National Academies Press: OpenBook

Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide (2023)

Chapter: Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work

« Previous: Appendix B - Examples of Implementing Countermeasures and Strategies in Rural Settings
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 36
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 37
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 38
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 39
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 41
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 42
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Summary of Countermeasures That Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 43

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35   Summary of Countermeasures That Work The tables in this appendix list behavioral countermeasures and strategies from Counter- measures That Work (Venkatraman et al. 2021) for which there is strong or moderate evidence that they are effective. See https://www.nhtsa.gov/book/countermeasures/countermeasures-work for an online version of the resource. A P P E N D I X C Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Deterrence: Laws 1.1 Administrative License Revocation or Suspension (ALR/ALS) + + + + + $$$ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Open Container + + + $ High Short Laws, policies, rules  1.3 High Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Sanctions + + + $ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  1.4 BAC Test Refusal Penalties + + + $ Unknown Short Laws, policies, rules  1.5 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Law Review ++ $$ Unknown Medium Laws, policies, rules  Deterrence: Enforcement 2.1 Publicized Sobriety Checkpoints + + + + + $$$ Medium Short Enforcement and adjudication  2.2 High-Visibility Saturation Patrols + + + + $$ High Short Enforcement and adjudication  2.3 Preliminary Breath Test Devicesa + + + + $$ High Short Enforcement and adjudication  2.4 Passive Alcohol Sensorsb + + + + $$ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  2.5 Integrated Enforcement + + + $ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  Deterrence: Prosecution and Adjudication 3.1 Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Courtsc + + + + $$$ Low Medium Intervention 3.2 Limits on Diversion and Plea Agreementsd + + + + $ Medium Short Enforcement and adjudication  3.3 Court Monitoringd + + + $ Low Short Intervention 3.4 Sanctions ++ Varies Varies Varies Laws, policies, rules  Table C-1. Impaired driving. (continued on next page)

36 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Prevention, Intervention, Communications and Outreach 5.1 Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention + + + + + $$ Medium Short Intervention 5.2 Mass-Media Campaigns + + + $$$ High Medium Education 5.3 Responsible Beverage Service ++ $$ Medium Medium Education Changing related behaviors  5.4 Alternative Transportation + + + $$ Unknown Short Education Changing related behaviors  5.5 Designated Drivers ++ $ Medium Short Education Changing related behaviors  Underage Drinking and Drinking and Driving 6.1 Minimum Drinking Age 21 Laws + + + + + $$$ High Low Laws, policies, rules  6.2 Zero-Tolerance Law Enforcement + + + $ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  6.3 Alcohol Vendor Compliance Checksf + + + $$ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  6.4 Other Minimum Legal Drinking Age 21 Law Enforcement + + + $$ Varies Varies Enforcement and adjudication  6.5 Youth Programs ++ Varies High Medium Education Deterrence: DWI Offender Treatment, Monitoring, and Control 4.1 Alcohol Problem Assessment and Treatment + + + + + Varies High Varies Intervention 4.2 Alcohol Ignition Interlockse + + + + + $$ Medium Medium Intervention 4.3 Vehicle and License Plate Sanctionsc + + + + Varies Medium Medium Laws, policies, rules  4.4 DWI Offender Monitoringc + + + + $$$ Unknown Varies Intervention 4.5 Lower BAC Limit for Repeat Offenders + + + + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Drug-Impaired Driving 7.1 Enforcement of Drug-Impaired Driving + + + $$ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  7.2 Drug-Impaired-Driving Laws + Unknown Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  7.3 Education Regarding Medication + Unknown Unknown Long Education aProven for increasing arrests. bProven for detecting impaired drivers. cProven for reducing recidivism. dProven for increasing convictions. eProven for reducing recidivism while on the vehicle. fProven for reducing sales to underage people. Table C-1. (Continued).

Summary of Countermeasures That Work 37   Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Seat Belt Use Laws 1.1 State Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Use Laws + + + + + $ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Local Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Use Laws + + + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  1.3 Increased Seat Belt Use Law Penalties + + + + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  Seat Belt Law Enforcement 2.1 Short Term, High-Visibility Seat Belt Law Enforcement + + + + + $$$ Medium† Medium Enforcement and adjudication  2.2 Integrated Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement + + + + $$$ Unknown Medium Enforcement and adjudication  2.3 Sustained Enforcement + + + Varies Unknown Varies Enforcement and adjudication  Communications and Outreach 3.1 Supporting Enforcement + + + + + Varies Medium Medium Education 3.2 Strategies for Low-Belt-Use Groups + + + + Unknown Unknown Medium Education Child/Youth Occupant Restraint Laws 4.1 Strengthening Child/Youth Occupant Restraint Laws + + + + + $ High Short Laws, policies, rules  Child Restraint/Booster Seat Law Enforcement 5.1 Short High-Visibility Child Restraint (CR) Law Enforcement + + + + + $$$ Medium Medium Enforcement and adjudication  Communications and Outreach 6.1 Strategies for Older Children + + + Varies Unknown Medium Education 6.2 Strategies for Child Restraint and Booster Seat Use + + + Varies Unknown Medium Education Other Strategies 7.1 School-Based Programs + + + Varies Unknown Varies Education 7.2 Inspection Stations + + + $$ High Short Education Intervention Table C-2. Seat belt.

38 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Laws 1.1 Speed Limits + + + + + $ High Short Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Aggressive Driving and Other Laws + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  Enforcement 2.1 Automated Enforcement + + + + + $$$† Medium Medium Enforcement and adjudication  2.2 High-Visibility Enforcement ++ $$$ Low†† Medium Enforcement and adjudication  2.3 Other Enforcement Methods ++ Varies Unknown Varies Enforcement and adjudication  Penalties and Adjudication 3.1 Penalty Types and Levels ++ Varies High Low Laws, policies, rules  3.2 Diversion and Plea Agreement Restrictions, Traffic Violator School + Varies Unknown Varies Education Intervention Communications and Outreach 4.1 Communications and Outreach Supporting Enforcement + + + Varies Medium Medium Education Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Laws and Enforcement 1.1 Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) Requirements for Beginning Drivers + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Cell Phone and Text Messaging Laws + + $ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  1.3 High-Visibility Cell Phone/Text Messaging Enforcement + + + + $$$ Low Medium Enforcement and adjudication  1.4 General Distraction Laws + Varies High†† Short Laws, policies, rules  Communications and Outreach 2.1 Communications and Outreach on Distracted Driving + $$ High Medium Education Other Countermeasures 3.1 Employer Programs + $ Unknown Short Laws, policies, rules  Table C-3. Speed. Table C-4. Distracted driving.

Summary of Countermeasures That Work 39   Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Motorcycle Helmets 1.1 Universal Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws + + + + + $ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Motorcycle Helmet Use Promotion Programs + Varies Low to Medium Varies Education 1.3 Motorcycle Helmet Law Enforcement: Noncompliant Helmets + $ Unknown Medium Enforcement and adjudication  Alcohol Impairment 2.1 Alcohol-Impaired Motorcyclists: Detection, Enforcement, and Sanctions + + + Varies Unknown Varies Enforcement and adjudication  2.2 Alcohol-Impaired Motorcyclists: Communications + $$ Medium Medium Education Motorcycle Rider Licensing and Training 3.1 Motorcycle Rider Licensing + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  3.2 Motorcycle Rider Training ++ $$ High Varies Education Communications and Outreach 4.1 Conspicuity and Protective Clothing + Varies High Medium Education 4.2 Motorist Awareness of Motorcyclists + Varies High Medium Education Table C-5. Motorcycle.

40 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Graduated Driver Licensing 1.1 GDL + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Learner’s Permit Length, Supervised Hours + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.3 Intermediate—Nighttime Restrictions + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.4 Intermediate—Passenger Restrictions + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.5 Cell Phone Restrictions ++ $ Medium Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.6 Belt Use Requirements ++ $ Low Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.7 Intermediate—Violation Penalties + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  Driver Education 2.1 Pre-Licensure Driver Education ++ $$$ Medium Long Education 2.2 Post-Licensure Driver Education + $$$ Low Long Education Parents 3.1 Parent Roles in Teaching and Managing Young Drivers ++ $$ Medium Short Changing related behaviors  3.2 Electronic Technology for Parental Monitoring + + + $ Low Short Changing related behaviors  Traffic Law Enforcement 4.1 Enforcement of GDL and Zero- Tolerance Laws + + + $$ Unknown Short Enforcement and adjudication  Table C-6. Young drivers.

Summary of Countermeasures That Work 41   Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Communications and Outreach 1.1 Formal Courses for Older Drivers ++ $ Low Short Education 1.2 General Communications and Education + $ Unknown Short Education Licensing 2.1 License Screening and Testing + + + + $$ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  2.2 Referring Older Drivers to Licensing Agencies + + + + $$ Low Medium Intervention 2.3 License Restrictions + + + + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  2.4 Medical Advisory Boards + Varies High Medium Intervention 2.5 License Renewal Policies: In- Person Renewal, Vision Test ++ $$$ Medium Medium Laws, policies, rules  Traffic Law Enforcement 3.1 Law Enforcement Roles + + + Varies Medium Varies Enforcement and adjudication  Table C-7. Older drivers.

42 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Preschool-Age Children 1.1 Children’s Safety Clubs + Varies Unknown Unknown Education 1.2 Child Supervision + $ Unknown Short Intervention School-Age Children 2.1 Elementary-Age Child Pedestrian Training + + + $ Unknown Short Education 2.2 Safe Routes to School + + + $ High Short Education 2.3 Walking School Buses + + + $ Low Short Education 2.4 Child School Bus Training ++ $ High Short Education Impaired Pedestrians 3.1 Communications and Outreach Addressing Impaired Pedestrians ++ Varies Low Medium Education 3.2 “Sweeper” Patrols of Impaired Pedestrians + $$ Low Medium Enforcement and adjudication  All Pedestrians 4.1 Pedestrian Safety Zones + + + + $$$ Low Medium Laws, policies, rules  4.2 Reduce and Enforce Speed Limits + + + $ High Varies Laws, policies, rules  4.3 Conspicuity Enhancement + + + $ Low Medium Changing related behaviors  4.4 Enforcement Strategies + + + $$ Low Short Enforcement and adjudication  4.5 Driver Training + $ Low Medium Education 4.6 Pedestrian Gap Acceptance Training + $$ Unknown Medium Education 4.7 University Educational Campaign + $ High Medium Education Table C-8. Pedestrians.

Summary of Countermeasures That Work 43   Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Children 1.1 Bicycle Helmet Laws for Children + + + + + $$ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  1.2 Safe Routes to School + + + $ High Short Education 1.3 Bicycle Safety Education for Children ++ $ Unknown Short Education 1.4 Cycling Skills Clinics, Bike Fairs, Bike Rodeos + $ Unknown Short Education Adults 2.1 Bicycle Helmet Laws for Adults + + + + $ Low Short Laws, policies, rules  2.2 Bicycle Safety Education for Adult Cyclists + $$ Low Medium Education All Bicyclists 3.1 Active Lighting and Rider Conspicuity + + + $ High† Varies Changing related behaviors  3.2 Promote Bicycle Helmet Use with Education ++ $$$ Medium Medium Education 3.3 Enforcement Strategies + $$ Unknown Varies Enforcement and adjudication  3.4 Motorist Passing Bicyclist Laws + $ Medium Short Laws, policies, rules  Drivers and Bicyclists 4.1 Driver Training + $ Low Medium Education 4.2 Share the Road Awareness Programs ++ $$ Unknown Medium Education Table C-9. Bicycle safety. Countermeasure Effectiveness Cost Use Time Approach Laws and Enforcement 1.1 GDL Requirements for Beginning Drivers + + + + + $ High Medium Laws, policies, rules  1.2 General Drowsiness Laws + Varies High†† Short Laws, policies, rules  Communications and Outreach 2.1 Communications and Outreach on Drowsy Driving + $$ Unknown Medium Education Other Countermeasures 3.1 Employer Programs ++ $ Unknown Short Laws, policies, rules  Education 3.2 Education Regarding Medical Conditions and Medications + Variable Unknown Medium Education Table C-10. Drowsy driving.

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 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide
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Roadway fatalities and serious injuries are a significant public health concern in rural and tribal settings. Creating a coalition of interested individuals is part of the Safe System Approach that addresses the high rates of these fatalities and serious injuries.

BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, details this approach, which includes strategies for safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles, safer speeds, and post-crash care.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas and a video that explains how to create a logic model.

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