity building ocal communit in growing an ocument, and ity and address plementation s ome implicatio AC ations. Mentor ld help to brid ive sources of d military jobs ources of stud ciplined under nt to replenish allenges the ddress the ted in this repo acity and warning signs elves losing rs. If airports a rce to respond l pressures, lenges, they ar l disruptions, lo case, airport or governed rts are efficient f staffing to urden on airpo d. As more ai ing directly imp ies regarding g and remain er, airports wil f MCOs, deter ross the airpor eir focus from ths, and years velopment now ternal and exte is likely to req ies, and airline d developing t share effective ing the needs teps, the indu ns and examp RP 06-04: Ident ship experienc ge this gap. talent to repla . An airport T& ents and thes graduate peer positions lost rt re e st rts and their w rports move tow acts results an talent develop competitive in l need to priori mine how to p t that will help reacting to tod to come. The if they hope t rnal stakehold uire buy-in from s that may hav heir workforce strategies an identified thro stry should co les of both are  If a wo and ope and  Airp res imp pos acr  To the airp effe pro add ifying and Evalu es, succession ce employees E provider int e individuals t s, airports sho to retirements. orkforce and m ard an enterp d the bottom l ment, training, compensation tize investmen roperly fill thes the airport mee ay’s workforce y must develo o be able to co ers regarding managers a e budget appr to meet the ch d best practice ugh this projec nsider both loc discussed in H irports are unab rkforce to respo challenges, the rational disrupt in the worst ca orts will need to ource expertise act of MCOs, d itions, and supp oss that will help support airport l ir workforce to m ort industry sho ctive strategies ven successful ressing the nee ating Airport W management lost to retirem erviewed for t end to be high uld consider h ay limit the ab rise, revenue- ine. Airport ma recruitment, r and benefits o t in human res e positions, an t its strategic need to being p a strategy an nfront impend these efforts, a nd seasoned a oval power. allenges ahea s that have pr t. When select al, airport leve the following s ighlights: le to adequately nd swiftly to eme y are placing th ions, lost routes se, airport closu prioritize inves to help the airpo etermine how to ort implementa meet the airpo eaders in growi eet the challen uld identify, doc and best practi in building work ds identified thr orkforce Require programs, an ent. One exam his study men ly disciplined. ow to develop ility of the airp generating foc nagement nee etention, succe fferings to ens ource expertis d support goals. ready for the d begin alloca ing workforce s this proactiv irport staff, as d, the airport oven successf ing capacity l and national, ections. equip their rging demands emselves at ris and customers res. tment in human rt understand t properly fill the tion of strategies rt’s strategic go ng and developi ges ahead, the ument, and sha ces that have force capacity a ough this projec ments 131 d ple is tioned While these ort to us, ds to ssion ure e to ting gaps. e well ul in k of , he se als. ng re nd t.

November 2 Localized, In terms of was funded industry-lev report prov guidance. toward whi terms of ad technologic trends. The those miss greatest ch the project highest and occupation assess wh developing however, s individualiz At a local le supply and level. Such levels, wor (e.g., a new of organiza example, a a specific j staffing and Airports are supply-dem required to commercia by collabor pipeline. Fu careers or Airports sh to local com to partnerin community Outreach t for skilled t community help them 016 Airport-Spec localized cons by ACRP, it i el consideratio ide some valu For example, t ch occupations dressing futur al, financial, p report guides ion critical occ allenges when ed nationwide lowest dema are also ident ether their app staff within tho o individual air ed workforce c vel, the airpor demand for a an assessme kload, workflow terminal), im tional-specific irports can use ob type within workforce de also likely to and analysis w conduct such l service airpo ating through p rther, airports to economicall ould also lever munity organ g with the Cha outreach coul o local commu rade jobs, suc engagement, build and lever ific Implicatio iderations, bec s intentionally ns. However, able localized, he data directs will be missio e work require olitical, and de airports to con upations will p sourcing new job growth. Th nd within each ified. Thus, air roach to recrui se jobs should ports will need apacity needs ts must consid specific occup nt should cons and processe plementation s analysis will p staffing analy the next 5-10 y velopment dec find value in fo ith respect to analysis as we rts within a reg artnerships, a could join forc y train and dev age local com izations could mbers of Com d include build nity and techn h as electrician airport leaders age these rela AC ns ause this stud focused on data in this airport-specific airport leader n critical in ments related mographic sider which of resent the talent based o e states with th mission critica port leaders ca ting and be altered in a set of best p . er regional an ation in a spec ider multiple a s, competenc chedules, ope rovide airports sis to project t ears. This info isions that sus rming partners the local labor ll as the know ion compete to irports have th es with other a elop their curr munity connec be used to hel merce or othe ing rapport wit ical colleges co s or facilities m could benefit tionships for th RP 06-04: Ident y s to n e l n any way. The ractices and s d organizationa ific market req irport-specific f y proficiency le rating structure with current, a he number of f rmation helps tain workforce hips with othe market. By pa ledge of strate some extent e opportunity t irports in the r ent workforce tions to promo p raise awaren r local busines h unions, staff uld also be be aintenance st from a resourc e purpose of b  Airp recr alte  At a and mak dev to m  Airp part orga rela cap ifying and Evalu details of how trategies to he l-specific fact uires careful a actors such as vels of curren , and workforc ctionable data ull-time equiva ensure airport capacity to m r airports in the rtnering, airpo gies to build su for passengers o collectively i egion to promo through shared te interest in th ess of airport ses to establis ing firms, local neficial, espec aff. Although e containing b uilding workfo H ort leaders can uiting and deve red based upon local level, the organizational- e sound, cost-e elopment decisi eet emerging in orts are also lik nerships with lo nizations to sha tionships for the acity. ating Airport W to do so are n lp them addre ors. For examp nalysis best pe current and a t personnel, ai e developmen to support sta lent (FTE) per s make sound eet emerging i ir region to co rts can share t ccess. Unders and airline cu nvest in buildin te early educa curriculum an e MCOs. For careers. Airpo h airport-supp leaders, and l ially when rec many airports est practices a rce capacity. ighlights: assess whether loping staff in M the information airports must co specific factors ffective staffing ons that sustain dustry demand ely to find value cal airports and re resources an purpose of buil orkforce Require ot always intuit ss their le, assessing rformed at the nticipated serv rport planning t strategy. Thi ffing decisions sonnel needed , cost-effective ndustry deman nduct and com he resources tandably, U.S stomers; howe g a regional ta tion about airp d facilities. example, outre rts may find be ort events. Oth ocal job fair ev ruiting candida are adept at lo nd strategies t their approach COs needs to b in this report. nsider regional to help ensure th and workforce workforce capa s. in forming community d leverage ding workforce ments 132 ive, labor local ice efforts s type . For to fill ds. pare . ver, lent ort ach nefit er ents. tes cal o to e ey city

November 2 National Im Airport sta systemic w that airport resulting fr One clear o the Federa and state g of airports airport care employees professiona growth and this is an in resources inform thes opportuniti attendance there are fe Electricians college stu recruit emp of Labor (e MCOs cou Airport train forward by field work, airport care also have a engineerin education c education l “transition t In summar support wil break down association Finally, to a been recom budget, an been caref 016 plications keholders agre orkforce challe s also need, th om workforce c pportunity for l government, overnments to is to raise awa ers. Airports w to serve as th ls, and engine modernization dustry-wide ch should be mars e highly dema es within airpo at four-year c wer students and other Air dents are mad loyees within t .g., T-TAC gra ld be develope ing and educa aligning their o and internship ers, improve j role to play in g and the spec ould be influe eaders. Indust raining” for ne y, addressing t l require a robu walls betwee s, Federal gov chieve the typ mended. The d suggested G ully articulated e that there is nges airports e U.S. airport apacity gaps. industry const universities, ai improve the w reness and bu ill need to att e business lea ers needed to in the next de allenge, it is lo halled on a na nded professio rts. Similarly, olleges and un pursuing skille port Operation e aware of airp he skilled trad nts) to commu d to support aw tion programs fferings to airp opportunities ob placement bridging the g ific knowledge nced by fundin ry associations w members an he industry-wi st set of work n education pr ernment, and es of strategie ICF team has uidebook outli throughout thi AC not a sufficie face. As comp industry is lea ituents includin rport associati orkforce capa ild interest in ract well-educa ders, IT support airpor cade. Given t gical that tional scale to nals about ca high rates of iversities mea d trade jobs, fu s staff. If high orts and relate es. By expand nity colleges o areness and must also ens ort MCOs and into their curric rates, and gen ap between p needed in the g availability a like AAAE an d promoting c de challenges force developm oviders, individ employment/jo s needed for t provided ACR ne to respond s report. The d RP 06-04: Ident nt coordinated etition grows a ving itself expo g ons, city ted t hat reer ns rther shrinking school, vocati d career oppo ing federal gra n behalf of airp interest in airp ure the talent capacity need ulum, airport T erate greater in rofessionals in airport contex s well as by an d ACI could he ollaboration be that plague bo ent strategies ual airports, re b training prog he airport indu P with a propo to the industry ecision for fun  T l c t f  R t o  A e n a ifying and Evalu effort at a nat cross industrie sed to potent the potential onal and techn rtunities, airpo nts such as th ort education, ort careers. they grow sup s. By integrati &E programs terest in their commonly nee t. The lack of e absence of d lp to address tween airports th education p . To be succes search institu rams alike. stry, a Phase I sed work plan -wide and airp ding this seco here is not a su evel to address hallenges airpo o potential oper rom workforce c esources shou o inform highly d pportunities wit irport training a nsure the talen eeds moving fo irport MCOs an ating Airport W ional level to a s for some of ial operational labor pool for a ical school, an rts will be bett ose issued by programs spe ports the indus ng practical ai can better pre programs. Airp ded occupatio mphasis on a ialogue betwee both of these i and T&E prov rograms and t sful, these str tes, airport me I and practical , rough order o ort-specific nee nd phase is cu Highlights: fficient coordina some of the sys rts face, leaving ational and safe apacity gaps. ld be marshalled emanded profe hin airports. nd education pr t they grow supp rward by alignin d capacity need orkforce Require ddress some the specialized and safety con irport MCOs li d community er positioned t the U.S. Depa cific to the airp try needs mov rport experienc pare students f ort T&E progr ns like finance irport-specific n airport and ssues by spon iders. he airports the ategies must h mbership Guidebook ha f magnitude (R ds which have rrently pending ted effort at a n temic workforce the industry ex ty concerns res on a national s ssionals about ograms need to orts the industr g their offerings s. ments 133 of the skills cerns ke o rtment ort ing e, or ams and soring y elp s OM) . ational posed ulting cale career also y to

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements gathers information that will help identify and evaluate the current and future airport job requirements and associated workforce capacity needs; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and provide a practical guidebook that presents effective workforce planning and development strategies. The Web-Only document summarizes the information gathered in the first phase of the project.

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