National Academies Press: OpenBook

Wrong-Way Driving Solutions Handbook (2023)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Wrong-Way Driving Solutions Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27199.
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2023 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1050 Wrong-Way Driving Solutions Handbook Huaguo Zhou Qing Chang Yukun Song Highway Research Center Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Auburn University Auburn, AL Mohammad Jalayer Parisa Hosseini Center for Research and Education in Advanced Transportation Engineering Systems Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Rowan University Glassboro, NJ Pei-Sung Lin Cong Chen Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida Tampa, FL Priscilla A. Tobias Arora and Associates, P.C. Springfield, IL Subscriber Categories Highways • Operations and Trafc Management • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1050 Project 03-135 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69886-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2023940887 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This handbook is part of the results of NCHRP Project 03-135, “Wrong-Way Driving Solutions, Policy, and Guidance.” The research team appreciates the input received from 49 state departments of transporta- tion as well as tolling and law enforcement agencies. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1050 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Richard A. Retting, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-135 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control Eric J. Hemphill, North Texas Tollway Authority, Plano, TX (Chair) F. Bryan Homayouni, Central Florida Expressway Authority, Orlando, FL Joseph W. Horton, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA Michael T. McNeill, Ohio Department of Transportation, Columbus, OH Scott Neidert, Delaware Department of Transportation, Smyrna, DE Brian W. Ness, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, ID Heidi Jean Spangler, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI Paul J. Steinman, Rawlins IC, Raleigh, NC Jeffrey B. Shaw, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1050: Wrong-Way Driving Solutions Handbook is a handbook to help reduce the risk of wrong-way driving crashes. The handbook was developed on the basis of a systematic literature review, collection and analysis of wrong-way driving incident and crash data, and evaluation of a range of relevant traffic control devices and other tech- nologies. The handbook provides evidence-based information to support implementation of traffic control devices, advanced technologies, geometric design features, and education and enforcement strategies to significantly reduce the number of wrong-way driving inci- dents and crashes on freeways and divided highways. This handbook will be of interest to state departments of transportation and other stakeholders concerned with reducing the number of wrong-way driving incidents and crashes that occur on freeways and divided highways. Since the beginning of the Interstate highway system in the 1950s, crashes related to driving the wrong way on freeways have challenged transportation officials. According to FHWA, wrong-way driving crashes result in an average of 300 to 400 people killed each year, which represents approximately 1% of the total number of traffic-related fatalities that occur annually. Because wrong-way driving crashes involve head-on or opposite direction crashes at high speeds, they tend to be more severe than other types of crashes. Under NCHRP Project 03-135, Auburn University was asked to develop a handbook of traditional and advanced safety countermeasures to help practitioners achieve reductions in wrong-way driving incidents and crashes on roadways. In addition to this handbook, NCHRP Research Report 1050, documentation of the overall research effort is available as NCHRP Web-Only Document 357: Wrong-Way Driving Solutions, Policy, and Guidelines. F O R E W O R D By Richard A. Retting Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 6 Chapter 2 Data Analysis and Network Screening Methods 6 2.1 Discussion 6 2.2 Data Collection 7 2.3 Network Screening 21 2.4 Summary 22 Chapter 3 Signs, Pavement Markings, and Traffic Signals 22 3.1 Signs 33 3.2 Pavement Markings 41 3.3 Traffic Signals 44 3.4 Signage and Pavement Markings at Off-Ramp Terminals for Different Interchange Types 53 3.5 Signage and Pavement Markings on Multilane Divided Highways 57 3.6 Other Considerations 59 Chapter 4 Advanced Technologies 59 4.1 Overview of Advanced Technologies 59 4.2 Detection 67 4.3 Warning 74 4.4 Examples of Applications of ITS Technologies 79 4.5 Information on WWD Detection in a Connected Vehicle Environment 83 Chapter 5 Geometric Design Elements 83 5.1 Introduction 97 5.2 Geometric Design Elements at Off-Ramp Terminals for Different Interchange Types 106 Chapter 6 Evaluation of Countermeasure Effectiveness 106 6.1 Evaluation Method 108 6.2 Case Study 1: RRPMs in California 110 6.3 Case Study 2: Wigwag Flashing Beacons and Median Extension in Florida 113 6.4 Case Study 3: RFBs in Florida 115 6.5 Summary of Evaluation of Countermeasure Effectiveness 116 Chapter 7 Enforcement and Education 116 7.1 Enforcement 121 7.2 Education 122 7.3 Communications with Media on WWD Crashes C O N T E N T S

128 Acronyms and Abbreviations 130 References 135 Appendix A Wrong-Way Entry Checklist Field Inspection Sheet 137 Appendix B Sign Combinations Used by Different Agencies 138 Appendix C Wrong-Way Traffic Control for Common Interchange Types Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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Wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes cause hundreds of fatalities and thousands of injuries annually in the United States. Although WWD crashes have been a concern since the advent of access-controlled divided roadways, the problem persists despite efforts to address it over time.

NCHRP Research Report 1050: Wrong-Way Driving Solutions Handbook, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, is a handbook to help reduce the risk of WWD crashes.

Supplemental to the report is NCHRP Web-Only Document 357: Wrong-Way Driving Solutions, Policy, and Guidelines.

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