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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
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129 Bibliography Alta Planning and Design. 2015. “Heads Up Pedestrian Safety Campaign Final Report.” Report submitted to City of Eureka, California and California Office of Traffic Safety. American Association of State Highway Officials. 2009. “Highway Safety Manual.” Washington DC. Awan, H.H., A. Pirdavani, A. Houben, S. Westhof, M. Adnan, and T. Brijs. 2019. “Impact of perceptual countermeasures on driving behavior at curves using driving simulator.” Traffic Inj Prev. 20(1):93-99. Baker, S.P., R.A. Whitfield, and B. O’Neill. 1987. “Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes.” N Engl J Med. 316:1384-1387. Baker, D.R., S.R. Clarke, and E.N. Brandt. 2000. “An analysis of factors associated with seat belt use: prevention opportunities for the medical community.” J Okla State Med Assoc. 93(10):496-500. Batras, D., C. Duff, and B. Smith. 2016. “Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.” Health Promot Inj. 31(1):231-241. Behar, Geni, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Frank Gross. 2016. “Reliability of Safety Management Methods.” Washington DC: US Federal Highway Administration. Bhavsar, Rejoice, Amit Amin, and Laxmansinh Zala. 2020. “Development of Model for Road Crashes and Identification of Accident Spots.” International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research. Blackman R, T. Cheffins, C. Veitch, and T. O'Connor. 2008. “Young driver restrictions: does the evidence support them?” Aust J Rural Health. 16(6):332-7. Blatt, J., and S.M. Furman. 1998. “Residence location of drivers involved in fatal crashes.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 30(6):705-711 Bonneson, J, and K Zimmerman. 2007. “Procedure for Using Accident Modification Factors in the Highway Design Process.” College Station, Texas: Texas Department of Transportation. Brann, M., S.H. Mullins, B.K. Millser, S. Eoff, J. Graham, and M.E. Aitken. 2011. “Making the message meaningful: a qualitative assessment of media promoting all-terrain vehicle safety.” Inj Prev. 18(4):234-239. Brunner, Colleen. 2019. Belle Fourche Beacon. June 12, 2019. Accessed: https://bellefourchebeacon.com/wp- content/uploads/2019/06/24-BF-Beacon-19-06-12.pdf. Cafiso, Salvatore, Grazia La Cava, Alfonso Montella, and Mariano Pernetti. 2004. “A Methodological Approach for the Safety Evaluation of Two- Lane Rural Roads with Low-Medium Traffic Volume.” Lisbon, Portugal: European Road Congress. Calvi, A, F. D'Amico, L. Bianchini Ciampoli, and C. Ferrante. 2019. “Evaluating the effectiveness of perceptual treatments on sharp curves: a driving simulator study.” Traffic Inj Prev. 20(sup2): S13-S19. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. 2019. “All worker occupational injuries, 2003 -2018. Bureau of Labor Statistics.” Accessed 1/2021: https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm#other.

130 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. “Violence prevention: The social-ecological model: A framework for violence prevention.” Accessed 1/2021: http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/overview/social- ecologicalmodel.html. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021. “Wisqars Visualization Tool.” Accessed 1/2021: https://wisqars- viz.cdc.gov:8006/lcd/home Chande, V.T. and L. Roth. 2006. “Motor vehicle safety for teen drivers.” Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care 60:6 (1384). City of Hamilton, MT. 2011. Hamilton Community Transportation Safety Plan. Cole, Kevin. 2016. “Nebraska State Patrol Troopers Take Rollover Simulators to Schools, Community Groups to Urge Use of Seatbelts.” Omaha World-Harold. January 11, 2016. Accessed: https://omaha.com/news/local/nebraska-state-patrol- troopers-take-rollover-simulators-to-schools-community-groups-to-urge-use-of/article_e4e40f22-9131-5e76-a3de- f30ec3f293e0.html. Congressional Research Service. 2018. “Rural Highways.” Accessed 1/2021: https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/R45250.html#_Toc518647384. Costello, T.M, M.D. Schulman, and R.C. Luginbuhl. 2003. “Understanding the public health impacts of farm vehicle public road crashes in North Carolina.” J Ag Saf Hlth. 9:19-32. Cromartie, J. 2019. “Rural America at a Glance: 2018 Edition.” United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Washington, DC. Currie, M. and L. Philip. 2019. “Rural Aging.” Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging. Springer Nature Switzerland. Geneva, Switzerland. Dahlberg, L.L., and E.G. Krug. 2002. “Violence-A global public health problem.” In: Krug, E., L.L. Dahlberg, J.A. Mercy, A.B. Zwi, and R. Lozano (Eds.), World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1–56. Dumas, J. S., & Redish, J. C. (1999). A Practical Guide to Usability Testing (Revised, Subsequent edition). Intellect Ltd., p. 4. Dye Management Group. 2001. “Planning for Transportation in Rural Areas.” Federal Highway Administration. Washington D.C. DOT-36949-DS1 El Esawey, M., C. Sowers, J. Sengupta, and R. Jain. 2019. “Safety evaluation of cable barriers installation on rural highways in British Columbia.” Traffic Inj Prev. 20(2):220-225. Federal Highway Administration. 2011. “Highway Safety Improvement Program Manual Chapter 3: Countermeasure Identification.” US Federal Highway Administration. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/resources/fhwasa09029/sec3.cfm. Federal Highway Administration. 2013. “Highway Functional Classification Concepts, Criteria, and Procedures.” Washington D.C. FHWA-PL-13-026. Federal Highway Administration. 2017. “Proven Safety Countermeasures: Systemic Application of Multiple Low-Cost Countermeasures at Stop-Controlled Intersections.” Washington D.C. Federal Highway Administration. 2020a. “Zero Deaths – Saving Lives through a Safety Culture and a Safe System.” Accessed 1/2021: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/zerodeaths/zero_deaths_vision.cfm.

131 Federal Highway Administration. 2020b. “Highway Functional Classification Concepts, Criteria and Procedures.” Accessed 12/14/2020: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/processes/statewide/related/highway_functional_classifications/fcauab.pdf Federal Highway Administration. 2020c. “USLIMITS2”. Accessed February 2023: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/uslimits/. Federal Highway Administration. 2021. “Local Road Safety Plan DIY Site.” Accessed January 2021: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/LRSPDIY/safety-data.cfm# Federal Highway Administration. 2022. “Proven Safety Countermeasures.” Accessed August 2022: https://highways.dot.gov/safety/proven-safety-countermeasures Finley, K., J. Otto, N. Ward, and J. Arpin. 2019. “Proactive Traffic Safety Culture: Empowering Behaviors to Reach Our Shared Vision of Zero Deaths and Serious Injuries.” Fitzpatrick, Kay, William Schneider, and Eun Sug Park. 2005. “Comparisons of Crashes on Rural Two-Lane and Four-Lane Highways in Texas.” Austin, Texas: Texas Department of Transportation. Floerchinger-Franks, G., M. Machala, K. Goodale, and S. Gerberding. 2000. “Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.” J Community Health. 25(2):113-24. Fox, J., and L. Shahum. 2018. “Core Elements for Vision Zero Communities.” Vision Zero Network. Freeman, P., D.M. Neyens, J. Wagner, F. Switzer, K. Alexander, and P. Pidgeon. 2015. “A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.” Accid Anal Prev. 82:1-9. French, M.T., G. Gumus, and J.F. Homer. 2009. “Public policies and motorcycle safety.” J Health Econ. 28(4):831-8. Freund, N.M., A. Turosak, A. Dean, and H. White. 2019. “Are we SAFE now? An evaluation of the Seatbelts Are for Everyone teen traffic safety program in Kansas.” Inj. Prev. 20(8):783-788. Goldenbeld, C. and I. van Schagen. 2005. “The effects of speed enforcement with mobile radar on speed and accidents. An evaluation study on rural roads in the Dutch province Friesland.” Accid Anal Prev. 37(6):1135-44. Golembiewski, G.A. and B. Chandler. 2011. “Roadway Safety Information Analysis: A Manual for Local Rural Road Owners.” Federal Highway Administration, FWA-SA-11-10. Office of Safety, Federal Highway Administration. Goodrow, B., G. Scherzer, and J. Florence. 2004. “An application of multidisciplinary education to a campus-community partnership to reduce motor vehicle accidents.” Educ Health (Abingdon). 17(2):152-62. Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA). 2022. ”America’s Rural Roads: Beautiful and Deadly.” Accessed October 2022: https://www.ghsa.org/resources/GHSA/Rural-Road-Safety22. Grabowski, D.C., and M.A. Morrisey. 2007. “System wide implications of the repeal of the national maximum speed limit.” Accid Anal Prev. 39(1):180-9. Graham, J.D. 1993. “Injuries from traffic crashes: meeting the challenge.” Annu Rev Public Health. 13:515-43. Harwood, DW, FM Council, E Hauer, WE Hughes, and A Vogt. 2000. “Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways.” McLean, Virginia: US Federal Highway Administration. Herbel, Susan, Lorrie Laing, Colleen McGovern Federal Highway Administration. 2010. “Highway Safety Improvement Program Manual.” Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. FHWA- SA-09-029

132 Humboldt County Public Works Department. 2018. Local Road Safety Plan. ICMA. 2020. “Putting Smart Growth to Work in Rural Communities.” Accessed October 19, 2020: https://icma.org/sites/default/files/301483_10-180%20Smart%20Growth%20Rural%20Com.pdf. Jaarsma, R., R. Louwerse, A. Dijkstra, J. de Vries, and J.P. Spaas. 2011. “Making minor rural road networks safer: The effects of 60 km/h-zones.” Accid Anal Prev. 43(4):1508-15. Jennissen, C.A., J. Peck, K. Wetjen, P. Hoogerwerf, K.K. Harland, and G.M. Denning. 2014. “The Safety Tips for ATV Riders (STARs) programme: short-term impact of a school-based educational intervention.” Inj Prev. 21(3):166-72. Jenior, P, A Butsick, P Haas, and B Ray. 2018. “Safety Performance for Intersection Control Evaluation (SPICE) Tool User Guide.” Washington DC: US Federal Highway Administration. Jennissen, C.A., S. Sweat, K. Wetjen, P. Hoogerwerf, and G.M. Denning. 2017. “Engaging Agribusinesses: Feasibility and Cost of an ATV Safety Poster Project.” J Agromedicine. 22(4):364. Ji, Y., Y. Ye, Y. Lu, L. Li, and G. Yang. 2017. “An Intervention to Reduce Bicycle Injuries among Middle School Students in Rural China.” Int J Environ Res Public Health. 14(7):690. Jones, A.P., V. Sauerzapf, and R. Haynes. 2008. “The effects of mobile speed camera introduction on road traffic crashes and casualties in a rural county of England.” J Safety Res. 39(1):101-10. Karlaftis, M.G., and I. Golias. 2002. “Effects of road geometry and traffic volumes on rural roadway accident rates.” Accid Anal and Prev. 34:357-365. Kay, J.J., P.T. Savolainen, T.J. Gates, and T.K. Datta. 2014. “Driver behavior during bicycle passing maneuvers in response to a Share the Road sign treatment.” Accid Anal Prev. 70:92-9. Khan, M., A. Abdel-Rahim, and C.J. Williams. 2015. “Potential crash reduction benefits of shoulder rumble strips in two- lane rural highways.” Accid Anal Prev. 75:35-42. Knapp, K. 2011. “Reducing Crash Fatalities on Rural Roadways: Estimating Impacts of Legislation-Based Safety Improvement Measures.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2213, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington Kumfer, W.; H. Liu, D. Wu, D. Wei, and S. Sama. 2017. “Development of a supplementary driver education tool for teenage drivers on rural roads.” Safety Science. 98 (136-144). Liu, P., J. Huang, W. Wang, and C. Xu. 2011. “Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China.” Accid Anal Prev. 43(6):1947-1954. Lord, Dominique, Srinivas Geedipally, Bhagwant Persaud, Simon Washington, Ida van Schalkwyk, John Ivan, Craig Lyon, and Thomas Jonsson. 2008. “Methodology to Predict the Safety Performance of Rural Multilane Highways.” Washington DC: Transportation Research Board. Lundell, J. 2003. “Motor vehicle occupant safety in a rural state.” Tex J Rural Health. 2003; 21(4):2-10. Maio, R.F., P.E. Green, M.P. Becker, R.E. Burney, and C. Compton. 1992. “Rural motor vehicle crash mortality: the role of crash severity and medical resources.” Accid Anal Prev. 24(6):631-642. Marlenga, B., B.C. Doty, R.L. Berg, and J.G. Linneman. 2006. “Evaluation of a policy to reduce youth tractor crashes on public roads.” Inj Prev. 12(1):46-51.

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134 Pennsylvania State Police. 2017. AR 8-6 Selective Traffic Enforcement Programs. Preusser, David, Allan Williams, James Nichols, Julie Tison, and Neil Chaudhary. 2008. “Effectiveness of Behavioral Highway Safety Countermeasures.” Washington DC: Transportation Research Board. Rakauskas, M.E., N.J. Ward, S.G. Gerberich, and B.H. Alexander. 2007. “Rural an Urban Safety Cultures: Human-Centered Interventions Toward Zero Deaths in Rural Minnesota.” Minnesota Department of Transportation. Rakauskas, M.E., N.J. Ward, and S.G. Gerberich. 2009. “Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.” Accid Anal Prev. 41(5):931-937. Ramirez, M., R. Bedford, H. Wu, K. Harland, J.E. Cavanaugh, and C. Peek-Asa. 2016. “Lighting and marking policies are associated with reduced farm equipment-related crash rates: a policy analysis of nine Midwestern US states.” Occup Environ Med. 73(9):621-6. Rand Corporation 2018. “The Road to Zero A Vision for Achieving Zero Roadway Deaths by 2050.” National Safety Council and Rand Corporation, Washington D.C. Ravalli County DUI Task Force. 2020. Annual Work Plan. Retting, R., and I. Cheung. 2008. “Traffic speeds associated with implementation of 80 mph speed limits on West Texas rural interstates.” J Safety Res. 39(5):529-34. Richard, Christian, Paige Bacon-Abdelmoteleb, Justin Graving, Ta Liu, Gautam Divekar, and George Reagle. 2015. “Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behavior.” Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Richard, Christian, Kelly Magee, Paige Bacon-Abdelmoteleb, and James Brown. 2018. “Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide For State Highway Safety Offices, Ninth Edition, 2017.” Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Robertson, R.D. and C.R. Pashley. 2015. “Roadway Safety Campaigns: What Research Tells Us.” Traffic Injury Research Foundation. Ottawa, ON, Canada. Schmitt, A. 2020. “Tribal Road Safety.” Right of Way. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Sharfi, T., and D. Shinar. 2014. “Enhancement of road delineation can reduce safety.” J Safety Res. 49:61-8. South Dakota Department of Public Safety. 2021a. “South Dakota Highway Safety.” Accessed January 26, 2021. South Dakota Department of Public Safety. 2021b. “THINK Signs.” Accessed January 26, 2021. Stamatiadis, Nikiforos, Adam Kirk, Don Hartman, Jeff Jasper, Samantha Wright, Michael King, and Rick Chellman. 2018. “An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets.” Washington DC: Transportation Research Board. Stephens, M., E. Emil, A. Blair, S. Middleton, K. Schroeckenthaler, R. Pildes, J. Goldberg, C. Bruno, B. Piercy, N. Villwock- Witte, K. Clouser, J. Sullivan, D. Kack, and C. Little. 2021. Emerging Technologies and Opportunities for Improved Mobility and Safety for Rural Areas. FHWA-PL-022-004. FHWA, Office of Transportation Policy Studies, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. 2021. “The Story of the City of Sturgis Motorcycle Rally,” accessed January 26, 2021. Sullivan, J. 2017. “On the Road to Zero, We Cannot Ignore Rural.” TRB Annual Meeting Proceedings. Washington, D.C.

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Rural roads have a higher risk of fatality or serious injury than urban roads due to factors such as varying terrain, wildlife, and long distances between services.

BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, documents the overall research effort that produced BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Supplemental to the document is a PowerPoint presentation that outlines the project.

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