National Academies Press: OpenBook

Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas (2023)

Chapter: Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)

« Previous: Appendix D: Discussion Guide (Task 4)
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 143
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 144
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 145
Page 146
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 146
Page 147
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 147
Page 148
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 148
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 149
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 150
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 151
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 152
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 153
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 154
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 155
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 156
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 157
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 158
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 159
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 160
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 161
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27196.
×
Page 163

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

143 Appendix E: Detailed Results of the Existing Toolkit Review (Task 7) The following section summarizes the key findings from each of the resources reviewed. Resource: NHTSA’s Countermeasures that Work (Tenth Edition) Full title: Countermeasures that Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for SHSO (Tenth Edition), https://www.ghsa.org/sites/default/files/2021-09/Countermeasures%20That%20 Work%2C%2010th%20 Edition.pdf Description: This resource supports SHSO in selecting evidence-based interventions for improving traffic safety. The document provides a description of each intervention, costs and time for implementation, as well as a description and references for the evidence to support each intervention. The guide is not intended to be a comprehensive list of countermeasures available for State use. Topic areas addressed in the resource include: • Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving • Seat Belts and Child Restraints • Speeding and Speed Management • Distracted Driving • Motorcycle Safety • Young Drivers • Older Drivers • Pedestrian Safety • Bicycle Safety • Drowsy Driving Content relevant to rural traffic safety: The word rural appears 66 times in the document, highlighting strategies that have been studied in rural areas. Strategies studied in rural areas (with varying results) include: • Publicized Sobriety Checkpoints • Impaired Driving Courts • Alcohol Ignition Interlocks • Alternative Transportation • Primary Seat Belt Law • Short-Term High Visibility Seat Belt Law Enforcement Campaigns • CIOT • Strike Out Child Passenger Injury • Speed Limits • License Restrictions Noteworthy design features: The 641-page document is organized according to “problem areas” such as alcohol- and drug-impaired driving or speeding. An overview including the problem area’s size and characteristics is provided, and relevant countermeasures within each problem area are documented. Each countermeasure ranks the level of effectiveness (one to five stars where four or five stars is deemed effective), the cost to implement ($ - $$$), use across the country (unknown to high), and time to implement (short to long). References are provided after each countermeasure.

144 Resource: FHWA’s Proven Safety Countermeasures Full Title: Proven Safety Countermeasures, https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ Description: FHWA’s Proven Safety Countermeasures (PSC) initiative is a collection of countermeasures and strategies effective in reducing roadway fatalities and serious injuries on our nation’s highways. Transportation agencies are strongly encouraged to consider widespread implementation of PSCs to accelerate the achievement of local, state, and national safety goals. Website includes: • Ability to filter countermeasures based on geography, road classification, focal area (e.g., roadway departure, intersection, pedestrian), average daily traffic, problem, crash type. • Recorded webinar • Overview flier • Training overview video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxrMmdaLdko • PDF Guidance for each countermeasure • Safety Benefits (e.g., 19-47% reduction in total crashes) • Sources for evaluation Countermeasures address: • Speed Management • Roadway Departure • Intersections • Pedestrian/Bicyclist • Crosscutting Content relevant to rural traffic safety: Website identified 24 (out of 28) strategies appropriate for rural. • Appropriate Speed Limits for All Road Users • Backplates with Retroreflective Borders • Bicycle Lanes • Corridor Access Management • Crosswalk Visibility Enhancements • Dedicated Left- and Right-Turn Lanes at Intersections • Enhanced Delineation for Horizontal Curves • Lighting • LRSP • Longitudinal Rumble Strips and Stripes on Two-Lane Roads • Median Barriers • Pavement Friction Management • Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons • Reduced Left-Turn Conflict Intersections • Road Safety Audit • Roadside Design Improvements at Curves • Roundabouts • SafetyEdge ℠ • Speed Safety Cameras • Systemic Application of Multiple Low-Cost Countermeasures at Stop-Controlled Intersections • Variable Speed Limits • Walkways • Wider Edge Lines

145 • Yellow Change Intervals Noteworthy design features: The website has a clean, easy to use interface and is easy to understand. The user can get to usable information in one click. Resource: FHWA’s Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads Safety Toolkit Full Title: Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads Safety Toolkit, https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/local_rural/training/fhwasa14072/ Description: Rural roadway safety is an important issue for communities throughout the country and presents a challenge for state, local, and tribal agencies. The Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads – Safety Toolkit was created to help rural local and tribal roadway safety practitioners address these challenges. The Safety Toolkit provides a step-by-step process to assist local agency and tribal practitioners in completing traffic safety analyses, identify safety issues, countermeasures to address them, and an implementation process. Each step in the Toolkit contains a set of tools, examples, and links to resources appropriate to the needs of safety practitioners. The report presents a seven-step safety analysis process based on a similar process developed in the HSM. The seven steps are: compile data; conduct network screening; select sites for investigation; diagnose site conditions and identify countermeasures; prioritize countermeasures for implementation; implement countermeasures; and evaluate effectiveness of implemented countermeasures. Accompanying the Safety Toolkit are two User Guides (FHWA-SA-14-073 and FHWA-SA-14-074) which present step-by-step processes of example scenarios. Website includes: • Hyperlinks to report sections including • Introduction • How to use the toolkit and User guides • Step 1. Compile Data and Resources • Step 2. Conduct network screening • Step 3. Select sites for investigation • Step 4. Diagnose Site Crash Conditions and Identify Countermeasures • Step 5. Prioritize countermeasures for implementation • Step 6. Implement Countermeasures • Step 7. Evaluate effectiveness Content relevant to rural traffic safety: All content is relevant to rural local and tribal roads. Specific countermeasures are not included. Instead, the tool guides users to use the Crash Modification Factors Clearinghouse (https://www.cmfclearinghouse.org/), several reports/resources for countermeasures based on location, and FHWA’s PSC. Noteworthy design features: The website is a three-part report turned into an online resource; it works, but it is very dense. The content is technical.

146 Resource: FHWA’s Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox Full Title: FHWA’s Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox, https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsdp/toolbox- home.aspx Description: The Toolbox contains resources that will help your organization build a new or strengthen an existing roadway safety data program. Options are manage, analyze, collect, research. The website is a database of multiple resources that users search using filters. There is a filter for local/rural (under focus area). There is no filter for tribal. The word “tribal” does not appear in the primer. There is a 98-page primer to guide users: The last two decades have brought significant advancements in data-driven decision-making, including the development and refinement of numerous safety data and analysis tools. For many, this transition to data-driven decision-making represents a change in how they do business. While the new safety data and analysis tools support data-driven decision-making, the identification and selection of an appropriate tool can be a daunting task, particularly for those new to quantitative safety analysis. In response, the FHWA initiated a project to develop a Roadway Safety Data and Analysis Toolbox (named Toolbox). The Toolbox fulfills the need for a centralized source of information about the available safety data and analysis tools. The web-based interface helps users to identify appropriate tools based on self-identified needs, capabilities, and resources. Users include anyone in search of a safety data or analysis tool to support data-driven decision-making. This application guide (named Primer) serves as a support document for users of the Toolbox. The Primer will help all users, particularly novice users, to better understand the overall scope and functionality of the Toolbox as well as the roles, responsibilities, and tasks supported by tools in the Toolbox. The Primer guides users through a stepwise process to identify an appropriate tool to support a given task based on their needs and capabilities. Manage (185 tools total; 106 local/rural) Managers that understand the costs and benefits of alternative business practices can effectively and efficiently manage the agency’s safety program. This section offers information about data-driven decision- making and planning including the costs and benefits of state-of-the-art analysis methods and the data management and governance structures required to support alternative methods. These tools can help managers in developing policies and practices, setting budgets, allocating resources, making safety investments, identifying training needs, and managing a safety program. Analyze (237 tools total; 106 local/rural) Agencies with solid safety data programs can use state-of-the-art safety analysis tools to inform decisions in the safety management, planning, programming, and project development processes. This section offers information about the use, strengths, limitations, and data requirements of traditional and state-of-the-art methods. These analysis tools can help agencies get the biggest bang for their dollar. Collect (213 tools total; 98 local/rural) Identifying, collecting, managing, and integrating safety datasets are integral to developing a robust data program and fundamental to making informed decisions about safety strategies and investments. This section offers information about what safety data to collect, how to collect and maintain the data, how to ensure quality data, and how to integrate various sources of safety data for analysis. These tools can help data collectors and stewards to understand the analysts’ data needs, and the cost, equipment, and human resources required to collect and maintain the data.

147 Research (160 tools total; 73 local/rural) The science of safety continues to evolve, with research supporting continuous improvement of data and analysis techniques. This section offers information about various datasets and state-of-the-art analysis techniques that can help to facilitate safety research. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: Table E- 1Table E- 1 to Table E- 5Table E- 5. list the tools from the Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox that contain content relevant to rural/tribal communities.

148 Table E- 1. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Application Guides With Rural Content Tool Name Owner/Sponsor A Guide to Developing Quality Crash Modification Factors FHWA CMFs in Practice FHWA Crash Data Improvement Program Guidebook FHWA Data Systems: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioners World Health Organization FHWA Systemic Safety Project Selection Tool FHWA Highway Safety Improvement Program Manual FHWA Highway Safety Improvement Program Self-Assessment Tool FHWA Highway Safety Manual AASHTO Integrating the Highway Safety Manual into the Highway Project Development Process FHWA Market Analysis of Collecting Fundamental Roadway Data Elements to Support the Highway Safety Improvement Program FHWA Model Impaired Driving Records Information Systems – Tying Together Data Systems to Manage Impaired Drivers NHTSA Model Performance Measures for State Traffic Records Systems NHTSA National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 08-36, Task 100: Transportation Data Self-Assessment Guide AASHTO National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 501: Integrated Safety Management Process NCHRP National Guidelines for the Network Screening of Collision Prone Locations Transportation Association of Canada Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety Pergamon Press Performance Measures for Roadway Inventory Data Report FHWA Safety Performance Function Development Guide: Developing Jurisdiction-Specific SPFs FHWA Synthesis of Best Practices for the Development of an Integrated Data and Information Management Approach Midwest Regional University Transportation Center & Wisconsin DOT The Art of Appropriate Evaluation: A Guide for Highway Safety Program Managers NHTSA Traffic Records Program Assessment Advisory NHTSA Traffic Safety Performance Measures NHTSA User’s Guide to Develop Highway Safety Manual Safety Performance Function Calibration Factors NCHRP

149 Table E- 2. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Databases With Rural Content Tool Name Owner/Sponsor Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network NHTSA Crashworthiness Data System NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System NHTSA Federal Transit Administration National Transit Database Federal Transit Administration General Estimates System NHTSA Highway Performance Monitoring System FHWA Highway Safety Information System FHWA Motor Carrier Management Information System FMCSA National EMS Information System NHTSA National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Study NHTSA Strategic Highway Research Program Transportation Research Board City Health Dashboard NYU Langone Health Table E- 3. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Information Sources With Rural Content Tool Name Owner/Sponsor CMF Clearinghouse FHWA Transportation Research Information Services Transportation Research Board Table E- 4. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Information Guides With Rural Content Tool Name Owner/Sponsor ANSI-D16.1-2007 Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents NSC ANSI-D20 Traffic Records Systems Data Dictionary: Release 6.0 AAMVA Background Report: Guidance for Roadway Safety Data to Support the Highway Safety Improvement Program FHWA Benefit-Cost Analysis of Investing in Data Systems and Processes for Data- Driven Safety Programs: Decision-Making Guidebook FHWA Benefit-Cost Analysis of Investing in Data Systems and Processes for Data- Driven Safety Programs: Project Report FHWA Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for SHSO NHTSA DAMA Guide to the Data Management Body of Knowledge DAMA Data Business Plans and Governance Programs – Aligning Transportation Data to Agency Strategic Objectives Jack Stickel and Anita Vandervalk Development of a Structure for a Model Inventory of Roadway Elements Management Information System FHWA Development of Guidance for States Transitioning to New Safety Analysis Tools Clemson University Exploration of the Application of Collective Information to Transportation Data for Safety White Paper FHWA FHWA Roadway Safety Data Capabilities Assessment Final Report FHWA Guidance on State Safety Data Systems FHWA Highway Safety Manual Data Needs Guide NCHRP

150 Table E- 4. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Information Guides With Rural Content (Cont.) Highway Safety Manual Executive Packet AASHTO Highway Safety Manual Fact Sheet AASHTO Highway Safety Manual Implementation Guide for Managers FHWA Identification of Liability-Related Impediments to Sharing §409 Safety Data Among Transportation Agencies and Synthesis of Best Practices NCHRP Integrating MIRE: Better Data for Better Decisions to Save Lives FHWA Model Inventory of Roadway Elements Version 1.0 FHWA Model Inventory of Roadway Elements Data Collection Guidebook FHWA MIRE Element Collection Mechanisms and Gap Analysis FHWA Model Inventory of Roadway Elements Fundamental Data Elements Cost- Benefit Estimation FHWA Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria FHWA, FMCSA, NHTSA, and GHSA National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500 Series NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 666: Target-Setting Methods and Data Management to Support Performance-Based Resource Allocation NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 748, Guidelines for the Use of Mobile LIDAR in Transportation Applications NCHRP Recommended Protocols for Developing Crash Modification Factors NCHRP Safety Performance Function Decision Guide: SPF Calibration vs SPF Development FHWA The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System and Applications to Improve Traffic Safety Decision-Making NHTSA Improving Knowledge and Information Management for Practical Solutions WSDOT Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata The Federal Geographic Data Committee  Applications of Enterprise GIS for Transportation Guidebook FHWA

151 Table E- 5. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Software With Rural Content Tool Name Owner/Sponsor AASHTOWare Safety AnalystTM AASHTO Accident Information Management System JMW Engineering, Inc. AgileAssets Safety Analyst AgileAssets Arizona Local Government Safety Project Analysis Model Arizona Department of Transportation Collision Database System Crossroads Software, Inc. Crash Mapping and Analysis Tool Center for Transportation Research and Education at Iowa State University  Crash Safety Analysis Tools for ArcGIS 10 Esri  Critical Analysis Reporting Environment University of Alabama Deighton dTIMS Deighton ESRI Roads and Highways Esri EZplot Traffic Collision Diagram EZplot© FHWA GIS Safety Analysis Tools v4.0 FHWA Highway Safety Manual Part C Spreadsheets NCHRP Hudson Valley Transportation Management Center Crash Performance Measures Hudson Valley Transportation Management Center Illinois Benefit-Cost Analysis Spreadsheet Illinois Department of Transportation Illinois Department of Transportation Over-Representation Tool Illinois Department of Transportation Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) FHWA Ohio Rate of Return Tool Ohio Department of Transportation Ohio Economic Crash Analysis Tool Ohio Department of Transportation Oregon Safety Priority Index System Oregon Department of Transportation Plan4Safety Developed by Rutgers University’s Transportation Safety Resource Center for the sponsor agency New Jersey Department of Transportation  *  PLANSAFE NCHRP*  Roadside Safety Analysis Program Roadsafe LLC Resurfacing Safety Resource Allocation Program (RSRAP) NCHRP Small Computer COLlision Diagram McTrans Surrogate Safety Assessment Model FHWA Traffic Crash Analysis Tool Traffic Improvement Association of Michigan United States Road Assessment Program American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety UPLAN UPlan is owned by the Utah Department of Transportation ArcGIS Solutions for Local Government: Reduce Traffic Fatalities Esri Pragmatic Geographic Information Management Paul Giroux/Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

152 Table E- 5. Roadway Safety Data Program Toolbox: Software With Rural Content (Cont.) FME Safe Software CartoVista CartoVista Inc. DDSA Crash Tree Maker FHWA Traffic Crash Location System MS2  Noteworthy design features: While the interface is easy to use, there is a lot of information available in the database, and some users may be overwhelmed.

153 Resource: The Community Guide Full Title: The Community Guide’s What Works Fact Sheet: Motor Vehicle-Related Injury Prevention, https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/What-Works-Factsheet-MotorVehicle.pdf Description: The website has a searchable database of recommendations of the Community Preventive Services Task Force’s (CPSTF) findings including 28 recommendations under ‘Motor Vehicle Injury’; other topics include mental health, violence, nutrition, etc. Most of the 28 recommendations focus on alcohol as well as seat belts, child safety seats, and motorcycle helmets. Resources include policy and law recommendations as well as a brochure summarizing motor vehicle safety information from the larger Guide to Community Preventive Services. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: The selected CPSTF recommendations are highlighted, including laws for child safety seats and primary seat belt laws, distribution programs for child safety seats, and media campaigns focused on discouraging people from drinking and driving and encouraging people to prevent others from driving after drinking. These strategies are applicable to rural and tribal communities. For many of the recommendations, there is an evidence gap noted regarding effectiveness between rural and urban settings. It includes an example program Buckle Up Yurok, a tribal program for child safety seat use. Noteworthy design features: It includes a straightforward table of strategies/interventions that clearly indicates level of evidence. The format is consistent with other What Works factsheets from The Community Guide, so rural prevention specialists who might use other factsheets may have comfort with the format and trust in the resource. It includes a few bullet points to support action/implementation - “Putting the CPSTF Findings to Work.” The narrative includes “effective when” statements and results that suggest research or evaluation, but no specifics of the studies are mentioned. Implementation tips include using The Community Guide, highlighting best fit for the community, and adapting strategies as appropriate.

154 Resource: IHS Selected Evidence-Based Strategies for Preventing Injuries Full Title: Selected Evidence-Based Strategies for Preventing Injuries, https://www.ihs.gov/sites/injuryprevention/themes/responsive2017/display_objects/documents/IHS_IPP_ Evidence-based_Strategies.pdf Description: Introduction The following list is a publication of the Indian Health Service, Office of Environmental Health & Engineering, Division of Environmental Health Services, Injury Prevention Program (Version January 5, 2021). Purpose The Indian Health Service (IHS) Injury Prevention Program (IPP) supports American Indian and Alaska Native communities in their efforts to prevent injuries. The IPP focus is on prevention, rather than response, treatment, or rehabilitation. This document outlines strategies and interventions recommended by the IHS IPP in working with tribal communities. The list of strategies will assist programs to identify and select the most appropriate evidence- based or promising strategies for reducing or preventing unintentional and intentional injuries in specific community settings. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: The document identifies three core strategies to improve traffic safety: car seat use, seat belt use, and impaired driving prevention. For each strategy, it provides a few bullet points about why and then a table of specific interventions to implement the strategy (along with their level of evidence). For example, for car seat use, the interventions are: • Mandatory car seat use laws • Distribution combined with education programs • Community-wide information and enhanced enforcement campaigns • Incentive and education campaigns It includes a link to Countermeasures That Work (NHTSA). Noteworthy design features: A very simple, short (8 pages) document that gets users to the information they need very quickly.

155 Resource: AAAFTS Evidence-Based Behavior Change Campaigns to Improve Traffic Safety Toolkit Full Title: AAAFTS (2020) Evidence-Based Behavior Change Campaigns to Improve Traffic Safety Toolkit, https://aaafoundation.org/evidence-based-behavior-change-campaigns-to-improve-traffic-safety- toolkit/ Description: A hands-on resource to practitioners to develop behavior change campaigns that are evidence- based and effective. Includes information and resources to plan, design, implement, and evaluate behavior change campaigns. Five phases: 1. Understand behavior change campaigns and theory 2. Develop a campaign plan and strategy 3. Develop and pre-test messages 4. Implement the campaign 5. Evaluate the campaign Content relevant to rural traffic safety: All content is relevant (but not specific) to rural traffic safety. The toolkit itself doesn’t include specific traffic safety strategies (except for examples within each step, like identifying that a goal might be to increase seat belt use among high school students). It provides generic references to understanding geographic area and tailoring messages. One case study (Appendix C) highlights the Boosting Restraint Norms project, implemented in Norristown, PA (suburban-urban), which included a social marketing campaign to promote child safety and booster seats as well as videos, posters, public service announcements (PSAs), educational sessions, and distribution of free booster seats. Appendix D includes additional examples of traffic safety strategies for seat belt use, teen driving, and distracted driving. Each has a brief description and link to evaluation findings, most using pre-post designs. Noteworthy design features: The resource has a nice visual of a roadmap and clear phases, including pre- testing and evaluating. It is based on an environmental scan of research and used clear inclusion criteria for evidence base. It is relatively accessible although includes complex concepts and links to additional resources (e.g., two sentences about doing a needs assessment with a link to the Community Toolbox; mentions of specific seatbelt campaigns with links to peer-reviewed articles). Altogether, it is a brief overview of process with lots of detail and information in links and appendices, many of which are much more advanced.

156 Resource: Traffic Injury Research Foundation’s Community-Based Toolkit for Road Safety Campaigns Full Title: Traffic Injury Research Foundation’s Community-Based Toolkit for Road Safety Campaigns (Canada), https://tirf.ca/projects/community-based-toolkit-road-safety-campaigns/ Description: A tool to support communities as they effectively develop and deliver their own road safety campaigns. Included are 1) a summary of the research around road safety campaigns, the evidence base, and theoretical approaches guiding their development and 2) a collection of fact sheets created by experts in social marketing, research, and evaluation to support full implementation of a campaign. Fact Sheets include: • About Toolkit • Road Safety Campaign Effectiveness • Stakeholder Engagement • Creating Effective Campaigns • Messaging • Branding • Social Media • Evaluation • Pedestrians: What Do We Know • References and Resources • Review of Effectiveness of Child Restraint Campaigns Content relevant to rural traffic safety: All the content is generally applicable to rural and tribal communities, although there is no specific content identified for either. Noteworthy design features: The resource is organized by individual fact sheets (each 4-8 pages) that stand alone or can be combined into comprehensive toolkit. Each fact sheet has 5-8 headers posing different questions about the topic followed by a few paragraphs or bullet points.

157 Resource: FHWA’s Local Road Safety Plan Do It Yourself Website Full Title: FHWA’s Local Road Safety Plan DIY website, https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/LRSPDIY/ Description: A “do it yourself” website for agencies to develop a local road safety plan. The website provides step-by-step guidance to develop the road safety plan including tips, tutorials, examples, and resources within each step. • Step 1: Identify Stakeholders provided • Step 2: Use Safety Data • Step 3: Choose Proven Solutions • Step 4: Implement Solutions • Finish Line Content relevant to rural traffic safety: This resource is specifically designed for those addressing safety on local roads which are very prevalent in rural areas. The resource could be used readily by rural and tribal communities. The resource Countermeasures That Work is also highlighted within Step 3 which notes specific evaluations performed in rural areas. Noteworthy design features: This is a very straightforward website to navigate and includes several short videos, resources, and tips in each step.

158 Resource: National Center for Rural Road Safety’s Rural Intelligent Transportation System Toolkit Full Title: National Center for Rural Road Safety’s Rural ITS Toolkit, https://ruralsafetycenter.org/resources/rural-its-toolkit/ Description: The 2018 Rural Intelligent Transportation System Toolkit is a series of 42 rural transportation critical need fact sheets (pdf files) categorized by topic for transportation practitioners. The fact sheets provide introductory summary information to help agencies identify areas they can improve efficiency and safety on the roadways, public transportation systems, and non-motorized systems. Designed to help rural agencies face their unique challenges like extreme weather events, congestion from special events, or seasonal recreational travel. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: All the content is relevant to rural communities and includes fact sheets addressing: • Crash Countermeasures • Animal Warning Systems • Automated Visibility Warning Systems • Bicycle Safety Systems • Connected Vehicles • Wrong Way Driver Detection & Warning System • Highway-Rail Crossing Safety Systems • Intersection Collision Warning Systems • Pedestrian Safety Systems • Road Geometry Warning System • Smart Trucks • Speed Warning Systems • Work Zone Safety Systems • Traffic Management ™ o Access Control Gates o Variable Speed Limit o Geographic Information Systems o Interconnected Signal Systems o Vehicle Detection o Monitoring Travel Times and Speeds o Parking Management Systems o Planned Special Event Management Systems o Rural Traffic Management Center/Traffic Operations Center o Adaptive Signal Control Technologies • Operations & Maintenance o Weigh-In-Motion Systems o Site Management During Avalanches o Global Positioning Data o Fixed Automated Spray Technology • Emergency Services o Next Generation 911 o Smartphone Applications for First Responders o Crash Reporting o Automatic Crash Notification Systems o Emergency Vehicle Traffic Signal Preemption

159 o Unmanned Aerial Systems • Surface Transportation & Weather o Integrated Weather Monitoring/Prediction Systems • Rural Transit & Mobility o Coordinated Rural Transit Service o Automated Stop Announcement Systems o Automatic Vehicle Location on Agency and Public Vehicles • Tourism & Travel Information o Highway Advisory Radio o Crowdsourced Data o Dynamic Message Sign o Integrated Traveler Information Systems o Social Media o Public Transportation Trip Planner Noteworthy design features: Guidance is included in separate documents linked on one page. There is a primer that gives an overview of the toolkit, lists extensive potential audiences, describes seven categories of tools, outlines structure of each fact sheet, and provides important considerations/cautions. Each fact sheet follows an established template, so you know exactly what each will look like and what to expect.

160 Resource: Rural Health Information Hub’s Rural Transportation Toolkit Full Title: Rural Health Information Hub’s Rural Transportation Toolkit, https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/transportation Description: The website is a compilation of “promising” models and resources for transportation programs in rural communities including resources and information on development, implementation, evaluation, and sustainment of rural transportation programs. It is structured in seven modules: 1. Introduction 2. Program models 3. Program clearinghouse 4. Implementation 5. Evaluation 6. Funding & Sustainability 7. Dissemination There are links to additional resources: summary sheets, topic guides for transportation to support rural healthcare, related webinars. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: Very little content is applicable to rural traffic safety as the toolkit is almost entirely focused on transportation systems and developing or enhancing options for transportation in rural communities. One subsection on road safety focuses on design and infrastructure. There is one bullet point about Vision Zero and that it can be expanded to rural areas through adoption as a statewide policy. Noteworthy design features: None.

161 Resource: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Full Title: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, https://www.samhsa.gov/ Description: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)’s website is a resource for public health practitioners and communities across the nation to improve the lives of individuals and their families living with mental and substance use disorders. The website includes extensive information. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: The website includes several resources relevant to rural traffic safety including: • Drug-Free Workplace Toolkit o Rural workforces would benefit from this assessment and actionable toolkit which can help address impaired driving. Toolkit includes the basics for workplace prevention efforts. • Preventing Marijuana Use Among Youth o As part of series, this document is an evidence-based guide for practitioners, administrators, and community leaders to prevent marijuana use among youth (and thus reduce impaired driving). Designed by an expert panel of federal, state, and non-governmental scientists, researchers, service providers, community administrators, federal and state policy makers, and people with lived experience. • Supported Education Evidence-Based Practices Kit o This resource is accessible and easily understandable. It has nice “handout-style” forms to guide the process. It is readily usable by a variety of practitioners and could support cultural competency of traffic safety efforts and assessments of fideltiy as strategies/countermeasures are adapted to rural contexts. • Healthy People 2030: Injury Prevention (Objective: transportation) o This national plan can support rural traffic safety practitioners by connecting rural traffic safety to national health priorities. The documents includes data and identifies evidence-based resources and strategies. Noteworthy design features: Some of these resources are complex and overwhelming. Some are more accessible and action oriented for practitioners.

162 Resource: Connecting Transportation & Health Full Title: Connecting Transportation & Health: A Guide to Communication & Collaboration, https://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP25-25Task105/NCHRP25- 25Task105Guidebook.pdf Description: A pdf file with 84 pages, a quick reference document (23 pages), a brochure, slides, and a webinar. Research Objective: The goal of this project, produced under NCHRP 25-25 Task 105, is to provide an accessible, practitioner-ready communications guidebook and set of tools and resources that help USDOT, state DOTs, metropolitan planning organizations, and local transportation professionals achieve successful policy, planning, and project outcomes through effective collaboration with health stakeholders. Although the guidebook is geared towards transportation practitioners, it may also serve as a helpful reference for public health practitioners who wish to learn more about the transportation process and opportunities for contributing to transportation efforts. For those interested in further details on the development process of this guidebook, there is an accompanying summary report. The report, a quick reference containing the tools in this guidebook, an overview brochure, a presentation with speaker notes, and a recorded online presentation are available. The guidebook is geared to a broad transportation audience, including those who are new to transportation and health coordination efforts. More advanced users may already be familiar with the background information material provided in the guidebook, while novices may need this information for a general orientation on transportation and health communications. Table of Contents • Introduction • Transportation and Public Health Context • Connecting with Public Health Stakeholders • Foundation of Communication • Communication and Collaboration Techniques • Supportive Networks and Resources • Transportation and Health Data Sources and Tools Content relevant to rural traffic safety: Content is relevant to rural and tribal settings. The word “rural” appears 28 times in the document; “tribal” does not appear. This provides guidance to foster shared values, shared understanding, and shared actions among traffic safety practitioners and those in public health. Noteworthy design features: The document may provide valuable information to build bridges between public health and traffic safety practitioners. The document highlights key ideas like opportunities for shared goals, planning processes, and examples in colored boxes (each chapter uses a different color) making it easy for the reader.

163 Resource: Health in All Policies Full Title: Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local Governments, https://www.apha.org/- /media/Files/PDF/factsheets/Health_inAll_Policies_Guide_169pages.ashx Description: A guide to “intersectoral collaboration to promote healthy environments” based on a review of the literature and interviews with experts. Contents include background, getting started, partners and roles, working together across sectors, structures to support health in all policies, creating healthy public policy, talking about health in all policies, and a case study. Content relevant to rural traffic safety: As resources are often limited in rural and tribal communities, this guide provides insights about potential collaborations between traffic safety advocates and others including public health and policy makers. This resource would require multiple stakeholders to participate to be effective. Noteworthy design features: The resource is a single document (PDF) with well-defined chapters and sections. It also includes “Food for Thought” sections which highlight questions for readers to use to make the contents applicable to their context.

Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas Get This Book
×
 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Rural roads have a higher risk of fatality or serious injury than urban roads due to factors such as varying terrain, wildlife, and long distances between services.

BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, documents the overall research effort that produced BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Supplemental to the document is a PowerPoint presentation that outlines the project.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!