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Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements (2016)

Chapter: Appendix B: Case Study Summaries

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Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Page 142
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Page 144
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
×
Page 145
Page 146
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Case Study Summaries." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27193.
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ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 136 Appendix B: Case Study Summaries This appendix provides an overview of case study interviews that were conducted with executives and directors of three airports. I. Austin Bergstrom International Airport Participants  Shane Harbinson  Ghizlane Badawi  Vivian Martin Protocol Questions 1. What is the most significant workforce challenges your airport is currently facing? For example, what major challenges do you have with regard to recruitment, retention, training, staffing the appropriate amount of workers, etc., and how is your airport working to address this challenge?  Airport infrastructure and resources cannot keep up with rapid growth  Difficult to align growth with staffing  Using various strategies to ensure there are enough staff to support operations 2. What types of initiatives or strategic planning does your airport have underway to prepare your workforce for new demands and industry changes your airport will face in the next few years?  Anticipate trends and begin restructuring now to meet future demands  Temporary employees are hired, trained, and evaluated before applying for permanent positions  Cuts down onboarding time  Ensures permanent employees are proper fit for the position and organization as a whole  Current employees who meet desired competencies receive training to conduct interviews, so they can sit on interview panels and identify candidates who also have the desired competencies  Conducted workshops to assess organizational culture and characteristics of high and low performers 3. Where do you see the greatest gaps in your workforce in terms of skill sets?  Technical jobs, such as Operations or Engineering, which require airport-specific skills Mission Critical Occupations 4. What challenges have you experienced with each of the following occupations and how big of an issue is it for your airport? Are there any specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that are missing or particularly hard to find for these occupations? Additionally, where or how does your airport find qualified individuals to fill open positions for these occupations?  Engineering o Difficult to get someone with airport experience o Have to train employees in-house and send them to airport-specific conferences and workshops o Electrical and Mechanical Engineering positions are typically contracted out o Two in-house civil engineers handle all utilities

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 137  Airport Operations o Limited skillset; must attract someone from another airport or train someone new o Most airports attract someone with skills, but we’re training employees instead o Technical skills and knowledge of regulations, airport layouts, and airport policies and procedures are important to have but difficult to find o Pool of candidates for these positions currently work for ground handlers or airlines that have airfield jobs at the airport, or we attract talent from other airports o Hire temporary employees and have them complete a 6-month boot camp before they can apply for permanent positions  Airport Development o For capital project, project team is typically integration of engineering firm, architecture firm, and builders, but must have someone with airport experience to lead and guide the team o Difficult to get project manager from City of Austin Public Works Department who has airport experience; typically top project managers are put on the most political projects o Important to have someone leading capital projects who has been through the process and is thinking long-term o We advertise and compete with other airports to hire these employees o Must attract someone from another airport or dedicate 2-3 year development plan o Important to have employees of varying experience, so entry-level employees will move up; they must be able to see career path and potential for success  Project Planning o Have to have someone who knows works with properties and is familiar with airport planning and design o Must be able to read and analyze proposals to determine impacts on adjacent properties and tenants o Must be able to read and apply federal regulations o Applicant pool is limited, typically comes from engineering firm o Have to find staff who have necessary skillsets or have to attract employee from another airport or firm  Information Technology o Retention is an issue o We will train employees, but then they find other opportunities in private sector in Austin o Would be helpful if we were able to attract employee from another airport who is familiar with asset management system; instead, we hired database manager and sent them to technical training o Must hire for attitude but train for skillset o Very hard for government entity to compete with private sector for IT jobs, especially in Austin or Silicon Valley o We have too much work and not enough people, but IT manager is having trouble finding people with enough experience o Difficult to find employees with knowledge of common use or shared use technology; we hire staff and send them to technical training to learn about the system o If we have to train someone, learning curve might take longer, but sometimes we want to implement technology today o Find qualified individuals from other IT environments, such as manufacturing

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 138  Airport Security o Using temporary employees strategy; we hire and train them before putting them into permanent positions o Qualified individuals come from law enforcement, military, or security jobs with other industries and companies in Austin o We train them on airport-specific processes, regulations, and programs  Financial Analysis and Planning o Depends on Planners and Engineering staff to break down each project that fits their financial cost centers o Hard to make edits or comment on objective, justification, or impact of project when filling out grant applications o Relationships with banks and market is critical o Accuracy is important; investors are trusting that information and forecasting is correct o Time management skills are important; previously terminated two employees who had trouble meeting deadlines 5. Can you identify and describe any emerging roles or functions that are needed or will be needed due to these or other trends in the aviation industry? What roles or jobs didn’t exist 5 or 10 years ago but are critical today to your airport. Do you foresee any specific new jobs or roles that do not currently exist, but you expect the need to exist in the next 5-10 years?  Must focus on more employee development; leaders need to be able to develop employees and get them trained in different areas  Leadership needs development  Increase in roles related to technology, such as sharing economy and developments for applications we didn’t have five years ago  Strategic planning roles that integrate strategic planning with risk management and quality management systems may exist in future; with limited funding and increased growth, need to assess our risks and develop strategies to mitigate them New Technologies 6. Could you describe 1 or 2 specific technologies that are greatly impacting your airport? What impacts has it had on your workforce, including their ability to be productive, your ability to recruit, train, or keep qualified staff?  Uber, Lyft, and Hitch o How to collect revenue off this? How do you education general public on fair and reasonable charge? If you collect revenue, who maintains and defends the platform? o Have to have technology and financial component to pay for infrastructure o San Francisco developed application they’re using on mobile devices to track these transactions  Food and beverage are moving toward technology platform  Need skillsets for collecting and analyzing business intelligence with technology to offer passengers what they need to generate non-airline revenue  With common use system we had to beef up staff and get contracts to support the staff  Baggage handling system has become very complex different vendors and agencies (TSA, airport, and airlines)

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 139 o Requires SCADA analysis, which is a program logic controller o Rare skillset but is as important as any other position in airport o Must be able to bring new technology on mechanical system and have it work through programming and software o Currently have three employees who can do this (senior level, mid-level, and entry-level) Financial Pressure/Increased Commercialization 7. Could you describe 1 or 2 examples of how your airport is feeling and has dealt with cost pressures and using more commercial practices? What has your airport done to be more financially self-sufficient or to diversify its revenues?  Use airport property to create non-airline revenue by creating partnerships with hotels, retail, and restaurants; make airport property a destination with access to surrounding neighborhoods  Pushing more revenue with advertising, such as dynamic signage and smartphones  Maximize existing facilities with technologies  Conduct passenger surveys and focus groups to learn what they need and offer those services, so they spend more time in airports o Reduce time spent in security, check-in, etc. so more time and money is spent in terminal o Offer different services, such ordering food or reserving parking prior to arriving at the airport  Airport is engaged and has a culture focused on passenger experience 8. Lastly, do you have any other thoughts you’d like to mention about workforce challenges, the future of the airport workforce, or other workforce needs which we have not yet discussed?  New municipal civil service rules make hiring a challenge  Would like to know what percent of airports’ budgets go to workforce development II. San Diego County Regional Airport Authority Participant(s)  Jeff Lindeman Protocol Questions 1. What is the most significant workforce challenges your airport is currently facing? For example, what major challenges do you have with regard to recruitment, retention, training, staffing the appropriate amount of workers, etc., and how is your airport working to address this challenge?  Making sure we have access to the talent either internally or externally that can do what we need in the future.  Finding skills is confounded by people not thinking ahead. Challenge is getting organization to think about the future. 2. What types of initiatives or strategic planning does your airport have underway to prepare your workforce for new demands and industry changes your airport will face in the next few years? How does your airport work to build its talent pipeline for key jobs?  Anticipate trends and begin restructuring now to meet future demands  Strategic workforce planning  Sit down with unit leader and discuss what function will have to do in future and what skills will be needed

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 140  Review current skills and conduct gap analysis  Determine how to build capabilities of current staff and how many people need to be hired  Currently on track to have plan in place for 50% of our departments  Lot of internal development  Leading at All Levels (leadership training) – 100 employees applied, need supervisor’s endorsement, build skills to meet a business-related goal  Undergraduate internship program  Redesigned recruitment page to attract younger employees  Graduates aren’t hired right away, but program builds a pipeline of talent for the airport  Last I looked, at beginning of a cohort a small amount of interns know about careers at airport. Afterwards, 100% know about careers at airports and 75% are interested  Program is one summer long. 50% of time is spent in one department, and 50% is spent on learning about the enterprise and how functions work together. Other part is group project  Last year we had 1200 candidates for 12 intern positions. Nationwide recruitment  Departments are required to provide work plan for intern  Veteran program  6-month assignments  We pay salary and benefits minus pension  Similar to internship but is for people transitioning or within a year from having transitioned from military  Provide civilian experience for resume  IT benefitted greatly from this 3. What are the most common sources your airport uses to identify new talent for airport jobs?  Both internal and external  After developing workforce plans, we develop action plans to determine what can be done to ensure function’s existing staff retains relevant skills and capabilities, and identify how and when we can source that externally  Varies by department and is customized to the current state of that function, what they have to execute, and what their demographics are 4. Where do you see the greatest gaps in your workforce in terms of skill sets?  Infrastructure (engineering, construction) – great demand and competition  IT, specifically cybersecurity – tough, tight market  Finance professionals who are technically proficient and can demonstrate competence at leading (difficult to find both) Mission Critical Occupations 5. What challenges have you experienced with each of the following occupations and how big of an issue is it for your airport? Are there any specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that are missing or particularly hard to find for these occupations? Additionally, where or how does your airport find qualified individuals to fill open positions for these occupations?  Engineering o Risk from retirements o Wages going up faster than general market; creates challenges on the wage structure and how we can compete

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 141 o Pension reformat is challenge unique to CA – requires employees to pay half the cost of their pension plan, makes us uncompetitive in the market o Benefits package isn’t designed around flexibility that market needs for us to attract diverse pool of candidates o Want to find employees committed to sustainability and with LEAD certification o Airport experience difficult to find  Airport Operations o Revamped recruitment process few years ago o Difficult to attract people from other cities due to cost of living (e.g., candidate from Chicago turned down offer because of cost and compensation of relocating to San Diego) o Airport experience difficult to find o Most employees have narrow view of career; view themselves as functional professionals rather than airport professionals, which limits their value to organization  Airport Development o Engineering is challenge o Lack of diversity in candidates, in terms of race and gender  Information Technology o Cybersecurity – couldn’t afford to hire externally, so we’re training someone internally o Priced out of the market for external candidates o Demand is high but supply has not kept up o Airport experience difficult to find  Electrician o Pool is narrowed by airport experience o Lead Electrician gave us advance notice of retirement so we were going to bring someone in to work with him, but pension system announced change that would be effective in 2 weeks so he left in 2 weeks  Airport Security o TSA mandates cause stress among these employees o Airport experience difficult to find  Financial Analysis and Planning o At analyst level, market is not producing quality candidates o Academia has not kept up with business needs; disconnect between supply o First we market nationally, then specifically for airport skillsets, then locally for other skillsets o Disconnect between organizations developing supply and what demand is  Others o Risk management – moving toward holistic look at risk, enterprise-wide, currently undetermined what the availability of talent for this is 6. Can you identify and describe any emerging roles or functions that are needed or will be needed due to these or other trends in the aviation industry? What roles or jobs didn’t exist 5 or 10 years ago but are critical today to your airport. Do you foresee any specific new jobs or roles that do not currently exist, but you expect the need to exist in the next 5-10 years?  Enterprise risk management  CEO articulated that if organization has the right financial business model and right human capital to execute that model, the organization will be successful, also make decisions today as if they matter tomorrow

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 142  Increased focus on sustainability, need to make decisions today that make organization enduring New Technologies 7. Could you describe 1 or 2 specific technologies that are greatly impacting your airport? What impacts has it had on your workforce, including their ability to be productive, your ability to recruit, train, or keep qualified staff?  Migrated to enterprise management system (ECMS) o One enterprise system that contains all content o Requires workforce to work differently o Learning curve for change readiness is a challenge o Departments implemented the system in waves with proficient users (first adopters) who completed training on ECMS  Cybersecurity o Need to build physical infrastructure and everyone in organization is attentive to social engineering, fishing o Make sure everyone is thinking security when working with technology 8. Are there other technology challenges you may not have yet experienced, but think are likely to cause workforce challenges in the future for airports?  Innovation lab o Converted a decommissioned terminal o Kept baggage claim and ticket counters to reflect a real terminal (mini airport) o Technology providers can test programs and collaborate with airport employees to build resiliency and change enthusiasm Financial Pressure/Increased Commercialization 9. Could you describe 1 or 2 examples of how your airport is feeling and has dealt with cost pressures and using more commercial practices? What has your airport done to be more financially self-sufficient or to diversify its revenues?  Determined how to drive revenue through marketing and concessions  Innovation lab may become incubator for a business  Real estate development (660 acres in middle of downtown San Diego can make this a challenge) 10. Please describe an example of how your airport has experienced demographic changes in its workforce and its impacts on workforce processes, such as recruitment, retention, training, and development? This can include the impacts of impeding retirements, shifts to nontraditional or more diverse workers, or the impacts of the younger generations of workers.  It is still acceptable to discriminate against millennials (e.g., “that’s just how millennials work”); currently learning how to handle this  Diminishing to a millennial to be spoken of this way 11. Lastly, do you have any other thoughts you’d like to mention about workforce challenges, the future of the airport workforce, or other workforce needs which we have not yet discussed?  Biggest challenge is getting leaders to think about the future

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 143 III. Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport Participant(s)  Kevin Howell Protocol Questions 1. What is the most significant workforce challenges your airport is currently facing? For example, what major challenges do you have with regard to recruitment, retention, training, staffing the appropriate amount of workers, etc., and how is your airport working to address this challenge?  Large amount of retirements  Currently trying to train and prepare younger staff with fewer years in the field to see who can step up into leadership and management roles; piecemeal approach 2. What types of initiatives or strategic planning does your airport have underway to prepare your workforce for new demands and industry changes your airport will face in the next few years? How does your airport work to build its talent pipeline for key jobs?  Through HR Director we’re doing different management-specific training events quarterly  Pulling different groups of people together for training either onsite or third party  Trying to account for eminent retirements in supervisory/management positions 3. What are the most common sources your airport uses to identify new talent for airport jobs?  Both internal and external, depending on position and what we’re looking for  Identify people locally in community for departments like maintenance and IT, types of department that are not airport specific  When in upper level positons, we look for airport-specific background  Recruit through organizations like ACI  Jobs like police and fire and local and go through airport-specific training Mission Critical Occupations 4. What challenges have you experienced with each of the following occupations and how big of an issue is it for your airport? Are there any specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that are missing or particularly hard to find for these occupations? Additionally, where or how does your airport find qualified individuals to fill open positions for these occupations?  Airport Operations o High turnover o It’s entry-level for someone out of college and looking to enter airport management field, but we’re lucky if we get three years out of them o In small airport, less opportunity to move up so they may move to bigger airport for career progression  Airport Development o We’re not getting sufficient exposure o Local market has people with real estate background, but not applicable to airports o Would like to recruit someone from another airport, but difficult because airport is small; bigger airport sometimes pick up our employees  Information Technology o Airport experience difficult to find

ACRP 06-04: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements November 2016 144 o Important to have knowledge of shared tenant system environment, especially at director or management level o Lower jobs don’t necessarily need airport experience  Airport Security o Have had some turnover in lower age category o Young officers may be bored at airport; not like municipal or city police work o We pay competitively, but our officers don’t get the city environment or take home car 5. Can you identify and describe any emerging roles or functions that are needed or will be needed due to these or other trends in the aviation industry? What roles or jobs didn’t exist 5 or 10 years ago but are critical today to your airport. Do you foresee any specific new jobs or roles that do not currently exist, but you expect the need to exist in the next 5-10 years?  May start insourcing things like parking lot management, financially driven change  New employees will need stronger computer capability and knowledge base New Technologies 6. Could you describe 1 or 2 specific technologies that are greatly impacting your airport? What impacts has it had on your workforce, including their ability to be productive, your ability to recruit, train, or keep qualified staff?  Shared tenant environment o Will driver larger IT staff o Challenge was getting airlines to let go of reigns o Airport maintains all equipment at gate counters now; airlines were hesitant to give up that control o Must have right amount of staff to maintain it Financial Pressure/Increased Commercialization 7. Could you describe 1 or 2 examples of how your airport is feeling and has dealt with cost pressures and using more commercial practices? Where is the pressure coming from? What has your airport done to be more financially self-sufficient or to diversify its revenues? Finally, what more distal impacts do you foresee this having on the airport or its workforce?  Got more aggressive with land and property development  Later this year we’re taking over FBO (fixed-base operator) o All buildings on airport property will revert to us and we’ll rehire the majority of the current staff o Lines are getting blurred between FBOs and airports  Pressure has always been there  Currently have 40% operating margin, which has become gold standard for our airport  Advertising is done in-house to bring in more revenue to the airport  Increased land development  Need to be aware of staffing levels as airport grows

Next: Appendix C: Location Quotients (LQs) for Mission Critical Occupations,by State »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements gathers information that will help identify and evaluate the current and future airport job requirements and associated workforce capacity needs; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and provide a practical guidebook that presents effective workforce planning and development strategies. The Web-Only document summarizes the information gathered in the first phase of the project.

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