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Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies (2023)

Chapter: Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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83   Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey [If your airport did not allow (or require) any airport employees to work remotely for any period of time during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020–March 2022)], please describe the managerial decision-making process that determined remote work would not be necessary. • Single Employee. • Only airport manager employed at airport. • No employees. Only one volunteer. • The airport was considered essential by the city. • We only had 1 employee and or 1 additional part time employee. • Work could not be done from home. • Remote ops not conducive to maintaining continuity of operations. • Airport operations are 24/7. • Small GA Airport-The work is servicing airplanes. • The employees working at the Airport require physical presence for operation of the Airport. • All employees are considered essential for day to day operations. • Only have 1 employee so distancing was not an issue. • We do not have any Airport Employees. • Only have one employee other than myself. • All work is physical and presence is essential. • We have part time staff and they rotated shifts to complete work to support airport operations. • Short Staffed before Covid. • Essential Workers. • This is a one-man operation here at this small airport. Someone had to be physically here to ensure safety of the airport, fuel resources, and other necessary details. • It was their decision to work. • Able to self isolate at work office majority of the time. Primary duties require onsite ARFF and 139 requirements. • Someone has to be on site for full service fueling. • We followed City remote work guidelines and determined that working from home was not feasible. • Single employee. • Airport has one non paid employee. • We kept employees separated with minimal interaction with each other and customers. • Work was outdoor work, assist fueling aircraft, moving aircraft, maintaining grounds, mowing, weedtrimming, etc. • No airport employees. • We’re a one man show. A P P E N D I X E

84 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Only one employee. • Extremely low manned airport, kept our distance while doing the work needed. • We have only one airport employee. • Small staff- 1-5 employees. Instituted an every other day work schedule to split staff up. This ensured qualified people were available at all times for coverage. If one person got sick then the whole staff was not affected. • Small rural airport with airport manager residing on site and primary work was conducted alone outdoors. • Only two employees, whose duties included fueling of aircraft and airport maintenance. • Staff of only two to operate and maintain airport grounds and facilities. Impossible to do that from a remote setting. • Airport employees are essential workers. • skepticism over necessity of doing so. • Maintaining distance from transient customers would be possible. Physical presence at airport necessary to maintain fuel equipment and tow aircraft mandatory for business. • Cannot fuel planes remotely. • All personnel have an on-site role that cannot be fulfilled from home. • Work could not be done remotely. • Our FBOs that are located out at the airport are privately run. • Only had two full time and one part time employee. All work was done on site. • Airport was considered essential for employee staffing. Unable to accommodate airfield operations remotely. • The books were the only work that could have been done remotely and I came in every day so no need for that. • We work from the city offices. We have 3 employees in the office • I was not the manager at KMWL at the time. I know as an employee at KRBD, we were deemed essential. Since some had to work on premises, we all did. • Due to the level of staffing at the airport all personnel were needed on site. • Small staff so we were able to plan out much of work to not work in close proximity of each other. Wore mask when appropriate. Emphasized hand washing and sanitizing practices. • Our airport is staffed by 2 individuals. Our revenue depends on the airport being open daily to the public. Refuel of aircraft cannot be accomplished remotely. The airport followed all guidance set forth by the city and we remained open and COVID free the entire time. • If you are sick, stay home. If you are afraid, stay home. Otherwise, it is business as usual. • Only 2 employees at the airport so no need to work from home. • Airport staff were needed on field to operate and manage the daily operations of the airport. Remote work for the airport was impossible due to the nature of the assignments of staff. • No employees at this airport. • Single employee. Airport Manager, only. • Airport is not regularly staffed so the only time employees were there was for repairs and maintenance. • That decision was easy. There are no job positions at this airport other than direct customer and/or aircraft transactions, like customer service and line service. Infrastructure related tasks like mowing airport grass and maintaining the airport terminal also require employees to be present to accomplish those tasks. • The ability to have distance between member using the airport as our airport is unmanned and a GA only. • Only one employee. • Social distancing, making sure lobbies were clean and provided hand sanitizer. Making arrange- ments by phone was the preferred method of operation early on during the pandemic. • Only 2 employees to manage and run the FBO. Wasn’t an option to work from home.

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 85   • It was decided by the Public works director that we would work here at the airport to better serve our tenants. We have an air med helicopter based here on the airport. • With little to no traffic during COVID the airport decided to rotate office staff. Our front desk person worked 3 days per week and the office manager worked two days per week. We paid them 40 hour but it was important to us to minimize possible contamination of both office staff at the same time. This schedule allowed for the office staff to not be here at the same time during COVID • The day to day operation of our GA airport does not allow for working remotely. • No employees located at the airport. • We depend upon frontline people that are unable to work from home. We set the example. We reduced contact but did not give the option of working from home. • No employees. • Secured building, no physical public access, all work done by phone and computer in locked office. Only two employees total. • All workers were considered essential & were required to report to work. How did you choose the employee groups eligible for remote work? • The decision was based on the operational need to be physically located at the airport. Those employees who complete majority of work by computer or phone were eligible for remote work. • Need. • Employees were eligible for remote work based on their work assignment and in some cases according to their work locations in which it was impossible to social distance. • Their close contact with others. • Was only allowed for those that had enough to rotate the shifts from in person to remote dealing with work that could be done over the phone and internet (getting Purchase Orders, Lease updates, tenant notifications, etc.). • I can answer phone and email from home, so while the initial shutdown was going on, I continued to run my airport from home. • Ability to perform work remotely. • The Administrative office is very small with 5 people. The lead positions were requested to work remotely when possible and to have the least amount of personnel on duty to reduce the staff. • Based on each individual’s capability of working remotely. • Not safety or customer service related that was needed on site. • First was to gauge interest (Very low). Next was could the majority of their work be completed remotely? • Staff with jobs that didn’t require them to be on-site were allowed to remote work on a rotation basis, some remote, some in, so that work could continue with the staff that had to be on-site. • Employee has no reason to be on site and possibly exposed. All work could, and was completed off site. • Based on the ability to work from home provided technology to log into their work computer. • Employees were eligible for remote work based upon their technical capabilities to work remotely. The employees were largely administrative functions. • Based on necessity for work on the physical plant. • Any employees who were not required to be on site to perform work were eligible to work remotely. • By determining if their job tasks could be completed by working remotely if provided the necessary equipment. • Whichever could perform the essential duties of their job remotely, we allowed during the pandemic at some point. We also offered hybrid option.

86 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Those that could. • It was protocol from upper management • If it was possible for them to do the work remotely, we were agreeable. Most jobs, custodians, parking lot attendants, maintenance personnel, and public safety could not, but most admin- istration staff could. • Front line (field) staff were not able to work remotely. Most other staff were able to be considered to telework. • Groups that did not have day-to-day operational requirements. Individuals that had childcare problems relating to school closures and those living with people in high-risk health groups. • Based on job function, i.e. fire, police work can’t be done from home. • Nature of work. Some staff were entirely remote while others worked a hybrid, and some did not work remotely at all. • Ability to perform duties away from the office. • We picked the employees that would have the most challenging time being able to social distance. • Anyone who didn’t require face to face customer or employee contact could work remotely. • All qualified, reduced hours and closed offices, minimum authority presence. • These groups while essential, were not considered to be essential to be on site and could use available technology to work remotely. • Work did not require an on-site presence. • Job description. • Regulatory compliance, essential workers, safety and security. • Presence at the airport was not necessary. • Essential versus non-essential. • Positive Covid Test, City Standards. • Left up to each manager. • It was an option • It was simple. Can your work be done from a computer at home? • Those with office duties. • Could perform more than 80% of job description on line. • We chose a skeleton crew to be at airport as needed and as required since we were an essential governmental function. The rest were allowed to stay home or come in and distance. • Job duties allowed them. • Hands on work like maintenance and inspectors had to stay at airport. Office workers remoted. • Employees in jobs that cannot be performed remotely (maintenance, operations) were generally not eligible for remote work. All other jobs were allowed to perform work remotely at times. • We have very few employees that don’t have to be here to work. We have one accountant and she was able to access her computer remotely, so it was easy for her to work at home. • Office workers and admin workers. • Within close proximity of duties • Chose employees who could work remote did not perform airfield, security, etc. • Employees requested to work from home and it was reviewed by the senior management in their department to see if they would be able to manage their workload from home. Some employees who were eligible (an attorney and the CHRO + assistant) elected not to work from home. • If the position could be conducted remotely (using laptops, technology, etc), employees were sent home to work. We ask what work can be done remotely and how often? What technology tools enabled employees to perform their jobs in a remote manner? • Computers, email, internet and cell phones. • Internet, laptop, and cell phone

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 87   • Employees who worked from home were provided with laptops, additional computer monitors, and in some instances cellular devices. In addition, employees were provided with access to VPN into the Airport’s shared computer drives and other software. • All safety equipment provided. • Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and other web-based meeting platforms. The Microsoft suite of applications also helped. • Computer and wifi. • Telephone, Email. • Linking to on-site computers remotely as well as cell phones. • Laptops and internet • We use the google platform (google meet + docs, slides, etc.) • Laptops with webcams, high speed internet and a virtual environment (SharePoint/Office365). • Laptop/tablet computers; Microsoft Teams for meetings. • Laptop & Teams Meetings. • We utilized a software provided by our outsourced MIS company. • VPN; Zoom and other web meeting interface software. • Remote internet access to airport secure servers. • All staff were provided laptops with VPN connections to the airport network. The airport network servers had previously been upgraded to allow for remote connections while staff travels or is otherwise off site. • Desktops or laptops, telephone or cell phone, internet. • Laptops and cell phones. • Good IT support, VPN access. • Laptop. • Computers that were tied into our computer network. • Laptops and tablets, phones forward to employee cell phones (often their personal cell). • Laptops, cellular phones and remote licenses for certain computer programs. • Basic laptops, MS surface device, cell phones. • Laptops, virtual meetings, mobile phones. • Laptops and VPN’s as well as Teams. • Laptop computers. • All had PCs or laptops equipped with remote video conferencing applications, such as Zoom or Teams. All had to have cell or landline phones during all working hours. • Microsoft Teams combines with regularly used communication mediums • Laptops, Google Meet, and a multitude of software specific to the job. • Laptops, internet accommodations, ability to take office furniture and equipment home, virtual meeting software. • Zoom, Teamviewer (remote access), laptop, Microsoft teams. • MS Teams. • VPN technology. • The employee was allowed to take his computer and printer home. He could work through email and by scanning documents. • Laptops, remote login, cameras. • Laptops and mobile devices. • Computers, Apps for team meetings. • Zoom, Teams, cameras, wifi, laptops. • Laptops, a VPN and cell phones. • Microsoft teams, virtual conferencing software. • Laptop provided and ability to log into email system and files remotely. • Phones, computers, internet, VPN. • Laptop and WiFi

88 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • MS Teams, VPN remoting in to office desktop, cell phones. • Laptops using a VPN, telephones forwarded to cell phones. • Laptop computers. • Computers, phones and zoom. • Email/Phone/Virtual. • Zoom, computers, internet. • Employees were issued laptops, iPads, chromebooks, computer screens, connection cables to their TV, wireless keyboards, scanners/printers. • MS Teams, Cloud Systems, Wi-Fi, Laptops, Monitors, Multi-factor networks, What considerations are there for new employees regarding possible remote work arrangements? • We no longer are offering employees the option for remote work. • None. • For new employees, considerations regarding remote work arrangements are given in providing equipment while also ensuring they are in compliance and received onsite training and work requirements. • None in place. • No new employees - does not apply. • We did not hire additional personnel during the 6–9 months from the original shut down in March 2020. • We offer a flexible work arrangement to all staff. They can share how and when they’d like to work and if it can be done, we do it. • It’s considered in job design, IT equipment, and our business continuity planning (COG). It is also discussed in the hiring process. We are County operated and most employees are expected to work during natural disasters. Some have duties off airport such as shelters or PODs. • No additional employees considered in the near future. • None at this time. • None. • None. • Most staff have transitioned back to on-site work. New employees are handled on a case by case basis. • Flex time and remote work allowances for applicable positions. • Currently, we do not have remote work options. • We are trying to be more flexible. • None for new employees. • No different considerations for new vs. old employees in this regard. • Usually have a mandatory on boarding period (e.g. 3 months) where must be in the office, then can be considered to telework. • Very few and dependent on individual circumstances. • Remote work will be considered on a case-by-case basis but prefer staff work from office • Our airport authority ended all remote work Jun 2021; we are revisiting it to enhance employee attraction and retention and have drafted a remote work policy that we expect to implement in the next couple of months. • None. • None. • None. • All were eligible. • Still considered if necessary but on site is preferred. Airports require a high level of in person interaction from all depts. most of the time. • Employment within one of the groups eligible to work remotely.

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 89   • Job description. • Remote work is not standard and is no longer allowed. Employees can request ADA alternate work arrangements but that typically involves workplace modifications not locations. • None. • Depends on their roles and responsibilities. • Must be in a position that would be able to work from home. No customer facing positions, or maintenance positions were eligible on a daily basis. • Flexible time. • Since COVID and prompted by the competitive employment environment and gas prices, we instituted a permanent limited remote work policy allowing certain regular employees to work up to 2 days per week remotely while managers and directors can do so no more than 1 day per week. • None. • On as-needed a basis only. • None. • We will not allow remote work again. It was a one-time thing. • We have a small staff, this did not come up. However, some remote work would be considered for any employee able to accomplish their job without being on site. • None, the City of Midland no longer supports remote work instead of working in office. • Not at this time. • Laptops/Cellphone or Allowance. • Will consider job duties to determine if a flexible/remote work arrangement is possible. • We currently have returned to a hybrid schedule. Those that can work from home are able to do so on M and F. They must be in the office T, W and Th. Some departments are already deviating from that schedule. Some people are back full time, others are staying at home up to four days. New hires are working up to five days a week depending on training needs. • Managers designate prior to hiring whether the position can work remotely. We have poli- cies and procedures in place for remote work arrangements, how to manage in a remote environment, and how often. We also have hybrid work arrangements - employees work part time in the office and part time remotely (primarily those in office environments). What are some methods your airport used to manage employees working remotely? • Use of virtual meetings and use of daily progress/job reports. • Need. • We utilize the City’s Virtual Work Policy, as part of which is an agreement established in between supervisor and employee. In addition, we conducted weekly supervisor meeting and increased communication via email and letters mailed to all employees to provide updates. • Kept them separated. • Daily reporting of work accomplished and virtual meetings. • I signed in from my phone. • Telephone, Email. • Virtual meetings weekly as well as cell phone access. • Nothing other than normal KPIs for all staff. • Goal setting and regular check ins. • Work performed and cell phone contact. • They were required to come in once a week on different to meet with their manager and pick up work. • Some of the methods our airport used to manage employees working remotely included using daily “catch up” meetings, email, and conference calls. • Staff worked in office two days a week. Supervision performed then as well as via telephone and email.

90 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Office 365 allows for collaboration in a team environment. Daily meetings of the entire remote staff with those on site. Other meetings as needed to link staff on specific projects. • Aviation Department’s management meetings occur on Wednesdays, so we have all personnel working in person on that day. The other weekdays, remote work employees rotate. Typically, all remote work employees have 2 days in office and 3 days working remotely. This proves to be a big incentive—if the tasks gets done, remote work can continue. If things start to slip, in-person work might return. • Management check ins, productivity and time-keeping. • Regular check-in and touch-base. • Laptop computers with access to work related facilities, city hall, etc. • We trusted these employees to get their work done the same way they would if they were on site, and they did. • Daily check in with supervisor, our work group developed a daily staffing report which identified staff attendance as well as who was on site and who was teleworking. This helped us track when call off rates were escalating and continuity of operations planning needed to be implemented to meet staffing requirements. • Frequent check-in calls and expected work product. • Required duties complete, reply to emails. • Employees were required to document daily work (by hour) and submit weekly to supervisor. These were tabulated and held by Finance for payroll and audit purposes. • Daily check in with managers. • Teams, Skype and Zoom meetings. • Employees were required to converse daily with their supervisors daily to describe tasks that were accomplished during each day. • Regular check in and frequent communication. • Trust. • Virtual check-ins, Microsoft Teams chat/video/etc., frequent communication. • Constant communication. • Morning daily calls but other than that no real way to evaluate continued performance as this was all new to our airport. • Expectations versus work product. • Communication was essential. • Integrity, honesty, daily contact. • Email and Microsoft teams. • Zoom and Teams check in meetings. • More regular check-ins and communication. • Timesheet tracker, regular phone calls. • Daily calls. • Voice check ins. Most were not able to do their normal jobs since their functions required them to be on site, but no work available since we had virtually no aircraft traffic. • Teams • Schedule and phone check in. • Employees working remotely are expected to be available by telephone or email and to accomplish their work. Our staff did this with minimal oversight required. • Phone calls and emails. • Work log, reports and email check-in. • Phone/Email/Virtual. • Communications. • We use Google Meets and Hangout. I am sure there are other tools departments are using. I keep a Hangout chat open with each of my staff and a group chat. This way I can see when they are away from their desk or I can ask them an individual question. I also liked to have

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 91   a Google Chat to see each other face to face rather than just a phone call. I am not sure what worked for all others. • Policies, handbooks, manager training, clear expectations. How have your hiring practices changed since, and as a result of, the COVID-19 pandemic? • Many of our hiring practices have gone virtual due to the pandemic. For example (interviewing). • We’ve reevaluated a lot of the job descriptions and removed anything that wasn’t truly required and had likely been rolled over year after year (Degrees, driver’s license, certifications . . .) in hopes of having a bigger pool to choose from. • Minimally, however we discuss the requirement to work during disasters. • It is harder to attract candidates. • They have not but it is harder to actually find candidates to fill positions. • To date they have not. Still evaluating situation. • Many of our tools for hiring are now digital including remote interviews. This allows us to recruit and hire more quickly if the hiring team is not all on site at the same time. • If we are hiring for a position that can work remotely, we advertise it. • We conduct first round via Teams and then in-person for final round. • Our requirements for education and experience have been lowered, our wages are increasing and we are trying to be as flexible as possible about shifts and wfh. • All done online. • They are about to include remote work options in some jobs. We conducted virtual interviews to shortlist candidates and continue to offer that option for non-local applicants. • Nothing comes to mind, we still have the same minimum requirements. We do a lot more virtual interviews. • We have delayed in hiring and backfilling because of budgetary concerns. • More online, but that was the initial stage for us anyway. It just went thru more online steps until a final face to face interview. • To hire quality workers in such a competitive market, flexibility is necessary. • Virtual interviews are common, but the final must be in person. Being an airport and FBO all job descriptions require employees to be physically present, so we will not hire employees who cannot commute into the airport. • For a couple of months the interviews were held by phone. No more paper resumes, online only. • We can’t hire. [. . .] We are at 2/3rds manning. • Not really, although it has been more difficult to fill vacancies (few as they are). • We haven’t changed our hiring yet, and it shows, we are getting 10% of the applications we used to get for Airport Operations positions. When I’ve contacted universities, I’ve been told that new graduates want jobs where they can work from home. • We do a Google Meet before we bring them onsite and use the video chat rather than a phone call. Otherwise, everything pretty much stayed the same. • Evaluation of jobs to determine if it can be performed remotely, interviewing remotely, and onboarding (severely impacted). How has your overall HR function changed since, and as a result of, the COVID-19 pandemic? • Vaccinations were required initially, however that is no longer a requirement. • The overall HR function has changed by converting many of our processes and the processes utilized by our employees to digital. • Time off management is the biggest change. • The economic impacts of the pandemic on budgeting, recruitment and retention have impacted human capital significantly and will have a lasting effect. HR is recruiting for many

92 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies more positions and the pool of applicants is shallow which creates greater demand on training resources, some have had limited availability until recently. • We have not hired any additional employees in the last five years. • The additional duties as they relate to COVID protocols and ensuring the safety of all of our employees and customers. • Other than having to develop, and adjust/refine a COVID policy, it really has not. • This is better answered by HR. From the HR customer perspective, they have not adapted fast enough nor innovatively enough to meet the changing conditions of job/hiring market, responding with policies and procedures to support the field in a timely manner, etc. • Greater turnover of employees forcing the need to hire a HR generalist. • Having to rethink employee attraction. • We interview constantly. • HR was great providing the information regarding public health orders and being creative with work schedules and identifying challenges of remote work at the onset. • More remote involvement, less in-person engagement. • We are very siloed so I am not sure what has changed within HR but our interactions with them have been significantly reduced because of their individual remote work schedules. • We’ve hired a recruiter to remain competitive and due to the dramatic increase in activity in Florida. • Mostly virtual interactions. • We are increasing base pay to entice new hires. • Interviews have been conducted remotely. Hiring decisions have been accelerated in an effort not to lose good candidates to competing opportunities. • We are understaffed. • We spend more time talking to employees on Google, on the phone, by email, and always following up verbal conversations with an email to be sure the employee understood the conversation. As the CHRO I became the “mask police” keeping employees on track with wearing masks. • The great resignation has impacted our organization, hiring, attrition - all has increased. HR burnout is high. How we communicate with our employees has changed. How we provide training has changed (learning opportunities are hybrid or remote). This is in addition to most HR jobs being primarily remote now - almost 100% of the HR staff works remotely part or full time. Customer service to the organization is impacted. More reliance on data. At the same time, some learning opportunities and organization-wide meetings have more attendees by offering virtual options. Morale took a hit during the pandemic, what “fun” thing did your airport do that you can share? • For our onsite workers we had an appreciation day where we provided them with food and snacks. In addition, we offered a number of online offerings including virtual wellness, and Thursday Water Cooler Conversations. • Nothing really but our morale was never that bad. • Online team building with scavenger hunt app. We competed against other departments and all the items were found outdoors or something you could do at home. • Not so much fun, but communications changed. The County Manager now sends a weekly update that not only provides news, new employees, exiting employees, but also shout outs from employees, the public etc. The employees appreciate the communication. • I wish I could pick one, but the truth is it hasn’t been much fun. • With all the restrictions we really had no opportunity to do “fun”. • We celebrate birthdays/holidays and have team building events at least quarterly. • Holiday luncheon by department, team building, catered meetings.

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 93   • We cooked out a few times but social distancing was in force. • We didn’t do anything different (in terms of fun). . . . . most employees were happy they still had a job to go to every day and that their jobs were stable. • I produced videos to take the place of regular “All Hands” meetings. When able, we met (socially distanced and with the doors open) in a hangar to create a sense of community and physical togetherness. • Employee pig roast, September 2021. • Employee engagement such as inviting staff to share internally what they did as a family while everyone was at home. • When the pandemic was over we had more in person lunches and get togethers than we did before. • All-hands BBQ was held once all employees returned to their normal workstations. • Our operations requirements didn’t change and I don’t believe morale suffered. While our commercial service PAX #’s declined about 30% our FBO experienced a 30% increase and the ATCT operations count for all groups increased accordingly. We are a Non Hub Primary and serve mainly destination resort clientele. Overall we were busier in 2020/2021 than previous years. • No change - we try to make every day, pandemic or not, fun and embrace a team atmosphere. • Nothing. There was a very strict crack down on essential employee interactions meaning no more team meals, birthday celebrations or even in person shift briefings. It really isolated staff and made a sometimes stressful job harder. • Being more disjointed, one of the best things to come from the pandemic was instituting a bi-weekly all employee huddle where each department gives an update on their activities/ projects. Out of 135 total employees, we regularly have 40-50 who participate. • More flexibility to give away ““free”” free time. • Fun was CNX. • Nothing about the pandemic was ‘fun’. During the pandemic (April/May 2021) we moved into a new facility with an open office plan. The building has a 2nd floor outdoor observation deck; we bought a BBQ grill and use it twice a month to cook lunch for the staff and we often invite other city departments to join us. • For Tenants we had poker run, outdoor food trucks with distant gathering for staff and tenants. • Morale was never an issue. We maintained most normalcy as a GA Airport. • I really wish I could think of something, the people with morale issues were the ones that had to stay here and work onsite. Remote workers seemed ok. • Used Kahoot! to play games virtually and maintain a learning environment. Please share lessons learned from your airport’s remote work experience. • It proved to be difficult to just jump into a remote work environment without much advanced planning. Hats off to our small IT section who was able to make it possible. I come from a paper driven airport system, many processes were manual, files are still kept in a filing cabinet. This was the most difficult part, having to pack up files that I was planning to work with and transport them back and forth to the office. • A hybrid schedule can work. • The biggest lesson learned is that communication is key in an organization and that our essential staff are the heart of the organization. • It is hard on everyone when there is even one person out and working remote is not easy. • Remote work is not ideal at all for the airport industry. The work being produced at home with other distractions abound are not conducive for a steady output of work. That coupled with the true need to have that face to face interaction with the many tenants and all of their facilities make me believe there is not a place for remote work in this industry. • Certain functions can work that way, others can’t.

94 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • It is much easier to handle paperwork, projects, and personnel being on-site. • Not all employees desire to work remotely. It can be accomplished with a little planning and employers that are flexible will prevail in the competitive labor market. • We were able to attain a workable model. • Our remote work experience was limited. the biggest lessons learned would be the need for increased communications, and more emphasis on prioritizing tasks and assignments. There is always the underlying question as to whether it is a productive method of work. • It took some adjustments in thinking, but overall, it was/is a successful endeavor. • It took a pandemic for us to realize that work can get done in a different way. Employees feel like they get part of their lives back, not having to spend as much time and money commuting to/from work every weekday. If the organization remains intentional to connect and com- municate with the employees, we expect to see continued positive results. • Although some employees enjoyed the WFH initially, the majority of our staff are pleased to be back in the office and interacting with their teams. • I didn’t like it because all my work files etc, was in my office. • The remote workers were not extensive (in numbers) nor time working remotely, so I would say it is workable, but I’m not sure we had any profound lessons learned. • The practice results in reduced production and, occasionally, morale issues. It is not a sustainable model despite the allure. • It worked better than expected. • For the most part, no impact to operations. as travel picked up, operations staff recalled earlier than other departments. operations and other staff who could not work remotely were compensated with additional paid time off (on call, required to remain within specified distance). • Be prepared IT wise for the next time or when necessary for other reasons. • I don’t feel that as much work got completed as when the employee worked on site. • Realized that maintaining productivity during remote work is possible, and that it can be a method of allowing people to be more flexible in their work schedule. Flexibility in where and how you work can be a quality of life booster and an employment perk while still maintaining productivity expectations. • Trust employees to be productive, give them the tools to be, and let the rest fall into place. • Flexibility. • Efficiency and overall work product increased. • We learned it is possible, and that some are better at it than others. • It has a place in the future of work, but most of us, myself included, enjoy the airport environ- ment too much to work from home more than 1 or 2 days per week. • “Worst thing possible for an institution. We all need ““human”” contact and seeing people in pajamas on a computer screen does not work well.—Airports are about customer service and we need to be there for the customer and trying to do that remotely does not fill the need of the users. • Remote work may ““work”” for the lazy people, for any that feels uncomfortable next to other humans. • Hope we don’t have to ever do that again. • It is not a good idea. People don’t work as hard and communication breaks down. • Providing flexibility to staff to work remotely from time to time has been very popular with staff. • It was very difficult for those that were still working on-site to get info as quickly from the at home workers. • Zoom was a big hit at the time, would rather have personal meeting now. • None that come to mind. Business as usual for administrative functions at home as opposed to office work. Technicians were still required to be onsite

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 95   • Being prepared from an IT perspective (increased tech support), helping managers “manage” remotely, how to effectively manage poor performers, give reviews and take care of the non-remote staff. • Whether someone enjoyed a remote work experience is highly individual. However, it did decrease the spread of COVID. We mandated the vaccine and lost approximately 70 employees due to this requirement (termination/resignation). Managing a remote work environment is difficult and can be socially isolating. At the same time, it allows for more work/life balance in some cases. In other cases, employees are working longer hours - just tied to their home desk. Much work can be achieved in a remote work environment, however, that was in-person in the past. It forced us to be innovative and think outside of the box. Please describe how employees were trained during the pandemic. • Virtual meeting. • Employees were trained virtually on a number of subjects utilizing Microsoft Teams. • There were no changes to how personnel were trained during COVID. • A few AAAE online courses. • NATA fuel training. • Teams for local and other webinars. • City-required IT & HR training has been done online for years so that continued with remote workers. Required airport training (e.g. recurrent driver training) must be accomplished in-house. • We continued to have the same Part 139 requirements and TSA training requirements so existing staff could be trained in person or remotely as available. New SIDA training was developed through an online tool so candidates could take the training independently. • Processes were discussed on actions that needed attention when employees worked remotely. For example: incoming phone calls or in-person visits needed to be routed to the applicable person. • It varied, but typically through zoom meetings and online courses. • NATA Safety 1st as well as other online sources. • Employees watched video, signed sheet and sign in sheet was sent in electronically. • Utilized Teams for Company training or other vendor sites. • Webinar and various virtual meeting formats. • Badging training/tests were done remotely via personal computers. During the height of the lockdown we did as much training individually on personal computers as we could. • Online with follow-up online testing (Class Marker) • Virtual meetings, recorded webinars • We used in-house training software to push out training and used teams to train remotely. • Online training. • Webinars and other virtual options. • In-person training with social distancing in place, limited number of attendees. Some Zoom and web-based training. • Training was assigned via our daily ops managing program Veoci. • We trained as we normally trained, as a group in our conference room. South Dakota never had a shutdown or masking mandate. • LMS was already in place at the city level for all training events. The airport was not a 139 airport and thus didn’t need any 139 training. • Online. • Ppe usage. • One. • On line/zoom fuel provider training certifications. • Outside taught training was done on line. In service training was conducted by airport staff.

96 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Online training was accomplished. • Online courses. • Online. • Mostly on-line training, with some in person training with social distancing in place. • Memos were regularly sent out to employees. These memos had guidance from the CDC regarding safe work environments. • Zoom and video. • AvFuel Hub Training Portal online. • All of the safety training we use is and has been computer based. • Virtual training was used when possible. • Employees were set up with technical tools and we used a lot of online training. Department meetings/trainings were held via Google and some people just had to come in and be trained onsite. • Virtually. We used MSFT Teams and shared our screen. - This was for remote workers. On-site continued to be trained in-person. Do you have any other thoughts to share on this topic? • I come from a very small office environment. Our size, however, should not discount how critical our function is to our airport. I have always had a deep concern about infection and spread of COVID throughout our office and how crippling that would be for continued operation. Though teamwork and being able to work face to face with each other is very important to me, I believe that a staggered work shift and staying in “bubbles” to lessen the operational impact should there be an outbreak in our office be something considered. • More content became remotely available and because the cost of travel wasn’t there more training occurred. 100% remote training isn’t sustainable as networking and other human interaction is very important. • For a GA airport with two employees, it works for us. Everyone is happy! • I prefer the ability to remotely work. I find that my productivity can increase due to the increased attention to my tasks during working remotely. There are less distractions that when in office, with people stopping in to chit-chat. Customer service and responsiveness have stayed at a high level and unless that changes, a valid reason of going back to full time, in-person work isn’t found. • Both zoom training and online training courses worked well. • There is always a way to stay at work and I believe allowing employees to work from home that are not sick causes problems in the workforce. • Being a lowed manned airport, we could do the work of the airport while keeping distance and being safe. • I hope we never have another one • To help reduce expenses, we implemented an “All-Hands Furlough” meaning all employees took one day off without pay per bi-weekly pay period. Furlough days were staggered to allow continued operations. No employees were laid off. • Employees were not in close proximity for long duration of time. • I feel like most airport positions require some on site presence. There’s a certain level of team building that helps to be done in person. Allowing people to work from home when dealing with personal issues or during times of low activity can not only demonstrate a level of value the authority has for that employee, but also can be quality of life boon. This applies strongly to admin/office staff. • Positions like operations, custodial, maintenance (boots on the ground require heavy on site presence) have to be handled on a case by case basis and cover demands of each airport. • As we all know: when you’ve been to an airport; you’ve been to just one airport!

Verbatim Comments, Airport/HR Manager Survey 97   • Work from home can be a valuable alternative for most white collar workers, however it will not be valuable for blue-collar workers, or for workers whom the public relies on for information or direct f2f interaction. • One thing we haven’t seen, but expected, was complaints by employees who cannot work from home. I don’t totally know why, but we have done our best to take good care of employees throughout the pandemic, including generous merit and cost of living raises each year, even a mid-year cost of living raise in April 2022. • Limited staff • Airport manager felt it was very important to service in any way possible medical and military aircraft during COVID. • I have a small staff with direct contact with the public. I have always had a procedure for mitigating the Flu season. I used the same procedure to handle the COVID outbreak, with increased surface sanitization. • It was a difficult time but with good practices and attention to our work environment none of the Airport staff had or has COVID. • Go back to pre-COVID practices and your airport will thrive again . . . we are. • Use common sense. • We monitored body temperature every morning prior to work and later during the day if any possible symptoms manifested themselves during the day. Employees were sent home if anything was amiss. Also, employees were encouraged to be self-aware of their health prior to even coming to work, and I don’t remember having to send anyone home due to symptoms appearing. • In a perfect world it would be nice to work from home, but an airport environment is con- stantly changing and to service passengers and keep the airfield safe, you need to have humans at work. • It is my hope that we will continue with a hybrid workplace BUT allow managers to best decide who should work remotely and how often. I could tell by the goals and objectives that were met how well my staff was working remotely. I think it’s still a BIG discussion for management at our airport.

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 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, airport operators had to develop strategies that maintained operations while ensuring employee safety and public health. Though not all airport-related tasks can be performed from remote worksites, many airports identified tasks that could be performed remotely.

ACRP Synthesis 126: Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies, from TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program, provides information on those airports that experimented in remote work, provides options for airports that did not participate in remote work, and identifies emerging trends.

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