National Academies Press: OpenBook

Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide (2023)

Chapter: Appendix B - Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings

« Previous: Appendix A - Example Logic Models
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Page 32
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Page 34

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32 Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings Following are examples of how communities have implemented various countermeasures and strategies in rural settings. Boone County, NE (Population: 5,300) • A rural county with long straight roads used funding from its state DOT to add additional signs (e.g., second stop signs on the left-hand side of the road) at intersections with higher crash rates. The county also engaged in extra enforcement during local events associated with increased levels of impaired driving. Cameron County, PA (Population: 4,500) • A community with limited local police departments partnered with the Pennsylvania Traffic Safety Enforcement Resource Center and its local Pennsylvania State Police station to provide roadway safety programs and curricula to students in grades K–12. Hancock and Kennebec Counties, ME (Populations: 54,800 and 122,150, Respectively) • Many tourists come to these communities at different times in the year. Local enforcement focuses efforts during times when there are more tourists (e.g., summer, holidays weekends) and uses extensive social media, local media, and press releases to inform everyone about the enhanced enforcement. • These communities also invest in year-round communication, including the use of multiple spokespeople, and assess campaign awareness and impact twice per year. They also leverage sporting events and private partners (e.g., construction companies) to share media and messages. • Periodically, they use checkpoints for seat belts and distracted driving enforcement. • They also use a mobile roadside testing vehicle for impaired driving, which avoids long transport times to law enforcement offices during which blood alcohol levels may naturally decrease. Humboldt County, CA (Population: 136,100) • The California Highway Patrol (CHP) frequently works with the Humboldt County Public Works Department to identify problem areas for enforcement of speeding, impaired driving, A P P E N D I X B

Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings 33   and other safety issues. On the basis of citizen complaints, the county also works directly with CHP to set up radar studies and other enforcement actions. • The local task force adapted public service announcements from the state to air on local radio stations; for instance, “Be Safe California” was adapted as “Be Safe Humboldt.” • The county also provided localized campaigns (e.g., addressing pedestrian safety) in both English and Spanish using outdoor, print, web, and social media outlets as well as outreach events and innovative marketing efforts such as branded coffee cups. • They assembled a variety of stakeholders from the Humboldt County Department of Health and Human Services, the Humboldt County Association of Governments, CHP, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), the Humboldt County Public Works, school groups, and other partners to focus on Safe Routes to School and promote pedestrian safety around county schools. Countermeasures and strategies included radar feedback signs and speed humps. The county also created arrival and dismissal maps for schools, recommended walking route maps, in-class pedestrian and bicycle safety education, walk- and bike-to-school day activities, crossing guard training, pilot volunteer crossing guard programs, and walkability assessments. Keweenaw County, MI (Population: 1,100) • Law enforcement partnered with county road trucks to conduct distracted driving enforce- ment. Law enforcement officers (riding as passengers) in county road trucks spotted distracted drivers for enforcement. Law enforcement created seat belt enforcement zones in which one officer observes seat belt use and other officers pursue offenders. • The community used dynamic message boards to communicate hazardous weather conditions (in real time based on remote sensors) as well as high bicycle traffic during tourist seasons and special events. Morgan County, KY (Population: 13,270) • Local law enforcement used checkpoints to focus on speed enforcement and seat belt use. • They also used social media, local newspapers, and radio stations to inform residents of road hazards and when traffic was greater. Orange and Orleans Counties, VT (Populations: 28,900 and 26,850, Respectively) • These two counties partnered with neighboring states (New York and New Hampshire) through NHTSA’s “Border to Border” initiative on seat belt enforcement. Ravalli County, MT (Population: 43,424) • This community created a DUI Task Force for the county that was funded by a portion of license reinstatement fees for DUI offenders. • The county engaged in intensive enforcement activities addressing speeding and impaired driving, coupled with extensive media outreach. • Local efforts also focused on enforcement of laws regarding alcohol purchased by those under 21 and beverage server training at drinking establishments coupled with education in local schools and community media.

34 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Crow Wing County, MN (Population: 64,775) • Local State Patrol uses dynamic speed display signs to inform drivers when they are speeding on rural roads. Due to limited resources, law enforcement is not able to conduct as many speed enforcement activities as needed. However, as they move the dynamic speed display signs around the county, they also use the devices to identify the time of day and day of week when speeding is occurring most frequently (the signs record the speeds of all vehicles). They then deploy their limited resources during these times. They also position officers just past the display signs. This has resulted in more officers issuing citations instead of warnings because the driver was just warned by the sign.

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Roadway fatalities and serious injuries are a significant public health concern in rural and tribal settings. Creating a coalition of interested individuals is part of the Safe System Approach that addresses the high rates of these fatalities and serious injuries.

BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, details this approach, which includes strategies for safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles, safer speeds, and post-crash care.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas and a video that explains how to create a logic model.

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