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Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 10
Page 11
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 11
Page 12
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Guidance on Process: What to Do Next." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27197.
×
Page 12

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8 Guidance on Process: What to Do Next Improving safety on your roadways is not a one-time effort; it is an ongoing process involving four basic steps that are repeated over time. Figure 2 and Table 2 summarize the key actions and outcomes from each step. An analysis of crash data based on different kinds of rural communities provides potential considerations for improving roadway safety. Following are some potential considerations based on community type: • Agriculture and extraction-based communities (mining- and farming-oriented counties): – Consider countermeasures focused on low-volume roads. – Speeding, impaired, and distracted driving may be significant causes of fatal crashes. • Destination communities (areas with a significant amount of recreational activity, determined by employment and seasonal housing data): – Consider focusing on areas with many intersections. – Speeding and impaired driving may be significant causes of fatal crashes. • Older-age communities: Impaired driving may be a significant cause of fatal crashes. • Remote communities: – Speeding, impaired, and distracted driving may be significant causes of fatal crashes. – Lower levels of seat belt use and helmets may be more common and, therefore, a priority. • Tribal settings and rural towns: Lower levels of seat belt use and helmets may be more common and, therefore, a priority. Each community is unique, and you should use your local data to confirm these insights. Guidance on Three Planning Processes Three planning processes have been developed specifically for rural and tribal settings: • FHWA Local Road Safety Planning Process https://highways.dot.gov/safety/local-rural/local-road-safety-plans) Site includes online training and an infographic. Steps: 1. Identify stakeholders. 2. Use safety data. 3. Choose proven solutions. 4. Implement solutions. 5. Finish line. C H A P T E R   3

Guidance on Process: What to Do Next 9   Assess PlanImplement Evaluate and Learn Figure 2. Process to improve roadway safety. Step Key Actions Key Outcomes Assess • Recruit a group of individuals willing to improve roadway safety • Gather and review data to better understand the current situation • Data may include road types, crash data, road assessments, injury reports, etc. • Task force, coalition, or group willing to address roadway safety • Information about crashes, safety outcomes, and risky driving behavior accessible to all group members and used to guide prioritization Plan • Prioritize problems/opportunities revealed during the assessment • Identify, select, and possibly adapt countermeasures and strategies to address the priorities • Prioritized outcomes, behavior, conditions • Countermeasures and strategies identified • Logic model for each countermeasure or strategy • Implementation plan for each countermeasure or strategy • Evaluation plan for each countermeasure or strategy Implement • Implement the countermeasures and strategies and gather important information to inform evaluation and learning • Countermeasures and strategies are implemented in ways that lead to outcomes • Feasible process and/or outcome measures are collected Evaluate and learn • Use information gathered to make improvements in subsequent cycles • Lessons learned • Plans for subsequent improvement Table 2. Key actions and outcomes from process steps. • Developing Safety Plans: A Manual for Local Rural Road Owners (Ceifetz et al. 2012) https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/local_rural/training/fhwasa12017/fhwasa12017.pdf Steps: 1. Establish leadership. 2. Analyze safety data. 3. Determine emphasis areas. 4. Identify strategies. 5. Prioritize and incorporate strategies. 6. Evaluate and update the Local Road Safety Plan.

10 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide • Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads – Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads—Safety Toolkit (Wemple and Colling 2014b) https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/local_rural/training/fhwasa14072/ Steps: 1. Compile data and resources. 2. Conduct network screening. 3. Select sites for investigation. 4. Diagnose site crash conditions and identify countermeasures. 5. Prioritize countermeasure for implementation. 6. Implement countermeasures. 7. Evaluate. – Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads: Site Safety Analysis—User Guide #1 (Wemple and Colling 2014c) https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/local_rural/training/fhwasa14073/isrltru1.pdf Describes how to conduct a site-specific safety analysis. – Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads: Network Safety Analysis—User Guide #2 (Wemple and Colling 2014a) https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/local_rural/training/fhwasa14072/ Describes how to conduct a proactive analysis of a component of the transportation network, such as all two-lane road segments or all stop-controlled intersections. Additional resources to support various steps in the process are listed in Box 3. Box 3. Additional Resources to Support the Planning Process Tribal Crash Reporting Toolkit https://www.tribalsafety.org/crash-reporting-toolkit This NHTSA resource includes a crash form, database, and other resources to help tribal settings better capture and use their crash data. Data Visualization—Fatality Analysis Reporting System https://cdan.dot.gov/DataVisualization/DataVisualization.htm This NHTSA portal presents interactive visualizations that focus on several highway safety topics of interest, including multiple dashboards with informa- tion on fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes and fatalities based on data from NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Screening Tool for Equity Analysis of Projects https://hepgis.fhwa.dot.gov/fhwagis/buffertool/ This tool provides demographic information for an area around a specific road. This information can help identify populations and potential stakeholders that may be affected by specific roads or improvement projects.

Guidance on Process: What to Do Next 11   Benefits of Participation by Diverse Stakeholders Engaging diverse stakeholders to improve your local roadway safety has many benefits: • Engaging stakeholders representing different kinds of organizations (e.g., local road main- tenance, law enforcement, public health, emergency services, health care, schools, trucking companies) can engage more people to support education and communication with the community. • Diverse stakeholders can raise concerns or have insights about issues that a single stakeholder may not know. • Diverse stakeholders can reach many more people and other organizations who can help raise support for countermeasures and strategies. • Diverse stakeholders can help identify disparities and identify ways to address them. • Diverse stakeholders can sustain efforts when leadership changes due to turnover, so efforts do not stall or end when leaders transition, retire, or move. A 2021 Executive Order issued by President Biden for advancing racial equity and support for underserved communities asserts that transportation planning is to include “all segments of the population . . . regardless of race, national origin, income, age, sex, or disability” (FHWA and FTA, 2022). All state departments of transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning orga- nizations, and public transportation providers must adhere to their agency-specific Title VI guidelines when using federal funds to plan and implement Title VI Programs. Box 4 lists resources about recruiting, growing, and maintaining groups (often called coalitions) that are working to improve issues such as roadway safety. Box 4. Resources on Recruiting, Growing, and Maintaining Groups to Improve Roadway Safety Connecting Transportation & Health: A Guide to Communication & Collaboration https://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP25-25Task105/NCHRP25 -25Task105Guidebook.pdf This guide provides an accessible, practitioner-ready communications guide and set of tools and resources that help the U.S. DOT, state DOTs, metropolitan planning organizations, and local transportation professionals achieve successful policy, planning, and project outcomes through effective collaboration with health stakeholders. The guide is geared to a broad transportation audience, including those who are new to transportation and health coordination efforts. Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local Governments (Rudolph et al. 2013) https://www.apha.org/-/media/Files/PDF/factsheets/Health_inAll_Policies _Guide_169pages.ashx  This guide fosters collaboration across sectors to promote health, including roadway safety. Contents include background, getting started, partners and roles, working together across sectors, structures to support health in all policies, creating healthy public policy, talking about health in all policies, and a case study. (continued on next page)

12 Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide Box 4. Resources on Recruiting, Growing, and Maintaining Groups to Improve Roadway Safety (Continued) Virtual Public Involvement Tools https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/public_involvement/vpi/resources/fact_sheets/ This web page is a compilation of eight short fact sheets that group similar tools and offer examples of how they have been used in transportation planning and project development. Every Place Counts Leadership Academy https://www.transportation.gov/leadershipacademy This resource offers a transportation toolkit and other tools to assist community members’ involvement in transportation decision making processes. Guidance on Growing Traffic Safety Culture: Stories from Rural Communities (Otto et al. 2020) https://ruralsafetycenter.org/pdfs/RRSC_Guidance_Growing_TSC_2022.pdf This guide provides examples gathered from rural communities as they engaged in a process to grow traffic safety culture including recruiting and supporting coalitions. Tips are also provided.

Next: Chapter 4 - Guidance on Identifying, Selecting, and Adapting Countermeasures and Strategies »
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Roadway fatalities and serious injuries are a significant public health concern in rural and tribal settings. Creating a coalition of interested individuals is part of the Safe System Approach that addresses the high rates of these fatalities and serious injuries.

BTSCRP Research Report 8: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural and Tribal Areas: A Guide, from TRB's Behavioral Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program, details this approach, which includes strategies for safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles, safer speeds, and post-crash care.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 4: Highway Safety Behavioral Strategies for Rural Areas and a video that explains how to create a logic model.

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