National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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2023 BE H AVIORAL TRAFF IC SA FETY COOPERAT IVE RESEARCH PROGRA M BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 8 Research sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association and National Highway Trafc Safety Administration Subscriber Categories Highways • Safety and Human Factors Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas A GUIDE Jaime Sullivan Western Transportation Institute Montana State University Bozeman, MT Jay Otto Katie Dively Bridget Hanson Kari Finley Karen Gee Samantha Pinzl Jamie Arpin Center for Health and Safety Culture Montana State University Bozeman, MT a n d Cara Hamann University of Iowa Iowa City, IA

BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Since the widespread introduction of motor vehicles more than a century ago, crashes involving their operation remain a significant public health concern. While there have been enormous improvements in highway design and construction, as well as motor vehicle safety, which have been instrumental in lowering the rate of crashes per mil- lion miles in the United States, more than 35,000 people die every year in motor vehicle crashes. In far too many cases, the root causes of the crashes are the unsafe behaviors of motor vehicle operators, cyclists, and pedestrians. Understanding human behaviors and developing effective countermeasures to unsafe ones is difficult and remains a major weak- ness in our traffic safety efforts. The Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP) develops practical solutions to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce costs of road traffic crashes associated with unsafe behav- iors. BTSCRP is a forum for coordinated and collaborative research efforts. It is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) under the direction and oversight of the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) with funding provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Funding for the program was originally established in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), Subsection 402(c), which created the National Cooperative Research and Evaluation Program (NCREP). Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act continued the program. In 2017, GHSA entered into an agreement with TRB to manage the research activities, with the program name changed to Behavioral Traf- fic Safety Cooperative Research Program. The GHSA Executive Board serves as the governing board for the BTSCRP. The Board consists of officers, representatives of the 10 NHTSA regions, and committee and task force chairs. The Research Committee Chair appoints committee members who recommend projects for funding and provide oversight for the activities of BTSCRP. Its ultimate goal is to oversee a quality research program that is committed to addressing research issues facing State Highway Safety Offices. The Executive Board meets annually to approve research projects. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The majority of panel members rep- resent the intended users of the research projects and have an important role in helping to implement the results. BTSCRP produces a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitio- ners. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating BTSCRP results to the intended users of the research: State Highway Safety Offices and their constituents. BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 8 Project BTS-15 ISSN 2766-5976 (Print) ISSN 2766-5984 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69892-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2023941896 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 8 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Richard A. Retting, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor BTSCRP PROJECT BTS-15 PANEL Eric J. Fitzsimmons, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (Chair) Andrew H. Ceifetz, WSP, Walled Lake, MI William Haynes, Department of Safety/State Police, Center Barnstead, NH Amy Benecke McLaren, Peoria County (IL) Highway Department, Peoria, IL Eugene Robert Russell, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Kimberly J. Vachal, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND Lisa N. Wundersitz, Centre for Automotive Safety Research, Adelaide, Australia Stacy Jeleniewski, NHTSA Liaison Bernardo B. Kleiner, TRB Liaison

BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide presents results from a multidisciplinary research project that developed a toolkit of behavioral traffic safety countermeasures for highway safety partners focused on rural road safety (e.g., tribal authorities, local government, law enforcement, emergency responders, engineers) to reduce the frequency and severity of motor vehicle crashes on roads in rural areas. This publication will be of interest to state highway safety offices; state and local departments of transportation; county departments of public works; tribal authorities; and other stakeholders concerned with improving traffic safety in rural areas. Although rural areas account for about 30% of total U.S. vehicle miles traveled and less than 20% of the U.S. population, half of all traffic fatalities occur in rural areas. Despite a clear need to improve traffic safety in rural areas, numerous constraints and resource limitations hinder safety efforts. For example, in most states, the vast majority of rural road mileage is owned and managed by local governments. In addition, the Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes 573 American Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages in the United States. The sheer number of rural jurisdictions makes it difficult to assure that programs aimed at improving rural transportation safety are effective in reaching all areas effectively and equitably. Rural local government units vary considerably in the way they are organized, their legal authority, and the financial and human resources available to them. The vast rural highway mileage is another challenge: rural crashes are often widely dispersed, with a con- siderable degree of randomness in crash locations. This makes it difficult to apply traditional crash reduction strategies that focus on hot spots. Under BTSCRP Project BTS-15, “Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas,” Montana State University developed a toolkit of behavioral traffic safety countermeasures to assist rural highway safety partners in reducing the frequency and severity of motor vehicle crashes on roads in rural areas. The research team (1) defined rural area roads and conducted analysis of safety-related data; (2) conducted a literature review of traffic safety campaigns and strategies, including rural barriers; (3) conducted interviews with selected rural agencies to develop case studies to support the selection of noteworthy practices; and (4) developed final deliverables. In addition to the present guide, documentation of the overall research effort is available in BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behav- ioral Strategies for Rural Areas. Both publications, as well as a supplemental presentation and video, can be accessed at nap.nationalacademies.org by searching on “BTSCRP Research Report 8.” F O R E W O R D By Richard A. Retting Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 2 How Behavioral Strategies Work 5 Overview 5 Logic Models 8 Chapter 3 Guidance on Process: What to Do Next 8 Guidance on Three Planning Processes 11 Benefits of Participation by Diverse Stakeholders 13 Chapter 4 Guidance on Identifying, Selecting, and Adapting Countermeasures and Strategies 13 General Behavioral and Engineering Approaches 15 Guidance on Identifying Countermeasures and Strategies 19 Guidance on Selecting Countermeasures and Strategies 20 Guidance on Adapting Countermeasures and Strategies 23 Chapter 5 Guidance on Ways to Grow Evaluative Thinking 26 Acronyms and Abbreviations 27 References 29 Appendix A Example Logic Models 32 Appendix B Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings 35 Appendix C Summary of Countermeasures That Work 44 Appendix D Proven Engineering Safety Countermeasures C O N T E N T S

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Roadway fatalities and serious injuries are a significant public health concern in rural and tribal settings. Creating a coalition of interested individuals is part of the Safe System Approach that addresses the high rates of these fatalities and serious injuries.

BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, details this approach, which includes strategies for safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles, safer speeds, and post-crash care.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas and a video that explains how to create a logic model.

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